Immunocompromised People Are At Risk Of Reinfection Too
People with immune problems are at a higher risk for COVID-19 reinfection than the general public, which is why the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has authorized booster shots of Pfizer-BioNTechs and Modernas COVID-19 vaccines for immunocompromised individuals.
We always knew that people with immune problems were more likely to have less of a response to the vaccine and more likely to get a second infection after they got the vaccine, Dr. Esper says. Booster shots are designed to help reduce that likelihood.
You May Have These Other Symptoms Too
Besides those you’ve just read about, the CDC reports patients having chills, muscle or body aches, congestion or runny nose, nausea or vomiting and diarrhea. “People with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms reported ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus,” says the CDC. Keep reading for what you should do about them.
Extending The Gap Between Doses
Early findings from a small number of well-designed studies show that an extended gap between doses of the Pfizer vaccine gives at least an equally robust immune response.
There will be some exceptions. For example, if you are on a specific clinical treatment plan or are at higher risk of contracting COVID-19, you may be advised to have a shorter gap between doses.
The minimum gap between doses will continue to be 21 days.
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Arent Antibodies Enough To Protect Me
If youve already had COVID-19, arent the antibodies your body built up to fight the virus enough to protect you in the future?
We dont know how long your immunity will last after youve had a natural COVID-19 infection, says Dr. Englund.
She says recent research focused on how long immunity lasts after having COVID-19 is unclear, and scientists believe it could be up to eight months. But, she clarifies: The study to determine that information included only 200 patients, so theres not a whole lot of data yet. And the best way to ensure youre protected is to get vaccinated.
Dr. Englund notes that for those whove had COVID-19 and have long haul symptoms , getting the vaccine seems to help them finally recover from those lasting symptoms.
If you have long COVID-19 at this point in time, please consider getting the vaccine, Dr. Englund urges. It is not going to make you worse and theres a small chance that it might actually make you feel better.
Its Important To Stay On Top Of Changing Recommendations About Post
The CDC has been slowly changing its guidance about what people can do once theyre fully vaccinated. Its OK to gather with a small group of friends outdoors while unmasked, for example, or to go on a walk or bike ride. If youre fully vaccinated, its also generally safe to travel within the U.S. Our current COVID-19 vaccines really do confer robust protection, and health experts want everyone who has been really starved for normalcy, connection and physical affection to enjoy the freedoms vaccination offers.
Remember: the fact that there have been breakthrough cases is not a vaccine failure by any stretch of the imagine, Nelson said.
But there are still times when the CDC urges fully vaccinated Americans to take preventive measures like mask-wearing, maintaining social distance and hand-washing particularly when youre in a crowded or poorly ventilated space.
If youre around people who are not fully vaccinated, or youre around someone who cant be vaccinated … or youre in a crowd or an area with poor ventilation, its probably important to keep doing those other mitigation measures, Nelson said.
Experts are still learning about COVID-19. The information in this story is what was known or available as of publication, but guidance can change as scientists discover more about the virus. Please check the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the most updated recommendations.
Who Is Most At Risk Of Catching Covid
Looking more closely, we saw that people with less healthy lifestyles and higher body mass index were more at risk of becoming reinfected after vaccination, as well as people living in areas of higher social deprivation.
Older people with health conditions causing frailty were also more likely to get infected after their jab, which could be particularly relevant for elderly people living in care homes, although age itself didnât seem to affect the chances of reinfection.
According to our analysis, people over the age of 60 whoâd been vaccinated were less likely to develop prolonged COVID symptoms than those who had not.
Having an underlying health condition – including asthma, cancer, diabetes, and lung or heart disease – didnât increase the chances of being reinfected after vaccination compared with unvaccinated groups, although there was a small increase in risk for people over the age of 60 with kidney disease. Itâs possible that people with these conditions are still shielding to some extent, whether vaccinated or not, which could explain this finding.
You May Still Be Able To Spread It
Remember, just because you feel fine doesnt mean youre in the clear and reinfection may not present the same as your first bout of COVID-19.
Your previous infection may prevent you from getting sick, but that doesnt necessarily mean that you cant become infected and spread it to others, Dr. Esper says. You might think youre safe because your antibodies are there, but if youre still able to spread it to others for a short period of time, youre still a risk to others.
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/6feeling Sick After Being Vaccination
Even though catching breakthrough cases post vaccination may not be as common as catching the infection when you are unvaccinated, there is a low risk of possibly catching COVID-19, if you are vaccinated. The chances tend to be on the higher side when a person has partial immunity, there are contagious variants in play.
As per available statistics, only 0.4% of fully vaccinated individuals tend to be vulnerable to catching the infection after being fully vaccinated. However, it should be noted that the risks also may go up in relation to particular vaccines, or individual preventive practices.
Can I Still Spread Covid
Yes, you can still spread COVID-19 even if you’re fully vaccinated, although the chances of that happening is lower than when you’ve unvaccinated.
Data from the UK has shown that one dose of AstraZeneca or Pfizer lowers a person’s ability to infect their household contacts.
More research is being done to understand how vaccinated individuals can still spread the disease to others if they’re infected with the Delta variant.
However, studies still show that the vaccines offer significant protection even if they don’t prevent infections entirely.
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Had Both Vaccines The 4 Symptoms That Could Still Be Covid
- Vanessa Chalmers, Digital Health Reporter
- 7:32 ET, Jul 7 2021
FULLY vaccinated people show these four symptoms if they are unfortunate to catch Covid, docs have warned.
Data reveals the warning signs are different in those with two jabs compared to the unvaccinated.
Read our coronavirus live blog for the latest updates
And they are also vastly different to the symptoms listed by the NHS.
With almost two-thirds of the UK population double-jabbed, it means thousands could be unaware they are carrying the virus.
Experts have long been calling for the official symptom list to be amended amid new evidence, so that less cases are missed.
The NHS says you can get a free Covid test if you have a cough, high temperature or loss of smell and taste.
But vaccines appear to have made the infection more mild as well as causing different symptoms.
On top of this, a new Covid variant has become dominant in the UK, which experts say causes a slightly different illness.
The Possibility Of Covid
- COVID-19 vaccines protect people from getting infected and severely ill, and significantly reduce the likelihood of hospitalization and death.
- The best way to slow the spread of COVID-19 and to prevent infection by Delta or other variants is to get vaccinated.
- For people who are vaccinated and still get infected , there is a risk of transmission to others.
- That is why, if you are vaccinated or unvaccinated and live or work in an area with substantial or high transmission of COVID-19, you as well as your family and community will be better protected if you wear a mask when you are in indoor public places.
- People who are immunocompromised may not always build adequate levels of protection after an initial 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccine series. They should continue to take all precautions recommended for unvaccinated people, until advised otherwise by their healthcare provider. Further, CDC recommends that moderately to severely immunocompromised people receive an additional dose.
COVID-19 vaccines are effective at preventing infection, serious illness, and death. Most people who get COVID-19 are unvaccinated. However, since vaccines are not 100% effective at preventing infection, some people who are fully vaccinated will still get COVID-19. An infection of a fully vaccinated person is referred to as a breakthrough infection.
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If I Get A Breakthrough Infection How Sick Could I Get
Even with delta, the chance of getting a case of COVID-19 that’s bad enough to send you to the hospital is still very rare.
If you’re vaccinated, the risk of being hospitalized is 10 times lower than if you weren’t vaccinated, according to the latest data from the CDC. Those who get severely and critically ill with a breakthrough case tend to be older in one study done before delta, the median age was 80 with underlying medical conditions, like cardiovascular disease.
When I was sick, one thing was in the back of my mind as I monitored my symptoms: Would I have problems catching my breath?
Thankfully, when you get exposed, the vaccine has already set you up with antibodies, a first line of defense, that will neutralize parts of the virus that attach to the mucosal surfaces of your upper respiratory tract, says Torriani at UCSD.
“That initial moment when our body is attacked by the virus, that can lead to some disease,” she says. It’s a bit of a race. The virus may cause you to get a cold, but, in most people, your immune system will “get its act together and thwart that infection from going down into your lungs,” says Wachter.
If you’re concerned, you can keep an eye on your oxygen levels with a pulse oximeter. That’s much more important than your temperature or symptoms, he says.
Voluntary Reporting By State Health Departments
When the United States began widespread COVID-19 vaccination, CDC put in place a system where state health departments could report COVID-19 breakthrough infections to CDC. After collecting data on thousands of breakthrough infections, CDC changed the reporting system to improve data quality on breakthrough infections, and primarily focus on those among people who are hospitalized or die. This shift helped maximize the quality of the data collected on infections of greatest clinical and public health importance. Currently, 49 states are reporting data.
- Unexpected patterns, such as trends in age or sex.
- The specific types or brands of vaccine involved.
- Underlying health conditions in these persons.
- Which SARS-CoV-2 variants are observed in persons who are hospitalized or who die.
- Demographic cohorts .
So far, CDC has not observed any unexpected patterns in these reported breakthrough infections.
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Who Is At Risk Of Covid
By now, we know that anyone can get COVID-19 the vaccinated and unvaccinated, those who have had it already and those who havent. In the same vein, anyone can get COVID-19 again.
Its important to note that were still learning a lot about reinfections and whos at risk for those reinfections, Dr. Esper says. But doctors do know that some people are at higher risk of reinfection for COVID-19 than others.
You May Have Skin Issues
While neither the WHO or CDC mentions skin rashes as a possible symptom of COVID, doctors across the country have reported various types of skin rashesfrom COVID toes to rashes and lesions on the bodythought to be as a result of virus-related inflammation. In fact, the American Academy of Dermatology has set up a registry where healthcare workers can report cases of skin conditions that develop in COVID-19 patients, in hopes of understanding exactly why the virus is causing these issues.
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Breakthrough Infections: Coronavirus After Vaccination
A breakthrough infection is an infection with a virus, bacterium or other germ after you have been vaccinated. This is an expected occurrence for a small percentage of those receiving any vaccine, since no vaccine for any disease is 100% effective in preventing infection in every person who receives it.
Breakthrough coronavirus infections happen when someone who has been fully vaccinated for COVID-19 becomes infected with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Lisa Maragakis, M.D., M.P.H., senior director of infection prevention, and Gabor Kelen, M.D., director of the Johns Hopkins Office of Critical Event Preparedness and Response, explain what you need to know about breakthrough coronavirus infections.
What Are The Chances Of Being Reinfected With Covid
If youve had COVID-19, whats the likelihood that you could contract the virus a second time if you dont get vaccinated against it?
Were not seeing very many secondary infections, says Dr. Englund. But she says its also relatively early on in the pandemic. Scientists are still learning about coronavirus, and if youve had the virus and arent vaccinated, its unclear how long it will take before you can be reinfected with COVID-19.
Its much better to get yourself vaccinated. Then you dont have to worry moving forward until we learn more about whether we need booster shots or not, Dr. Englund clarifies.
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What We Know About Vaccine Breakthrough Infections
- Breakthrough infections are expected. COVID-19 vaccines are effective at preventing most infections. However, like most vaccines, they are not 100% effective.
- Fully vaccinated people with a breakthrough infection are less likely to develop serious illness than those who are unvaccinated and get COVID-19.
- Even when fully vaccinated people develop symptoms, they tend to be less severe symptoms than in unvaccinated people. This means they are much less likely to be hospitalized or die than people who are not vaccinated.
- People who get vaccine breakthrough infections can be contagious.
CDC is collecting data on vaccine breakthrough infections and closely monitors the safety and effectiveness of all Food and Drug Administration -authorized COVID-19 vaccines. Because vaccines are not 100% effective, as the number of people who are fully vaccinated goes up, the number of breakthrough infections will also increase. However, the risk of infection remains much higher for unvaccinated than vaccinated people. Vaccines remain effective in protecting most people from COVID-19 infection and its complications.
What Efficacy Rates Really Mean
You’ve probably heard about each vaccine’s efficacy rate. In their clinical trials, Pfizer-BioNTech’s and Moderna’s two-shot vaccines had an efficacy rate of about 95 percent, while the Johnson & Johnson single-dose vaccine had a 72 percent efficacy rate in the U.S.
If a vaccine’s efficacy rate is 95 percent, you might assume that 5 out of every 100 people vaccinated people will get sick. But that’s not how the math works, says Anna Wald, an infectious disease physician and epidemiologist at the University of Washington School of Medicine.
The actual percentage of vaccinated people who got COVID-19 in both the Pfizer and Moderna clinical trials was far smaller just around 0.4 percent.
Efficacy is actually calculated by comparing people in a trial who got the vaccine to people who got the placebo, Wald says. So if you received the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine, whatever your chance was before, it’s now 95 percent less, Wald explains.
There are two more things to know about those efficacy rates. First, none of the trial participants who received any of the authorized vaccines died of COVID-19. In other words, when it comes to what’s most important preventing death the vaccines were 100 percent effective in the trials.
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Efficacy Across Different Groups
A consistently high efficacy was observed in the clinical trials across age groups, sex, race, ethnicity and people with underlying medical conditions.
This means after getting two doses of the Pfizer vaccine, more than 9 out of 10 people are protected against COVID-19 regardless of their age, health status or ethnic group.
You May Have Side Effects After Vaccination But These Are Normal
After COVID-19 vaccination, you may have some side effects. These are normal signs that your body is building protection. The side effects from COVID-19 vaccination, such as tiredness, headache, or chills, may affect your ability to do daily activities, but they should go away in a few days. Learn more about what to expect after getting vaccinated.
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Are Variants To Blame For Reinfections
Not necessarily. Dr. Esper says the coronavirus doesnt mutate nearly as much as the flu, which changes nearly everything about its appearance from one year to the next. Rather, its COVID-19s infectiousness that makes it so, well, infectious.
This variants infectiousness including its ability to evade immune systems and prevent long-lasting immunity for those people who are infected with it is one of the reasons why its been able to persist and come back, he explains.