Was The Genome Of The Virus Subject To Peer Review Or Fda/cdc Oversight
The viral genome is not a product; it represents scientific knowledge, so organizations like the FDA or CDC would not have oversight over the information. However, this question gets at the heart of how science is done. Scientists by their nature are skeptics, and the scientific process is designed to challenge rather than accept results. In this manner, several points offer reassurance that the genomic sequence was vetted for accuracy:
In this manner, the pillars of scientific integrity peer review and reproducibility can offer everyone reassurance that the genomic sequence was accurate not to mention the fact that vaccines based on the information have been effective at preventing infection.
Why Is This Important
When the immune system first encounters a vaccine, it activates 2 important types of white blood cells.
First up are the plasma B cells, which primarily focus on making antibodies against the pathogen .
Unfortunately, this cell type is short-lived. Your body might be swimming in antibodies within just a few weeks. But without the second shot there is usually a rapid decline in antibodies against the pathogen.
Then there are the T cells, each of which identifies a particular pathogen to kill it.
Some of these memory T cells linger in the body for decades until they meet their target. This means immunity from vaccines or infections can;sometimes last a lifetime. But you usually won’t have many of this cell type until there is a second exposure to that pathogen, which happens through the booster dose.;
On second exposure to the same vaccine, the body can respond by creating a stronger immune response to fight the virus if required.
It is not yet known how long the COVID-19 vaccine protection will last. Clinical trials are currently happening to find out if we will need annual or longer booster doses to ensure long term immunity.
With new COVID-19 vaccine developments every day, its normal to have questions or concerns, and possibly feel hesitant about getting a vaccine. That’s why we’re providing accurate, evidence-based answers to questions about COVID-19 vaccines.
Book Your Free Shot It’s Safe And Easy
COVID-19 vaccines help prevent you from getting infected and protect you from getting severely sick if you do get it. All vaccines are safe, effective and save lives.
Everyone born in 2009 or before can get their first and second doses now. Third doses are available to some people most at risk of severe illness.
NEW: AHS clinics and pharmacies now use the same centralized online booking system. You can also book your shot by calling 811, visiting a walk-in clinic, or contacting a doctor’s office.
- 78.8% of Albertans 12+ with at least 1 dose
- 70.8% of Albertans 12+ fully vaccinated
- $100 Debit Card
Get vaccinated to get a $100 debit card!
- Who’s eligible: Albertans 18 or older who got their first or second dose of an approved COVID-19 vaccine between September 3 and October 14, 2021.
- How to register: After vaccination, register online or by phone, starting on September 13. Detailed instructions will be posted at that time.
- How to claim: $100 debit cards will be delivered to you. Everyone who is registered and has a valid vaccination will receive a debit card.
Get vaccinated for your shot to win $1 million!
Also Check: Where To Get Rapid Testing For Covid
When You Are Fully Vaccinated
People are considered fully vaccinated:
- 2 weeks after their second shot in a 2-dose series, like the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines, or
- 2 weeks after a single-shot vaccine, like Johnson & Johnsons Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine
COVID-19 vaccines are not interchangeable.;If you received a Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine, you should get the same product for your second shot.
You are;not;fully vaccinated if:
- it has been less than 2 weeks since your 1-dose shot
- it has been less than 2 weeks since your second shot of a 2-dose vaccine
- you still need to get your second dose of a 2-dose vaccine
Are These New Mrna Vaccines Safe
Yes. Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines were approved for emergency use by the Federal Drug Administration . As part of the approval process, independent experts reviewed the data from approximately 33,000 individuals who received either vaccine and concluded that side effects were relatively mild and short-lived and the known and potential benefits of avoiding serious disease from coronavirus outweighed the risk. Since these vaccines have been approved, roughly 63 million doses have been administered and the vaccines continue to be monitored for safety. ;
So What’s In The Vaccine
Says the FDA: “The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine includes the following ingredients: mRNA, lipids azanediyl)bisbis, 2 -N,N-ditetradecylacetamide, 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine, and cholesterol), potassium chloride, monobasic potassium phosphate, sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, and sucrose.” Next see what you should tell your vaccine administrator before getting yours.
Can My Second Dose Of The Covid
The CDC has recommended that people get the same version because that is what the data in the clinical trials were based on. However, they have indicated that in exceptional circumstances if the same version is not available, a person can, for example, get the Pfizer vaccine first and the Moderna vaccine second. The two doses should be separated by at least 28 days if different brands are used. However, people who got the first dose of an mRNA vaccine should not switch to the adenovirus version .;The best-case scenario would be that most people will be able to get the second dose from the same vaccine maker as their first dose.
Recommended Reading: Is Cvs Giving Covid Vaccine
How Can Countries Stretch Covid Vaccine Supplies Scientists Are Divided Over Dosing Strategies
A man in London is given the PfizerBioNTech COVID-19 vaccine.Credit: Leon Neal/Getty
Amid skyrocketing coronavirus infections, some countries are attempting to stretch limited supplies of COVID-19 vaccines by reducing doses or changing vaccination schedules from those shown to be effective in clinical trials. But data are scarce on the impact of such measures, and scientists are split over whether they are worth the risks.
It might be fine, says virologist Dan Barouch at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. But we should stick with whats been proven to work, because we want it to work. We dont want to be creative for some unclear benefit and then have an unexpected problem.
On 30 December, the United Kingdom announced that it would allow doses of two coronavirus vaccines to be administered as many as 12 weeks apart, even though, in clinical trials, the two doses of the vaccine made by Pfizer of New York City and BioNTech of Mainz, Germany, were given to participants about three weeks apart. By delaying the second jab, the government hopes to free up doses to inoculate more people with their first shot during the current surge.
Symptoms Depending On Vaccine Status
The most common symptom in people who have had two doses of a vaccine is a headache.
It’s followed by a runny nose, sneezing and sore throat.
The data come from researchers at King’s College London, who collect information from people with positive tests via the ZOE Covid Symptom Study App.
The study reports: “A persistent cough now ranks at number eight if youve had two vaccine doses, so is no longer the top indicator of having Covid.
“Curiously, we noticed that people who had been vaccinated and then tested positive for Covid-19 were more likely to report sneezing as a symptom compared with those without a jab.
“If youve been vaccinated and start sneezing a lot without an explanation, you should get a Covid test, especially if you are living or working around people who are at greater risk from the disease.”
People who have had just one dose have similar symptoms; headache, runny nose, sore throat, sneezing and a persistent cough.
Researchers said: “As we can see, after the protection from only once vaccine, one of the original indicators of a persistent cough has made the top five symptoms, but still comes below sneezing and a runny nose in rankings, which were previously thought to be unrelated to infection.”
Recommended Reading: Is It Safe To Drink Alcohol After Covid Vaccine
How Soon Can You Travel After Having Both Jabs
While country entry requirements vary, people generally need to wait 14 days after their second vaccination before travelling abroad to avoid quarantine upon arrival.
For example, Spain, Portugal and Greece all require UK visitors to present proof of vaccination at least 14 days prior to travel.
Some countries may allow you to travel unvaccinated, but youll either need to present a negative test, or quarantine on arrival.
In addition, some countries like Greece will accept proof of recovery from Covid, if you can present a positive PCR test result from 30 to 180 days before travel.
As always, you should check each countrys entry requirements before you travel.
Double-jabbed passengers travelling into the UK from an amber list country do not need to quarantine either providing they recieved their jab 14 or more days before travelling.
Vaccine Safety & Side Effects
Check out Immunize Alberta for Common Questions about Vaccine Safety.
Q: What goes into making sure vaccines, including the COVID-19 vaccines, are safe and effective?
A: Canada is recognized around the world for high standards for vaccine review, approvals, and monitoring systems. Only vaccines that are safe and effective will be approved for use in Canada. After a vaccine is approved for use, evidence on safety and effectiveness is reviewed by the National Advisory Committee on Immunization who provide recommendations on immunizations for individuals and for public health programs.
Q: Have there been any adverse events following immunization with the COVID-19 vaccine?
A: Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada , the provinces and territories, and manufacturers continue to closely monitor the safety of COVID-19 vaccines and respond to any safety issues that arise.
Provincially the Government of Alberta has the most up-to-date figures on adverse events following immunization with the COVID-19 vaccine. A weekly report on side effects following COVID-19 vaccination in Canada, is available from the Government of Canada.
The benefits of vaccines authorized in Canada continue to outweigh the risks. All eligible Albertans born in 2009 or before are encouraged to get immunized as soon as possible.
Q: I am experiencing side-effects from the COVID-19 vaccine, what do I do?
Q: What should I know about myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccinationes?
You May Like: When Is It Safe To Be Around Someone With Covid
What Are The Side Effects Of The Covid
Side effects from both the mRNA and adenovirus vaccines are caused as part of the immune response to the vaccine.
The most common side effects from the mRNA vaccines are:
- Muscle aches
Side effects occurred during the first seven to eight days after vaccination but were most likely to occur one or two days after receipt of the vaccine. Side effects were more often experienced by younger, rather than older vaccine recipients.
Two rare, but potentially dangerous conditions, have been identified following receipt of the adenovirus-based vaccines, such as the J&J/Janssen version:
So How Effective Are Our Vaccines
Preliminary data from the United Kingdom shows after your first dose of either Pfizer or AstraZeneca, youre 33% less likely than an unvaccinated person to contract the Delta variant.
Two weeks after your second dose, this rises to 60% for AstraZeneca and 88% for Pfizer. This data is for any form of COVID-19, from mild to severe.
But when you look at how much the vaccines reduce your risk of developing severe illness that requires hospitalisation, the coverage is high for both. Pfizer and Astrazeneca vaccines are 96% and 92% effective in preventing Delta variant hospitalisations.
Recommended Reading: What Happens If You Get Covid After The First Shot
Can I Mix Vaccines And Get Pfizer For My Second Dose
This isn’t the official advice in Australia yet,;but research into mixing vaccines is taking place overseas.
Giving Pfizer as a second dose after one shot of AstraZeneca produced a “robust immune response” to COVID-19, according to;preliminary results from a;Spanish trial with more than 600 people.
Early results from a;German study also showed having Pfizer after AstraZeneca;gave some parts of the immune system that fight COVID-19;a bigger boost;than having AstraZeneca twice.
Research into mixing COVID-19 vaccines is still in its infancy though ;the studies mentioned above have not yet been peer reviewed.
But Cassandra Berry, a professor in immunology at Murdoch University, said the results so far were promising.
“Vaccines are like a personal trainer for our immune system, and instead of just making us train for a sprint race, we really want to train to endure an ultramarathon,” she told the ABC.
“We really want that memory and that long-lasting immunity to protect us for years and decades ahead, because we are going to live with COVID in our future, unfortunately.”
Canada and some European countries allow vaccine mix-and-matching, but Australian officials have said there aren’t plans to do the same here yet.
“The evidence is very low at this point in time on the efficacy of ,”;Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officer Alison McMillan said on Friday.
If A Person Is Vaccinated Against Covid
People will not spread the virus after vaccination with the mRNA or adenovirus vaccines. The vaccines do not deliver live virus nor do they cause the body to produce virus, so there is no chance for a vaccinated person to spread the vaccine virus to others, even if they have side effects.
Of note, however, we do not yet know if these vaccines prevent infection or if they only prevent disease:
- Disease means people experience symptoms of illness.
- Infection means that a virus can infect a persons cells and reproduce, but the person may or may not have symptoms or be contagious.
If the COVID-19 vaccines only prevent disease, a person could be infected following an exposure and potentially spread the virus. Additional studies are underway to determine whether the vaccines prevent infection as well as disease. Scientists expect that even if someone experiences an asymptomatic infection, they will not be likely to infect others; however, we need to wait for the data to know for certain. Therefore, in situations of higher risk for exposure vaccinated people should still use masks and practice social distancing measures as recommended by the CDC.
Find out more about viral shedding in the Parents PACK article, “Viral Shedding and COVID-19 What Can and Cant Happen.”
Don’t Miss: Does Pine Sol Kill Covid
Why Do Kids Need The Covid
While children and teens may not be as likely to get severely ill from COVID-19, it can still happen and, in fact, the average age of hospitalizations has been decreasing, particularly since the oldest members of our communities have been vaccinated. With this in mind, parents and teens should consider the following:
Should I Get An Antibody Test After The Vaccine To Make Sure Its Working
Antibody testing is not currently recommended check someones immunity to COVID-19 following either the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines. The COVID-19 antibody test used at MSK detects;the immune response after being infected by COVID-19. It does not measure immunity that results from the vaccine. Thats why it should not be routinely ordered to assess vaccine response.
Also Check: Is It Free To Get Tested For Covid
What Do The Data Say
Multiple clinical trials are currently underway to determine whether there are benefits or drawbacks. Researchers at the University of Oxford are testing different combinations of vaccines including the AstraZeneca-Oxford, Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Novavax shots in the Com-Cov trial, and the U.S. National Institutes of Health recently launched a trial of mixed booster doses.
Russian researchers are testing a combination of their Sputnik V vaccine and the AstraZeneca shot. Sputnik is, itself, somewhat based on a mix-and-match approach, with the first and second shots having different formulations.
Most studies are still in early stages, but some have released promising preliminary results. Last month, for instance, a team of Spanish researchers announced that people who received a dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine, followed by a dose of the Pfizer vaccine, showed a robust immune response.
This regimen appeared to elicit a stronger immune response than two doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine, Dr. Xing said. Whether it is better than two doses of the Pfizer vaccine is not yet clear.
Q: Can You Speak To How The Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Fits Into All Of This That Was A One
Even when Johnson & Johnson was being developed, there was already thought around, Does it really need to be just one dose? Or do we need to think about two doses? Given the considerations that weve seen for the messenger RNA vaccines, Johnson & Johnson is, at the moment, reviewing the data and pursuing a study around what it will mean to have two doses, and how much more effective that will be compared to the single dose. I think that data is forthcoming. We have heard that theyre going to submit that type of information to the FDA, and Im sure the CDC will review it in the next few months.;
Don’t Miss: How Many People Have Got Covid Twice