Why Are Boosters Needed
People who are fully vaccinated are still strongly protected against hospitalization and death from COVID-19. But immunity against infection can wane over time, and the extra-contagious delta variant is spreading widely. U.S. health authorities want to shore up protection in at-risk people who were vaccinated months ago, though they emphasize that the priority remains getting the unvaccinated their first shots.
You May Have A Sore Throat
“5 -17.4% of patients have reported a sore throat as early COVID-19 symptoms, in published medical studies,” says Dr. Lee. “ENT specialists think not enough attention has been paid to a sore throat as a COVID symptom, because most medical papers focus on people with severe and more advanced COVID infections.”
Is The Vaccine Safe For Women Who Are Pregnant Or Breastfeeding
The C.D.C. has recommended that coronavirus vaccines be made available to pregnant women, though it also suggests that they consult with their doctors when making a decision about vaccination. Covid-19 poses serious risks during pregnancy. Pregnant women who develop symptoms of the disease are more likely to become seriously ill, and more likely to die, than nonpregnant women with symptoms.
In an early analysis of coronavirus vaccine safety data, C.D.C. researchers have found no evidence that the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines pose serious risks during pregnancy. The findings are preliminary and cover just the first 11 weeks of the U.S. vaccination program. But the study, which included self-reported data on more than 35,000 people who received one of the vaccines during or shortly before pregnancy, is the largest yet on the safety of the coronavirus vaccines in pregnant people. After vaccination, pregnant participants reported the same general pattern of side effects that nonpregnant ones did, the researchers found: pain at the injection site, fatigue, headaches and muscle pain. Women who were pregnant were slightly more likely to report injection site pain than women who were not, but less likely to report the other side effects. They were also slightly more likely to report nausea or vomiting after the second dose.Emily Anthes
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Vaccine Breakthroughs And Variants
CDC continues to actively monitor vaccine safety and effectiveness against new and emerging variants for all FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccines. Research shows that the FDA-authorized vaccines offer protection against severe disease, hospitalization, and death against currently circulating variants in the United States. However, some people who are fully vaccinated will get COVID-19.
The Delta variant is more contagious than previous variants of the virus that causes COVID-19. However, studies indicate that the vaccines used in the United States work well against the Delta variant, particularly in preventing severe disease and hospitalization. Overall, if there are more infections with SARS-CoV-2 there will be more vaccine breakthrough infections. However, the risk of infection, hospitalization, and death are all much lower in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated people. Therefore, everyone aged 12 years and older should get vaccinated to protect themselves from severe disease and death.
Qualitative Vs Quantitative Tests
Some clinical antibody tests are qualitative, which means theyll simply give you a positive or negative readout for antibodies rather than an actual level. Others are quantitative, which means they provide an actual antibody level, or titer.
Because we dont yet know what level of antibodies are correlated with COVID-19 protection, neither a positive qualitative or high quantitative test can tell you for sure if youre adequately protected or not.
If you have a negative antibody result, you would need to speak to your doctor to determine next steps on an individual basis.
It would require a physician who understands the antibody testing well enough and also knows the individuals personal medical history, including medication and vaccination timing and history, so that they could have an informed discussion with the person and make an individual management decision, says Dr. Ramirez.
That said, well discuss what an antibody test can and cant tell you about your immunity shortly.
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It Takes Time To Build Immunity
It takes time for your body to build up an immune response after you get your vaccination.
You need 2 doses to get strong protection against the virus that causes COVID-19.
The first dose gives you partial protection as soon as 12 days afterwards. The second dose encourages your body to create stronger protection .
It takes 7 to 14 days after your second dose before you are fully protected.
Does The Vaccine Protect Against New Covid Variants
It is important to note that these mutations we are seeing do not turn the virus into some sort of super-survivable virus that has fundamentally new characteristics. Instead, the mutations to date appear to alter parts of the spike protein to enable it to bind more easily to the host receptor of our cells. This could mean it is more infectious or spreads more easily. But there is growing evidence that existing vaccines are remarkably effective against these variants and provide protection against severe illness, hospitalization and death.
Brittany Delgado, a registered medical assistant at Wardenburg Health Center on the CU Boulder campus, was one of several medical staff that received the first of two Moderna COVID-19 vaccinations on Tuesday, January 5, 2021.
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If I Get A Breakthrough Infection How Sick Could I Get
Even with delta, the chance of getting a case of COVID-19 that’s bad enough to send you to the hospital is still very rare.
If you’re vaccinated, the risk of being hospitalized is 10 times lower than if you weren’t vaccinated, according to the latest data from the CDC. Those who get severely and critically ill with a breakthrough case tend to be older in one study done before delta, the median age was 80 with underlying medical conditions, like cardiovascular disease.
When I was sick, one thing was in the back of my mind as I monitored my symptoms: Would I have problems catching my breath?
Thankfully, when you get exposed, the vaccine has already set you up with antibodies, a first line of defense, that will neutralize parts of the virus that attach to the mucosal surfaces of your upper respiratory tract, says Torriani at UCSD.
“That initial moment when our body is attacked by the virus, that can lead to some disease,” she says. It’s a bit of a race. The virus may cause you to get a cold, but, in most people, your immune system will “get its act together and thwart that infection from going down into your lungs,” says Wachter.
If you’re concerned, you can keep an eye on your oxygen levels with a pulse oximeter. That’s much more important than your temperature or symptoms, he says.
What Efficacy Rates Really Mean
You’ve probably heard about each vaccine’s efficacy rate. In their clinical trials, Pfizer-BioNTech’s and Moderna’s two-shot vaccines had an efficacy rate of about 95 percent, while the Johnson & Johnson single-dose vaccine had a 72 percent efficacy rate in the U.S.
If a vaccine’s efficacy rate is 95 percent, you might assume that 5 out of every 100 people vaccinated people will get sick. But that’s not how the math works, says Anna Wald, an infectious disease physician and epidemiologist at the University of Washington School of Medicine.
The actual percentage of vaccinated people who got COVID-19 in both the Pfizer and Moderna clinical trials was far smaller just around 0.4 percent.
Efficacy is actually calculated by comparing people in a trial who got the vaccine to people who got the placebo, Wald says. So if you received the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine, whatever your chance was before, it’s now 95 percent less, Wald explains.
There are two more things to know about those efficacy rates. First, none of the trial participants who received any of the authorized vaccines died of COVID-19. In other words, when it comes to what’s most important preventing death the vaccines were 100 percent effective in the trials.
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Why Are There Different Recommendations For The Different Vaccines
A single shot of the J& J vaccine is less effective than two doses of the Moderna or Pfizer formulas, and health authorities decided it was important for the J& J recipients to achieve a similar level of protection. As for the timing, J& J simply tested more people with a two-month booster than one at six months. For recipients of Moderna or Pfizer vaccinations, theres no clear data that everybody needs another dose, but immunity against infection in at least some people appeared to wane around six months.
When Will Children Younger Than 12 Be Eligible
The date for when a vaccine will be approved for children ages 5 to 11 has been something of a moving target. Pfizer has asked the F.D.A. for authorization to use its vaccine in this younger age group. If the regulatory review follows a timeline similar to the ones for older children and adults, its possible that millions of elementary school students could be inoculated before Halloween. But public health officials have said it may take longer to review the data, with estimates for authorization ranging from late fall to the end of 2021.
Vaccines for very young children, ages 6 months to 4 years old, arent expected until 2022. Trial results for children younger than 5 are not expected until the fourth quarter of this year at the earliest, according to Dr. Bill Gruber, a senior vice president at Pfizer and a pediatrician.Tara Parker-Pope and Apoorva Mandavilli
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Have You Been Fully Vaccinated
In general, people are considered fully vaccinated: ±
- 2 weeks after their second dose in a 2-dose series, such as the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines, or
- 2 weeks after a single-dose vaccine, such as Johnson & Johnsons Janssen vaccine
If you dont meet these requirements, regardless of your age, you are NOT fully vaccinated. Keep taking all precautions until you are fully vaccinated.
If you have a condition or are taking medications that weaken your immune system, you may not be fully protected even if you are fully vaccinated. You should continue to take all precautions recommended for unvaccinated people until advised otherwise by your healthcare provider.
People with moderately to severely compromised immune systems should receive an additional dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine after the initial 2 doses.
Government Data And Privacy
No. North Carolina has no plan to require people to be vaccinated against COVID-19. It is possible that some employers or schools will require vaccines for their employees or students. Employers may ask if you have been vaccinated but cannot require that you share any other personal medical information.
North Carolina uses the COVID-19 Vaccine Management System . CVMS is a free, secure, web-based system accessible to all providers who give COVID-19 vaccinations. It helps vaccine providers know who has been vaccinated and with which vaccine to make sure people get the second dose of the same vaccine at the right time. It also allows the state to manage vaccine supply. Pharmacies, such as CVS and Walgreens, will not use CVMS to give and manage vaccines. These pharmacies will use their own systems.
North Carolina has an online public dashboard to share data on vaccinations. The data in the dashboard is updated Monday through Friday.
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How Do I Report If I Have Any Side Effects After Getting The Covid
V-safe is a smartphone-based tool that uses text messaging and web surveys to provide personalized health check-ins after you receive a COVID-19 vaccination. Through v-safe, you can quickly tell CDC if you have any side effects after getting the COVID-19 vaccine. Depending on your answers, someone from CDC may call to check on you and get more information. And v-safe will remind you to get your second COVID-19 vaccine dose if you need one. To sign up for v-safe, please visit V-safe After Vaccination Health Checker | CDC.
If you have any concerns, you can also call your healthcare provider. You or your provider can report any side effects to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System , which is a national system run by the federal government.
What Are The Side Effects Of Booster Shots
While data is limited, so far reactions reported after the third mRNA dose from Pfizer or Moderna are similar to those experienced after the two-dose series: Fatigue and pain at the injection site are the most commonly reported side effects, and, overall, most symptoms are mild to moderate, the C.D.C. says. A survey from Israel, where booster shots are already being given, found that 88 percent of Pfizer vaccine recipients said that in the days after the third dose they felt similar or better to how they felt after the second shot. About a third of respondents reported some side effects, with the most common being soreness at the injection site, and 1 percent said they sought medical treatment because of one or more side effects.Tara Parker-Pope
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Is It Safe To Get The Vaccine
Based on what we know so far, doctors still strongly recommend everyone who can get the COVID-19 vaccine should do so. A history of getting Botox and dermal fillers is not considered a reason to opt out. The protection offered from the vaccine is still believed to far outweigh the slight risk of swelling for people with dermal fillers.
The American Academy of Plastic Surgeons says that people with dermal fillers should not be discouraged from getting the COVID-19 vaccine. Thats because these side effects are considered rare. Even in the cases where these side effects were reported, they resolved quickly and didnt have long-term health complications.
With that being said, the Moderna trial cases are not the only examples of swelling associated with dermal fillers and the COVID-19 vaccine.
A study published in February 2021 mentions isolated, rare cases of swelling that seemed to have occurred in connection to the Moderna vaccine as well as the Pfizer vaccine. The study theorizes that this is the result of how the unique spike proteins in COVID-19 behave within your body.
These case studies let us know that these side effects are possible, but not at all likely. All of the cases of swelling were connected to dermal fillers that contained hyaluronic acid, and each of them resolved on their own, just like the Moderna trial participants.
Finally, keep in mind that contracting the coronavirus itself has been connected to facial swelling in people with dermal fillers in at least
What About The Billions Of People Who Live Outside The United States How Will The Rest Of The Planet Get Vaccinated
Vaccination efforts against Covid-19 have revealed an extraordinary gap in access to the vaccines around the world. Rich nations like the United States and Britain have cut deals with multiple drug manufacturers and secured enough doses of vaccines likely to come on the market this year to immunize their citizens multiple times over. China and Russia have developed their own vaccines and begun mass immunization programs. In stark contrast, most poor nations rely on a complex global vaccine-sharing initiative called Covax, and are likely to receive only enough doses to vaccinate at most 25 percent of their populations this year. Run by the World Health Organization and two global nonprofits, Covax relies on financial assistance and other support from wealthy nations. It wasnt until this month that the U.S. agreed to participate and provide funding.
Worldwide, 81 percent of shots that have been administered have been in high- and upper-middle-income countries, according to the Our World in Data project at the University of Oxford. Only 0.4 percent of doses have been administered in low-income countries.Megan Twohey, Keith Collins and Katie Thomas
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Possible Side Effects After Getting A Covid
COVID-19 vaccination will help protect you from getting COVID-19. You may have some side effects, which are normal signs that your body is building protection. These side effects may affect your ability to do daily activities, but they should go away in a few days. Some people have no side effects.
Serious side effects that could cause a long-term health problem are extremely unlikely following any vaccination, including COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccine monitoring has historically shown that side effects generally happen within six weeks of receiving a vaccine dose. For this reason, the FDA required each of the authorized COVID-19 vaccines to be studied for at least two months after the final dose.
You May Have A Headache
Broadway star Danny Burstein recalled getting “migraines on steroids” during his terrible bout with COVID-19, and headaches are one of the CDC’s most common symptoms. Since you might normally get themdue to stress, loud noises or body chemistryyou may not associate them with the coronavirus. But you should. “We’re seeing a small subset of people who have prolonged headache symptom long after their acute illness is over,” Dr. Valeriya Klats, a neurologist and headache specialist with the Hartford HealthCare Ayer Institute Headache Center in Fairfield County, tells Hartford Healthcare.
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How Cdc Monitors Breakthrough Infections
CDC has multiple surveillance systems and ongoing research studies to monitor the performance of vaccines in preventing infection, disease, hospitalization, and death. CDC also collects data on breakthrough infections through outbreak investigations. One important system that CDC uses to track breakthrough infections is COVID-NET . This system provides the most complete data on vaccine breakthroughs in the general population. COVID-NET is a population-based surveillance system that collects reports of lab-confirmed COVID-19-related hospitalizations in 99 counties in 14 states. COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population. One recent COVID-NET publication assessed the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing hospitalization among adults 65 years. More information on COVID-NET vaccine breakthrough data will be published as it becomes available.