Vaccine Safety And Adverse Events Following Immunization
Due to limitations in the number of participants and duration of follow-up from COVID-19 clinical trials, medium- and long-term evidence on vaccine safety is limited. However, post-licensure vaccine pharmacovigilance is ongoing and safety signals around the world are detected and communicated globally. Clinical trials of the authorized COVID-19 vaccines excluded individuals with a history of severe adverse reaction associated with a vaccine and/or severe allergic reaction to any component of the vaccine. However, studies are ongoing.
The following section highlights key safety and AEFI data for the authorized and available COVID-19 vaccines. For additional details regarding trial design, including study population and length of follow-up, and safety for the COVID-19 vaccines authorized for use in Canada, refer to the evidence summaries in Appendix A , Appendix B , Appendix C , and Appendix D . Refer to Appendix E for a summary of the frequency of AEFI for the different COVID-19 vaccine products.
Refer to Part 2 – Vaccine Safety in the CIG for definitions of AEFIs and additional general information.
Very common and common adverse events
Common adverse events are defined as those that occur in 1% to less than 10% of vaccine recipients; very common adverse events occur in 10% or more of vaccine recipients. Please see Appendix E for a summary of adverse events identified in clinical trials of authorized, available COVID-19 vaccines.
Children And Young People Aged 12 To 17
People aged 16 and 17, and children aged 12 to 15 who are eligible, will be contacted by a local NHS service such as a GP surgery to book their vaccination appointments.
Some walk-in COVID-19 vaccination sites are offering the vaccine to people aged 16 and 17. You can check if a site is available near you.
Do The Covid19 Vaccines Have Adverse Reactions
Like all medicines, vaccines can cause adverse reactions. Most of these are mild and short term, such as pain at the injection site, tiredness or a headache. Many people don’t get any side effects. It can happen with many vaccines that some people might feel slightly unwell because their immune system is responding to the protein, but this is not a COVID-19 illness and the vaccine cant give you COVID-19.
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Who Can Get Vaccinated In Costa Rica
All citizens and residents who are adults or who are teenagers with risk factors are eligible for the vaccine. Migrants are also eligible, as detailed above. for a list of Covid-19 vaccination sites in Costa Rica.
Doses are;not officially available;to tourists at this time, though some health areas may vaccinate non-resident foreigners.
Costa Rica is administering the Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines. Both comprise two doses. Immunosuppressed individuals will receive a;booster dose;in 2022.
Q&a: Can You Get Flu And Covid Shot At The Same Time
August 20, 2021 With first-time COVID-19 immunizations continuing and the plan to offer booster vaccines to most Americans starting next month, what are the considerations for getting COVID-19 and flu shots at the same time?
Medscape/WebMD asked Andrew T. Pavia, MD, for his advice. He is the chief of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases at the University of Utah, in Salt Lake City, Utah, and a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Q: With COVID-19 cases surging, is it a good idea to get the flu shot early this season?
Q: What are the implications?
Pavia: There are some we know and some we don’t know. If you develop flu-like symptoms, you’re going to have to get tested. You’re going to have to stay home quite a bit longer if you get a definitive test than you would simply with flu symptoms. Also, you’re probably going to miss work when your workplace is very stressed or your children are stressed by having COVID circulating in schools.
The part we know less about are the implications of getting the flu and COVID together. There is some reason to believe if you get them together, the illness will be more severe. We are seeing that with RSV and parainfluenza and COVID coinfections in children. They appear to be quite severe.
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How Well Do The Covid
Anyone who gets COVID-19 can become seriously ill or have long-term effects . The COVID-19 vaccines are the best way to protect yourself and others.
Research has shown the vaccines help:
- reduce your risk of getting seriously ill or dying from COVID-19
- reduce your risk of catching or spreading COVID-19
- protect against COVID-19 variants
The 1st dose should give you some protection from 3 or 4 weeks after you’ve had it. But you need 2 doses for stronger and longer-lasting protection.
There is a chance you might still get or spread COVID-19 even if you have a vaccine, so it’s important to follow advice about how to avoid catching and spreading COVID-19.
Studying The Association Is Crucial
The reported menstrual irregularities were mostly short-lived, but experts say its still important to keep studying their potential link to COVID-19 in order to:
- Address unfounded concerns that may cause vaccine hesitancy
- Show that vaccine safety is being taken seriously, even when the potential side effect is not particularly harmful
- Understand the menstrual side effects and allow people to adjust accordingly
Some people are hesitant to take the vaccine in fear that it will affect their fertility in the long run, and their concerns may be addressed by looking into these reports. This will allow scientists to provide further evidence that there is no effect on fertility. Having a richer understanding of the extent of the menstrual side effects also allows people to prepare for potentially altered cycles.
If the timing of periods is changing, the timing of ovulation might also change, Male says. And if that’s the case, it’s important for those who rely on knowing when they ovulate, either to conceive or to avoid conception, to factor that into their plans.
Although its been nine months since the vaccine rollout began, the potential side effects on menstruation were not evident at first because it was initially offered to people aged 65 and above, aside from long-term care facility residents and healthcare personnel.
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How Do I Take An Axillary Temperature
This is a convenient way to take a childs temperature. Although not as accurate as a rectal or oral temperature in a cooperative child, some parents prefer to take an axillary temperature, especially for kids who cant hold a thermometer in their mouths.
Whatever method you choose, keep these tips in mind:
- Never take your childs temperature right after a bath or if he or she has been bundled tightly for a while this can affect the temperature reading.
- Never leave your child unattended while taking a temperature.
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Cdc And Medical Professionals Recommend Covid
COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for everyone 12 years of age and older, including people who are trying to get pregnant now or might become pregnant in the future, as well as their partners.
Professional medical organizations serving people of reproductive age, including adolescents, emphasize that there is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccination causes a loss of fertility.14 These organizations also recommend COVID-19 vaccination for people who may consider getting pregnant in the future.
Professional societies for male reproduction recommend that men who want to have babies in the future be offered COVID-19 vaccination.5 There is no evidence that vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, cause male fertility problems.
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What Should I Do If I Get Covid
First and most importantly, isolate yourself and contact your healthcare provider for next steps. Youll want to seek emergency medical attention right away if you are experiencing symptoms like difficulty breathing or chest pain that wont go away.;
Once you have recovered, are symptom-free, and have been given the okay to stop socially isolating, you are clear to receive the second dose of the vaccine. If the 21- or 28-day waiting period for the second shot has passed, you should get your vaccine as soon as possible.
How To Avoid Spreading A Cold
Colds are caused by viruses and easily spread to other people. Youre infectious until all your symptoms have gone. This usually takes 1 to 2 weeks.
Colds are spread by germs from coughs and sneezes, which can live on hands and surfaces for 24 hours.
To reduce the risk of spreading a cold:
- wash your hands often with warm water and soap
- use tissues to trap germs when you cough or sneeze
- bin used tissues as quickly as possible
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Researchers Will Examine Link Between Covid
Some individuals have reported menstrual changes after COVID-19 vaccination. Now, researchers will study whether there's a link between the two. Key TakeawaysThe National Institutes of Health awarded supplemental grants to five institutions to study the link between COVID-19 vaccination and menstrual changes.Although reported period changes were short-lived, it's important to look into
What If You Contract Covid
CLEVELAND, Ohio Youve just had your first dose of the coronavirus vaccine and are waiting for the second dose when it happens: You test positive for COVID-19.
What should you do?
Our readers have questions about the coronavirus vaccine, and cleveland.com is getting answers from health care experts.
Q. What if I test positive for COVID-19 before I get my second dose of the coronavirus vaccine?
Both coronavirus vaccines approved for use in the U.S. require two doses administered several weeks apart. The wait is 21 days for the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine and 28 days for the Moderna vaccine.
The Pfizer vaccine is 95% effective and the Moderna vaccine is 94% effective, according to press reports. But they only provide that level of protection after both doses.
If you do contract COVID-19 after the first dose you should still get the second one, said Dr. Robert Salata, the chair of the department of medicine at University Hospitals. Salata said hes aware of several cases where someone tested positive for COVID-19 after getting their first dose.
Should those folks, if they develop COVID, go on to receive the second dose? I would say yes, Salata said.
You need to wait 10 days to get out of quarantine, to keep the health care workers safe, Margolius said.
Experts previously told cleveland.com the vaccine should be just as effective if you wait a little longer to get your second dose.
Your coronavirus vaccine questions answered:
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Research Studies Of Fertility In Healthy Males
Currently no evidence shows that any vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, cause male fertility problems. A recent small study of 45 healthy men who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine looked at sperm characteristics, like quantity and movement, before and after vaccination.12Researchers found no significant changes in these sperm characteristics after vaccination.
Fever from illness has been associated with short-term decrease in sperm production in healthy men.13 Although fever can be a side effect of COVID-19 vaccination, there is no current evidence that fever after COVID-vaccination affects sperm production.
Heres What Weve Learned About Spacing Out Covid
Studies and real-world evidence have shown that extending the time between the first and second doses of the Pfizer and Moderna shots improvesimmunity.
A paper published in the journal Nature found that extending the duration between the Pfizer doses to 12 weeks led to a more robust antibody response. Another recent study from the Mayo Clinic found that people who got vaccinated with Pfizer were more likely to get a breakthrough infection compared to those who got the Moderna shots.
Even four weeks made a difference as opposed to having three weeks between doses, Gandhi said.
The real-world evidence from Canada and the U.K., where vaccine scarcity forced people to separate their doses up to four months, compared to the United States and Israel where there were plenty of vaccines also suggests theres some added protection in delaying the second dose.
The vaccine efficacy against symptomatic illness is lower in Israel and the U.S. and both countries opted for a three-week strategy for Pfizer, whereas Canada and the U.K. both have not reported reduction in vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID, Gandhi said.
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Effectiveness In Individuals 65 Years Of Age
In the absence of sufficient data from clinical trials to date on the efficacy of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine in those 65 years of age and older, a review of three observational studies in the UK published as pre-prints on real-world vaccine effectiveness in this age group has been conducted to inform NACI’s recommendations in this age group. The findings of this review are summarized below.
All three observational studies assessed one dose of either the Pfizer-BioNTech or the AstraZeneca vaccines in the United Kingdom. The results below pertain only to the AstraZeneca portion of the studies. The studies were conducted during the period when the B.1.1.7 variant was rapidly becoming the dominant circulating strain in their respective geographic regions. Approximately 50% of laboratory samples were found to have a profile consistent with the B.1.1.7 variant in early December, 2020 in England, and 43% in Scotland in early January, 2021. By mid to late February, the B.1.1.7 variant represented almost 100% of circulating strains in England, and was considered the dominant strain in Scotland.
Overall summary of evidence
In adults 65 years of age and over, observational data available from pre-prints from the United Kingdom have shown a reduction in the risk of symptomatic disease and hospitalization starting from two weeks following one dose of AstraZeneca vaccine.
Detailed summary of each study:
Is Pneumonia Contagious
In general, pneumonia is not contagious, but the upper respiratory viruses and bacteria that lead to it are. When these germs are in someones mouth or nose, that person can spread the illness through coughs and sneezes.
Sharing drinking glasses and eating utensils, and touching used tissues or handkerchiefs of an infected person also can spread pneumonia. If someone in your home has a respiratory infection or throat infection, keep their drinking glasses and eating utensils separate from those of other family members, and wash your hands well and often, especially if youre handling used tissues or dirty handkerchiefs.
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Could My Cold Be Rsv
It might be, although its hard to tell the difference between symptoms. RSV is one of the most common causes of childhood illness, but it can also affect adults. Like the common cold, cases of RSV largely vanished during the lockdowns, but have been steadily rising ever since. In adults and healthy children over the age of one, symptoms tend to be mild, and infections usually clear up within a week.;
Most babies and young children who catch RSV can be treated at home, in the same way that parents would treat a common cold. The infection usually goes away within two weeks.
More severe cases require a trip to the hospital, where your child might be offered oxygen, IV fluids and medications to open their airways.
How Well Are The Covid
On June 7, the CDC issued a press release regarding their study of the effectiveness of vaccines in fully vaccinated people. The study found that the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines authorized by the Food and Drug Administration ;reduced the risk of infection by 91% for fully vaccinated people. The study also is among the first to show that mRNA vaccination benefits people who get COVID-19 despite being fully vaccinated or partially vaccinated .;
The results of this study also suggest that fully or partially vaccinated people who become infected with COVID-19 might be less likely to spread the virus to others. With fully or partially vaccinated study participants, the virus was 40% less detectable in their noses. It was also detected in six fewer days as compared to those who werent vaccinated when they became infected.
In addition, people who were partially or fully vaccinated were 66% less likely to test positive for the SARS-CoV-2 infection for more than one week in comparison to those who were unvaccinated. The CDC adds that while these indicators are not a direct measure of a persons ability to spread the virus, they have been associated with a reduced spread of other viruses like varicella and influenza .
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Common Hay Fever Symptoms
Here are the most common hay fever symptoms to look out for
- Itchy, watery or red eyes
For example, if youre allergic to plants or flowers, touching them could cause an outbreak of hives.
Having this knowledge may help to work out whether the rash is a result of pollen-related allergies or Covid, experts say.
Hay fever sufferers may also experience itching around the face and mouth or an itchy feeling inside the roof of the mouth and a burning sensation in the throat.
It may also cause headaches and wheezing, but these are less common symptoms, along with a sore throat.
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