Weeks Or Months Between Doses Which Is Best
Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines were tested to be given 3 and 4 weeks apart, respectively. But when the vaccines were first rolling out, shortages prompted some countries to stretch the interval between doses to 4 or more months.
Researchers who have studied the immune responses of people who were inoculated on an extended dosing schedule noticed something interesting: When the interval was stretched, people had better antibody responses. In fact, their antibody responses looked like the sky-high levels people got with hybrid immunity.
Susanna Dunachie, PhD, a global research professor at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, wondered why. Sheâs leading a team of researchers who are doing detailed studies of the immune responses of health care workers after their vaccinations.
âWe found that B cells, which are the cells that make antibodies to the viral spike protein after vaccination, carry on increasing in number between 4 and 10 weeks after vaccination,â she says.
Waiting to give the second vaccine 6 to 14 weeks seems to stimulate the immune system when all of its antibody-making factories are finally up and running.
For this reason, giving the second dose at 3 weeks, she says, might be premature.
Researchers say it might be a good idea to revisit the dosing interval when itâs less risky to try it.
Booster Shots And Additional Doses
Booster shots are not yet available.
But additional doses of COVID-19 vaccines are now available for those with moderately to severely compromised immune systems.
This includes people who:
- Get active cancer treatment for tumors or cancers of the blood
- Got an organ transplant and are taking medicine to suppress the immune system
- Got a stem cell transplant within the last 2 years or are taking medicine to suppress the immune system
- Have moderate or severe primary immunodeficiency
- Have advanced or untreated HIV infection
- Get active treatment with high-dose corticosteroids or other drugs that suppress immune response
Talk to your doctor to see if getting an additional dose is right for you. If you meet these criteria, you can book your third dose at My Turn.
Why Do I Need A Booster
Although vaccinations are the best way of protecting individuals from contracting the virus, immunity from serious illness wanes after six months.
The booster dose therefore strengthens your protection from the first two doses and gives you longer term protection.
Particularly during the winter when people are more prone to illnesses, the booster will help people from suffering a serious illness as a result of Covid-19 and reduce hospital admissions during a time when hospitals are at their maximum capacity.
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Can Receiving A Covid
No. Receiving a COVID-19 vaccine will not make you magnetic, including at the site of vaccination which is usually your arm. COVID-19 vaccines do not contain ingredients that can produce an electromagnetic field at the site of your injection. All COVID-19 vaccines are free from metals.
Learn more about the ingredients in the COVID-19 vaccinations authorized for use in the United States.
What’s Risky What’s Still Safe And When To Wear A Mask
While COVID-19 cases remain, you might be looking for help understanding what’s still safe and what’s risky again.
“If you’re vaccinated, you can still feel relatively safe gathering indoors with a small group of vaccinated individuals,” says Dr. Drews. “You’ll want to be more cautious when a larger group is involved or you are in an indoor public space.”
If cases are high in your area, Dr. Drews recommends moving large gatherings outdoors, as well as taking extra precautions indoors when you don’t know the vaccination status of people around you.
As for those extra precautions, here are some times and places to wear a mask and social distance:
- While running errands
- While using public transportation
- In a hospital, clinic or doctor’s office
- Visiting with someone who is high-risk
- Going to a holiday party or gathering that includes people who are unvaccinated
“You may also choose to be more judicious about traveling and spending time in indoor spaces where wearing a mask and maintaining your distance are challenging such as at bars, restaurants and group exercise classes, for instance,” recommends Dr. Drews.
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Children And Young People Aged 12 To 17
People aged 16 and 17, and children aged 12 to 15 who are eligible, will be contacted by a local NHS service such as a GP surgery to book their vaccination appointments.
Some walk-in COVID-19 vaccination sites are offering the vaccine to people aged 16 and 17. You can check if a site is available near you.
Can You Get Covid After Being Vaccinated
Yes. Breakthrough COVID-19 cases happen in people who are fully vaccinated, and they seem to happen more frequently now that the delta variant is circulating widely. All three available coronavirus vaccines are very good at protecting you against severe forms of COVID-19, but they are not 100% effective in preventing infection. Breakthrough COVID can be caused by the delta variant, which is more contagious than some other coronavirus variants.
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So What Does It Mean For Us
If youre one of the unlucky few vaccinated people who get a breakthrough infection, it does mean you have to follow the health advice given to you.
Even though you may not feel sick, you still have the capacity to spread the virus to a vulnerable person around you. Though if the people in your home are also fully vaccinated, then the risk of transmission drops even further again.
However, a vaccinated person is less likely to get COVID in the first instance, is less contagious, and is contagious for a shorter time, resulting in significantly less spread of the virus through a highly vaccinated community.
This, combined with the well-known ability of vaccines to keep people out of hospital and ICU, makes them the most important part of the health response in the near future.
As the vaccine rollout continues, and there are fewer people without protection, the decreased rate of breakthrough infection will help ensure a future where COVID no longer dominates the news, society, and our minds.
How Cdc Monitors Breakthrough Infections
CDC has multiple surveillance systems and ongoing research studies to monitor the performance of vaccines in preventing infection, disease, hospitalization, and death. CDC also collects data on breakthrough infections through outbreak investigations. One important system that CDC uses to track breakthrough infections is COVID-NET . This system provides the most complete data on vaccine breakthroughs in the general population. COVID-NET is a population-based surveillance system that collects reports of lab-confirmed COVID-19-related hospitalizations in 99 counties in 14 states. COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population. One recent COVID-NET publication assessed the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing hospitalization among adults 65 years. More information on COVID-NET vaccine breakthrough data will be published as it becomes available.
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Do I Have To Get A Booster
As of now, the CDC’s recommendation is that all adults in the US “should” get a booster. This is because even if the omicron variant lowers the efficacy of the vaccines, scientists expect COVID-19 vaccines to remain protective against severe disease.
Before omicron, earlier in November, the CDC advisory panel voted unanimously to recommend boosters for all adults, but they also acknowledged that some people need them more than others. The guidance was that people age 50 and older “should” get a booster , in addition to other groups who “should” get one because of a clearer benefit, including adults living in long-term care facilities and everyone who received Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine. For all other adults, the choice was more dependent on personal circumstances or preference.
Can You Get Vaccinated If You Have Covid
You should wait, medical experts say, but you should still get vaccinated.
How COVID-19 vaccines work
All U.S. adults in all 50 states became eligible for the COVID-19 vaccine Monday, but with the virus still widespread, it is inevitable that some people will test positive for COVID-19 or have a known exposure right before their first vaccine appointment or between their first and second shot.
Experts interviewed by ABC News say if you develop COVID-19, or even if you are exposed, you should probably delay your appointment.
The primary reason is to limit the chance you will spread it to others.
Its not safe, said Dr. Amesh Adalja, an infectious disease specialist and senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. You shouldnt because you are contagious, and you may infect the people vaccinating.
Many vaccination sites are at indoor venues with dozens of people. By going to a place where most people are unvaccinated or only partially vaccinated, you would potentially expose everyone to illness.
Even if you try your luck and show up, you will likely be turned away and asked to reschedule your appointment as part of the screening process.
There are health screening and attestation questions built into the scheduling system. If someone answers the questions truthfully, they cannot make an appointment, a spokesperson for the New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene said.
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If Youve Already Had Covid
If you or your child had COVID-19covid 19, you should still get the vaccine. It will help protect you from getting sick again and from the more contagious Delta variants.
If you are recovering from COVID-19covid 19, you should wait to get the vaccine until you:
- have no symptoms
- are no longer in self-isolation
Entry And Exit Requirements
- Are U.S. citizens permitted to enter? Yes.* Pre-departure testing required for all inbound travelers to Korea, including those who have been vaccinated. There is also a mandatory 10-day quarantine upon entry for most travelers. See Quarantine Requirements below for more information.
- Is a curfew in place? No
- Are there restrictions on intercity or interstate travel? Yes. * There are no restrictions on domestic travel in Korea. However, those entering Korea from abroad will not be permitted to board domestic connecting flights until completing government-mandated quarantine.
- QR code-based access to facilities. Korea has a QR code-based registration system for patrons at restaurants, clubs, and other entertainment facilities across the country that are considered high risk for COVID-19. This system enables the government to conduct contact tracing as COVID cases are identified. Information on this system is available on the Ministry of Health and Welfares COVID-19 Portal.
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Registering A Vaccine Received Outside Of Canada Or Ontario
If you have received one or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine outside of the Province of Ontario, you must provide your proof of immunization to Ottawa Public Health. Complete the COVID-19 Out of Province Dose Documentation form to notify Ottawa Public Health of your out of province dose administration, and upload the documentation you have received.
Why Are Infections Still High When So Many Are Vaccinated
Vaccines are designed to protect people against becoming seriously ill or dying from Covid-19.
They’re less effective at stopping people getting infected by the virus or passing it on.
Although the vaccine does reduce the likelihood of these things happening, it might only stop half of infected people from transmitting the virus.
So even if everyone in the UK was double-vaccinated, Covid would still spread – but far fewer people would become seriously ill.
Effectiveness also depends on how well each vaccine works against individual variants.
Public Health England studies suggest having two vaccine doses protects 80% of people against getting symptoms from the Delta variant. That’s lower than the Alpha variant which seen initially, because Delta is more infectious.
After four or five months, another large study suggests you have the same amount of protection whether you had AstraZeneca or Pfizer.
Researchers don’t yet have enough data to compare the Moderna jab, but believe it is “almost certainly at least as good as the others”.
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How Strong Is Immunity After A Covid
About 90% of people develop some number of protective antibodies after a COVID-19 infection, according to the CDC. But how high those levels climb appears to be all over the map. Studies show peak antibody concentrations can vary as much as 200-fold, or 2,000%.
Where you fall within that very large range will depend on your age and how sick you became from your COVID-19 infection. It also depends on whether you have an underlying health condition or take a medication that blunts immune function.
Our immune system slows down with age. This process, called immunosenescence, starts to affect a personâs health around the age of 60. But thereâs no bright line for failure. People who exercise and are generally healthy will have better immune function than someone who doesnât, no matter their age. In general, though, the older you are, the less likely you are to get a robust immune response after an infection or a vaccination. Thatâs why this group has been prioritized both for first vaccine doses and boosters.
Beyond age, your protection from future infection seems to depend on how ill you were with the first. Several studies have shown that blood levels of immune defenders called antibodies rise faster and reach a higher peak in people with more severe infections.
White House Mandates Pfizer Vaccines For Millions Of Citizens Before The Fda Clinical Or Safety Reviews Have Been Made Public
Take these announcements with a bucket hat full of salt since they are from the pharmaceutical companies rather than independent scientists, the findings are preliminary, and the data has not been fully shared with and vetted by the larger scientific community.
There is comparatively much less data on what may happen when you mix and match booster shots in different ways. One study described in a pre-print recently uploaded to MedRxiv looked at all nine possible primary plus booster combinations of the three Covid-19 vaccine brands available in the U.S. The research team that conducted the study included investigators from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases , which is part of the National Institutes of Health , the Baylor College of Medicine, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, the Emory University School of Medicine, the University of Washington, the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and various other academic institutions. The study consisted of 458 participants divided into nine roughly equal-sized groups with each group getting a different primary plus booster combination. This meant that approximately 50 participants were in each group.
Pictured here is a sign on a bus in Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Getting a booster vaccine doesn’t mean that you should forego other Covid-19 precautions such as … wearing face masks.
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Are These New Mrna Vaccines Safe
Yes. Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines were approved for emergency use by the Federal Drug Administration . As part of the approval process, independent experts reviewed the data from approximately 33,000 individuals who received either vaccine and concluded that side effects were relatively mild and short-lived and the known and potential benefits of avoiding serious disease from coronavirus outweighed the risk. Since these vaccines have been approved, roughly 63 million doses have been administered and the vaccines continue to be monitored for safety.
Similar Peak Viral Loads
A study in medical journal The Lancet followed 602 primary close contacts of 471 people with COVID. It documented transmission and viral load in the group.
It found there were no differences in peak viral loads between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. It also showed only a small decrease in the number of infections in household members between vaccinated and unvaccinated people, suggesting a similar level of infectiousness.
Another unpublished pre-print, which is yet to be reviewed by other scientists, suggests a similar trend in viral load between vaccinated and unvaccinated people, as does a CDC report in the US from July which analysed outbreak data from Massachusetts.
The Massachusetts data came from a number of large public events over a two-week period in July in Barnstable County, Massachusetts. From 469 COVID cases, 346 occurred in fully vaccinated people. Viral load was similar in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups.
However, we shouldnt fear this analysis too much. The data reported is an imperfect representation of the population, and the measures they used a single swab and PCR test dont provide information about overall viral load over time.
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How Long Should You Wait To Be Vaccinated If Youve Had Covid
The time frame that we recommend for being vaccinated after having a COVID-19 infection is as soon as youre out of quarantine, says Dr. Englund.
There is one caveat, however.
If youve received monoclonal antibodies, you must wait 90 days after recovering from COVID-19 to receive the vaccine. According to the Food and Drug Administration , monoclonal antibodies are proteins made in a laboratory that mimic your bodys immune response. Dr. Englund says some people might not need to be hospitalized for COVID-19, but might receive these antibodies from their doctor as an infusion treatment to help fight the virus.
If youve had that monoclonal antibody, it is going to keep you from being able to develop a nice, robust response to the vaccine. So thats why we have to wait for 90 days until that monoclonal antibody has gotten out of your system.