Can You Still Spread Covid
Most infectious disease experts believe that a highly effective vaccine will help lower the risk that you can spread COVID-19 after youre immunized, but theyre still trying to determine what the impact looks like on case numbers. Concrete data hasnt been released yet on whether the vaccines offer whats known as sterilizing immunity, which means that those who are vaccinated cant contract or pass on the virus at all.
We expect that the level of risk of transmissibility is greatly diminished, but not eliminated, says Stanley H. Weiss, M.D., an epidemiologist and professor at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School and the Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology at the Rutgers School of Public Health.
The clinical trials that looked at the vaccines that are authorized for use by the FDA were based on the prevention of symptomatic diseasethey werent looking at asymptomatic disease, says infectious disease expert Amesh A. Adalja, M.D., senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. They werent designed to determine whether asymptomatic transmission would occur .
Statistics vary, but research has shown that up to 20% of people who have COVID-19 show no symptoms. Early data show the vaccines do help keep people with no symptoms from spreading COVID-19, but we are learning more as more people get vaccinated, the CDC states on its site.
How Do Saliva Tests Compare To Nasal Swab Tests For Diagnosing Covid
Samples for COVID-19 tests may be collected through a long swab that is inserted into the nose and sometimes down to the throat, or from a saliva sample.
The saliva test is easier to perform spitting into a cup versus submitting to a swab and more comfortable. Because a person can independently spit into a cup, the saliva test does not require interaction with a healthcare worker. This cuts down on the need for masks, gowns, gloves, and other protective equipment.
Either saliva or swab samples may be used for PCR tests, which detect genetic material from the coronavirus. Swab or saliva samples can also be used for antigen tests, which detect specific proteins on the surface of the coronavirus.
A systematic review and meta-analysis published in JAMA Internal Medicine found that saliva- and nasal swab-based tests that used a technique similar to PCR were similarly accurate. A positive result on either test meant that it was accurate at diagnosing the infection 99% of the time. However, approximately 16 out of 100 people who are infected will be missed.
These results are very similar to prior studies, reinforcing that a single negative swab or saliva test does not mean you dont have COVID. If you have symptoms suggestive of COVID, presume you may still be infected to avoid transmitting the virus to others.
Should I Wear A Face Mask
The coronavirus that causes COVID-19 is primarily transmitted through viral particles that float in the air or through droplets containing virus. Even people who are infected but do not have symptoms, or have not yet developed symptoms, can infect others. Masks reduce the amount of virus we breathe in and breathe out. Combined with the vaccine, masks provide a one-two punch that reduce the risk of spread to children who are not yet eligible for vaccines, to people with weakened immune systems, and to others who are unvaccinated. Masks also provide additional protection for the wearer, even those who are fully vaccinated.
In July 2021, the CDC advised all people vaccinated and unvaccinated to wear masks in public indoor places in areas of the country with widespread transmission of the virus. The CDC has always advised unvaccinated people to mask indoors, and also advises anyone at increased risk to wear a mask indoors, regardless of the level of community transmission.
Transmission is much less likely to occur outdoors, and masks are not needed in most outdoor settings.
What kind of mask should you wear? Although the CDC recommends masks made of two or more layers of washable, breathable fabric, surgical masks have been shown to be more effective than cloth masks at filtering out smaller particles. Regardless of the type of mask you wear, make sure it completely covers your nose and mouth and fits snugly against the sides of your face without leaving any gaps.
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How Is That Possible
The reason why is that vaccinated people have a lower viral load if they get infected, Brian said.
Viral load means the amount of virus an infected person produces. If the viral load is significantly smaller because someone is fully vaccinated, that lessens the risk of transmitting the virus to others through the transmission of respiratory droplets.
So should fully vaccinated people be concerned about passing the virus to a friend or family member who is not vaccinated?
Very few things in medicine have a zero percent chance of happening. But if the person is fully vaccinated and not immunocompromised for any reasons, there is less of a reason to be concerned about transmitting the virus if they become infected, Brian said. This is why the CDC has changed some guidance recently for fully vaccinated people.
People who are immunocompromised and are fully vaccinated still are at risk of severe illness or hospitalization due to COVID-19 and should continue to wear a mask and practice other precautions.
How Effective Is The Covid
As with any vaccine, the Pfizer vaccine may not fully protect everyone who gets it. However, it is highly effective if people have both doses. That means, if you do catch COVID-19, youre far less likely to fall seriously ill and less likely to transmit the virus to others.
The COVID-19 vaccine stimulates your bodys immune system to produce antibodies and other proteins that will fight the virus if youre exposed to it. This reduces the risk of getting infected and if you do get COVID-19, it means you could have no symptoms or will have much fewer, milder symptoms and recover faster.
While the data is clear that vaccines protect people from the effects of COVID-19, research is ongoing to determine whether a vaccinated person could still transmit the virus to someone else so to be safe, we must assume there is still a risk of transmission.
The point of the vaccine is it dramatically reduces your risk of getting COVID-19, absolutely.
If you have been vaccinated, even with the Delta variant youve got more than 90% chance of not ending up in hospital, not being in intensive care and not dying. So thats pretty bloody good odds.
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Q: Is There A Shortage Of Personal Protective Equipment Such As Gloves Masks And N95 Respirators Or Of Ventilators
A: The FDA has been working closely with PPE and ventilator manufacturers to understand their supply capabilities during this pandemic. The agency is also aware of challenges throughout the supply chain that are presently impacting the availability of PPE products and is taking steps to mitigate shortages that health care facilities are already experiencing.
The FDA issued new guidance to give ventilator manufacturers and non-medical device manufacturers more flexibility to start making new ventilators and parts. We adjusted our screening of PPE and medical devices at U.S. ports of entry to expedite imports of legitimate products into the U.S. With CDC we took action to make more respirators, including certain N95s, available to health care personnel for use in health care settings. Read more about PPE.
The FDA encourages manufacturers and health care facilities to report any supply disruptions to the device shortages mailbox at .
Summary Of Recent Changes
- Data were added indicating that COVID-19 vaccination remains highly effective against COVID-19 hospitalization and death caused by the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2.
- Data were added from studies published since the last update that further characterize reduced COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against asymptomatic and mild symptomatic infections with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2.
- Data were added from studies published since the last update that suggest decreased vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic disease, and hospitalization in several groups of immunocompromised persons and potential benefit of a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine in immunocompromised populations.
- Data were added summarizing several small studies of heterologous COVID-19 vaccination series , which found that a dose of adenovirus vector vaccine followed by a dose of mRNA vaccine elicits antibody responses at least as high as two doses of mRNA vaccine.
- Data were added from recent studies examining the duration of protection conferred by COVID-19 vaccination.
- Data were added from recent studies describing clinical outcomes and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated persons.
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Getting Your Second Dose Of The Covid Vaccine Here’s What You Should Know
We shouldnt be surprised about some people still getting infected, especially if they have high risk exposures, like a household exposure, but what we shouldnt expect are severe infections because we know the vaccines were highly protective against from any hospitalizations, said Dr. Jonathan Pinsky, a medical director and infectious disease control and prevention specialist at Edward Hospital.
Still, in Chicago, people who have contracted COVID after being fully vaccinated – considered two weeks after your first shot of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine or two weeks after your second shot of the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines – have largely been asymptomatic.
“Most of those people are asymptomatic, and they get picked up because we continue to do a lot of routine testing in high-risk settings, in long-term care facilities, in hospital settings, etc.” Arwady said.
A recent CDC study, however, found that “a growing body of evidence suggests that fully vaccinated people are less likely to have asymptomatic infection and potentially less likely to transmit SARS-CoV-2 to others.”
“However, further investigation is ongoing,” the CDC stated.
Regardless, Arwady said the risk of reinfection is part of the reason experts continue to advice vaccinated people to still follow public health guidelines.
In clinical trials, Moderna’s vaccine reported 94.1% effectiveness at preventing COVID-19 in people who received both doses. The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was said to be 95% effective.
Myth: The Mrna Vaccine Is Not Considered A Vaccine
FACT: mRNA vaccines, such as Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, work differently than other types of vaccines, but they still trigger an immune response inside your body.
This type of vaccine is new, but research and development on it has been underway for decades.
The mRNA vaccines do not contain any live virus. Instead, they work by teaching our cells to make a harmless piece of a spike protein, which is found on the surface of the virus that causes COVID-19. After making the protein piece, cells display it on their surface. Our immune system then recognizes that it does not belong there and responds to get rid of it. When an immune response begins, antibodies are produced, creating the same response that happens in a natural infection.
In contrast to mRNA vaccines, many other vaccines use a piece of, or weakened version of, the germ that the vaccine protects against. This is how the measles and flu vaccines work. When a weakened or small part of the virus is introduced to your body, you make antibodies to help protect against future infection.
Learn more about how mRNA COVID-19 vaccines work.
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What Do I Need To Know About Washing My Hands Effectively
Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom before eating after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing and after handling anything that’s come from outside your home.
- If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol, covering all surfaces of your hands and rubbing them together until they feel dry.
- Always wash hands with soap and water if hands are visibly dirty.
- The CDC’s handwashing website has detailed instructions and a video about effective handwashing procedures.
Q: I Built A Diy Ventilator Using Instructions I Found On The Internet May I Sell It
A: DIY ventilator makers may request that their product be added to the Emergency Use Authorization that the FDA issued on March 24, 2020, to legally market the product in the U.S. Instructions on how to do so, and the criteria for ventilator safety, performance and labeling, may be found in the Letter of Authorization and Appendix A for the EUA related to ventilators, anesthesia gas machines modified for use as ventilators, positive pressure breathing devices modified for use as ventilators, ventilator tubing connectors, and ventilator accessories.
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My Side Effects Are Not Going Awaycould I Have Covid
In some cases, you might get your COVID-19 shot around the same time that you have been exposed to the virus. If this happens, you could develop symptoms of COVID-19in which case you would be capable of spreading it to others.
Some people by chance may become infected with coronavirus between their first and second dose before they are fully immune, DSouza said. It takes several days after infection for symptoms to develop, so they might get their second dose.
Common side effects of the vaccine, like fatigue, fever, or body aches, can also occur if you have a COVID-19 infection. The way to tell the difference is by the timing and severity of your symptoms. If you don’t start to feel better within a few days of getting your shot, or your side effects get worse, you should get tested for COVID-19.
If your symptoms last longer than 72 hours, it is worth making sure you dont actually have COVID-19, Juthani said. If you do, you didnt get it from the vaccine. You just happened to get it from someone else around the time you got your vaccine.
Q: Am I Currently Eligible For A Covid
A: Everyone ages 16 and older can get a booster shot.
The FDA amended the emergency use authorization for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine to allow for the use of a single booster dose for people ages 16 and 17 after completion of primary vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine.
The FDA-authorized Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine and the FDA-approved Comirnaty are the only COVID-19 vaccines currently available for people ages 16 and 17. Individuals ages 16 and 17 should only receive the Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine or Comirnaty as their booster dose.
If you are 18 or older and received the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine or Comirnaty for your primary vaccination series at least 6 months ago, then you may receive a booster dose of any of the currently available COVID-19 vaccines. They are:
- Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine
If you are 18 or older and received the Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine as your primary vaccination at least 2 months ago, then you may receive a booster dose of any of the currently available COVID-19 vaccines.
The FDA-approved Comirnaty and the two authorized formulations of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for ages 12 and older, when prepared according to their respective instructions for use, can be used interchangeably without any safety or effectiveness concerns.
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Vaccinated People Can Contract And Transmit Delta
Although fully vaccinated people were less likely to contract an infection, when they did whats known as a breakthrough infection they can transmit the Delta variant at a similar level as unvaccinated people.
Researchers found that 25 percent of household contacts exposed to a fully vaccinated person in the household contracted an infection themselves.
Of those exposed to an unvaccinated household member, 23 percent contracted an infection.
Breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated people can efficiently transmit infection in the household setting, wrote the study authors.
Researchers suspect this has to do with the coronavirus replicating similarly in vaccinated and unvaccinated people at least at the start of the infection.
As part of the study, researchers also measured the viral load how much virus is in the body of people who contracted an infection.
The peak viral load was similar for both vaccinated and unvaccinated people. It was also similar for people with an infection with different variants.
However, there was a slight increase in viral load with increasing age. This suggests a weaker immune response in older people.
How Can I Protect Myself While Caring For Someone That May Have Covid
You should take many of the same precautions as you would if you were caring for someone with the flu:
- Stay in another room or be separated from the person as much as possible. Use a separate bedroom and bathroom, if available.
- Make sure that shared spaces in the home have good air flow. If possible, open a window.
- Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains 60 to 95% alcohol, covering all surfaces of your hands and rubbing them together until they feel dry. Use soap and water if your hands are visibly dirty.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
- Extra precautions:
- You and the person should wear a face mask if you are in the same room.
- Wear a disposable face mask and gloves when you touch or have contact with the person’s blood, stool, or body fluids, such as saliva, sputum, nasal mucus, vomit, urine.
- Throw out disposable face masks and gloves after using them. Do not reuse.
- First remove and throw away gloves. Then, immediately clean your hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Next, remove and throw away the face mask, and immediately clean your hands again with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
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