The Immune Response To These Vaccines Is Impressive
Ali Ellebedy, an associate professor of pathology and immunology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, studies what happens in the lymph nodes and bone marrow of people who have been vaccinated against Covid-19. Hes been amazed at how long the first two doses of mRNA vaccine act on the immune system half a year after the second shot, the response is still maturing. He wouldnt have predicted that, Ellebedy admitted.
There is an ongoing reaction in our lymph nodes thats going for six months. And that reaction, we are showing, that it is actually enhancing the potency of the antibodies, he said. Even before the third dose.
The maturation of the immune response which would be accelerated by a third dose, given after a longer interval brings big benefits. The antibodies we make improve in quality through a process called affinity maturation. They become more capable of recognizing their viral target, even if that target has made changes to its appearance, in the way variants have done.
If you wait six months or more between a priming and boost, what you see is not just a boosting of the immunity that you got from the first vaccine, but you see a broadening of the immune response so that it recognizes other viruses or other variants. Your immune response becomes much more cross-protective, said David Topham, an immunologist at the University of Rochester Medical Center and director of the New York Influenza Center of Excellence.
/6experts Suggest Tweaking The Vaccines
The onset of the Omicron variant raised concerns around the world. Experts found that the variant contained several mutations which enabled it to escape immunity from both a natural infection and the vaccines.
In light of such findings, doctors and medical professionals suggested updating the available COVID-19 vaccines to match the new variants.
Previously, the WHO technical body had said that the current COVID-19 vaccines may need to be reworked to ensure they are effective against Omicron and future variants of the coronavirus.
“The composition of current COVID vaccines may need to be updated to ensure that vaccines continue to provide WHO-recommended levels of protection against infection and disease by VOCs, including Omicron and future variants,” they said.
They further added, “COVID-19 vaccines need to… elicit immune responses that are broad, strong and long-lasting in order to reduce the need for successive booster doses.”
The global health agency believes that repeated booster doses of the original vaccine composition is unlikely to be appropriate or sustainable.”
How Can I Know About Covid
Several tools have been developed to help public health officials, governments, businesses, and individuals make informed decisions. These tools use county-level data to provide guidance. Two that may be particularly helpful include:
- COVID-Lab: Mapping COVID-19 in your community Developed by PolicyLab at Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, this tool allows you to see COVID-19 test positivity in counties throughout the United States. The tool also offers projections for how levels of disease are expected to change in the next four weeks based on current social distancing practices, population density, testing capacity, and anticipated temperature and humidity.
- COVID-19 event risk assessment planning tool Developed by teams at Georgia Institute of Technology and Applied Bioinformatics Laboratory, this tool offers information about gatherings by county throughout the U.S., showing the percent chance that at least one person will be COVID-19 positive in gatherings of different sizes. The calculations are based on results of data from COVID-19 antibody blood tests.
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Who Needs A Pre
- All travellers 5 years of age or older
- You must provide proof of a COVID-19 negative molecular test result to enter Canada OR proof of a previous positive test result taken between 14 and 180 days ago .
If you are now symptom-free, you can provide proof of a positive COVID-19 molecular test when crossing the border, instead of a negative one.
- The test must have been taken at least 14 and no more than 180 days before :
- the initial scheduled departure time of your aircraft
- your scheduled entry into Canada by water or land
- The proof of the positive result must be from an accepted type of molecular test
- If your positive proof is accepted you wont have to take arrival or Day-8 tests
You must take a molecular test within 72 hours of the scheduled departure time of your flight to Canada.
If you have a connecting flight:
- the test must be taken within 72 hours of the scheduled departure time of your last direct flight to Canada
- you may need to schedule the test in your transit city
Can I Still Get Vaccinated If I Have A Cold
People with mild cold-like symptoms are not prevented from getting the vaccine. However, if they are not feeling well, their symptoms just started, or their symptoms are getting worse, they may want to delay vaccination until they feel better otherwise, they might not be able to tell effects of illness from those of the vaccine. If they are uncertain, they should speak to their doctor, who has the benefit of their medical history and will be in the best position to help them weigh the potential pros and cons.
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What If Theres Another Coronavirus
A new COVID-19 variant could derail both public health efforts to bring the virus circulation under control and, possibly, the new and very effective MRNA vaccines developed to combat it. So far, Delta has been the most dangerous variant, yet despite its virulence, it has not been able to evade protection conferred by the current vaccines. Moss says that while its possible a new variant could emerge that isnt susceptible to current vaccines, there are evolutionary constraints on the virus.
This has to do with the spike protein in SARS-COV-2, which is what allows the virus to hook into our cells. The MRNA vaccines direct human antibodies to look for and neutralize the spike protein to prevent infection. The virus canand Im sure it hasmutate away from that, but those viruses cant enter cells, Moss explains.
That said, if there is an increase in breakthrough infections, or a need for a new coronavirus vaccine, we could see a vaccine that targets multiple variants. A mix of different antigens from different flu strains is already commonly used, says Sette of the La Jolla Institute of Immunology. In fact, researchers are already exploring a universal coronavirus vaccine that would fight not just other COVID-19 variants, but all viruses in that family.
Theres no evidence that you would need a vaccine against different SARS variants mixed together, Sette says. But if that were the case, its feasible.
Which Vaccine Will I Get
You cannot usually choose which vaccine you have. When you book, you’ll only be offered appointments for vaccines that are suitable for you.
Most people can have any of the COVID-19 vaccines, but some people are only offered certain vaccines.
- if you’re pregnant or under 40 you’ll usually be offered appointments for the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna vaccines
- if you’re under 18, you’ll only be offered the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine
You should have the same vaccine for both doses, unless you had serious side effects after your 1st dose.
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Should I Stop Taking My Daily Dose Of Aspirin Before Getting The Covid
If your daily dose of aspirin was prescribed by your physician following a stroke or heart attack, we recommend speaking to that doctor about whether to stop taking your medication for a day or two prior to vaccination. If, however, your daily dose of aspirin is because you have risk factors for a stroke or heart attack but have never had a stroke or heart attack, you should consider discontinuing the aspirin not only prior to your COVID-19 vaccine, but all together. The data show that while daily aspirin helps prevent second strokes or heart attacks, it does not help prevent first occurrences, even in people who are at increased risk. Our director, Dr. Paul Offit, carefully reviewed the data related to this topic for his book, Overkill: When Modern Medicine Goes Too Far.
Find out more in this Parents PACK article, “Medications and COVID-19 Vaccines: What You Should Know.”
Is It Necessary To Wait To Get Blood Work Done After Getting The Covid
Generally speaking, it would be recommended to wait about a week after getting the mRNA vaccine and a few weeks after getting the adenovirus-based vaccine before getting bloodwork. However, it would be better to inquire with the healthcare provider who ordered the bloodwork as they have the benefit of knowing the reason for the bloodwork, the type of tests ordered, and the patients medical history. As such, they will be in the best position to offer this guidance for each individual situation.
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Do I Need Another Dose Of The Covid
J& J/Janssen adenovirus vector vaccine
People who received the J& J/Janssen vaccine should get a second dose of vaccine separated by at least 8 weeks, regardless of their health status. They are not currently recommended to get a third dose of the J& J/Janssen vaccine.
Pfizer or Moderna mRNA vaccine
A third dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine may be recommended for one of two reasons:
- To address waning immunity, traditionally called a booster dose.
- To enhance the immune response of an individual who did not develop sufficient immunity following receipt of the recommended number of doses of COVID-19. In this case, the third dose can be considered as an additional primary dose.
How the third dose is implemented will be affected by which of these reasons are the cause for the additional dose.
In the case of COVID-19 vaccines, most people who received mRNA vaccines do not currently need an additional dose. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has either recommended, or is allowing, a third dose of mRNA vaccine for particular groups of people, including:
Those getting an additional primary dose should get the same type and dose of vaccine they received initially when possible.
Those getting a booster dose can get any type of vaccine. Importantly, booster doses of Moderna should be half the quantity of the primary dose. Pfizer booster doses are the same quantity as the primary dose .
People in this category include the following:
Pfizer Ceo Pushes Yearly Covid Shots Not So Fast Experts Say
When Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla said March 13 that all Americans would need a second booster shot, it struck many COVID-19 experts as a self-serving remark without scientific merit. It also set off spasms of doubt over the countrys objectives in its fight against the coronavirus.
The decision on how often and widely to vaccinate against COVID-19 is part science, part policy and part politics. Ultimately it depends on the goals of vaccination at a time when its becoming clear that neither vaccines nor other measures can entirely stop the viral spread.
On March 15, Pfizer made a more limited request of the Food and Drug Administration, seeking authorization of a second booster only for people 65 and older. Advisers for the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are likely to approve a fourth shot for people in that age group because theyre the group most likely to be hospitalized or die of COVID-19. Pfizer competitor Moderna on March 17 also filed for a second booster shot, although its application extended to all adults.
The vaccines protection against COVID-19 infection generally wanes within several months in all age groups. But experts disagree on whether frequent boosters, especially for younger people, can do anything about that. Two or three vaccinations protect most people from serious disease but do relatively little to prevent infection, which is generally mild or asymptomatic, after three or four months.
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What Is The Difference Between The First And Second Dose Of The Covid
In the United States, the ingredients in the vial for dose 1 and dose 2 of the same brand are exactly the same. When people talk about dose 1 doses and dose 2 doses, they are just talking about vaccine supply. If you arrive for dose 1 and the person behind you is getting dose 2, they can come out of the same vial.
One vaccine used in some other countries, Sputnik V, has different components in dose 1 and dose 2. Both are adenovirus vector vaccines, but dose 1 uses adenovirus 26 and dose 2 uses adenovirus 5 .
Where Can I Get The Vaccine
COVID-19 vaccines are generally widely available. As such, we recommend checking for vaccine at your providers office, local pharmacies, healthcare facilities, mass vaccination sites or mobile clinics. For children 5 to 11 years of age, we recommend contacting facilities in advance to ensure that they are vaccinating that age group.
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Arriving Without An Accepted Covid
- If a Canadian citizen, person registered under the Indian Act, or permanent resident does not provide proof of a valid molecular test result they:
- will be allowed entry, but may be subject to a fine of up to $5,000 plus additional surcharges or face criminal prosecution
- may also be required to go to a designated quarantine facility if they are symptomatic on arrival at the border and do not have a suitable quarantine plan
- How to isolate upon returning to Canada
Foreign nationals without a valid negative pre-entry COVID-19 molecular test result, proof of a previous positive test result or who have symptoms of COVID-19 be denied entry into Canada.
Canadians or individuals who have right of entry, qualify as fully vaccinated travellers and who depart and re-enter Canada within 72 hours of leaving, wont have to provide a pre-entry molecular test result. This will also apply to their accompanying children under 12, regardless of whether or not the children are vaccinated.
All travellers arriving in Canada are required by Canadian law to respond truthfully to all questions. Providing false information to a Government of Canada official upon entry to Canada is a serious offence and may result in penalties and/or criminal charges. Foreign nationals who provide false information could also be denied entry to the country and/or be barred from returning to Canada.
To be ready for your trip, create your free ArriveCAN account
Locate the proof you’ll need to upload
The proof you use:
Will People Really Need A Yearly Covid Booster Vaccine
As the number of people fully immunized against COVID-19 rises into the hundreds of millions, immunologists and infectious disease experts now are pondering a new question in the unfolding pandemic.
Namely, how long will vaccine immunity last, and will people who’ve gotten the jab need booster shots to maintain their protection?
It’s an important question, as waning immunity in the face of more powerful COVID-19 variants could cause future infection surges and, in worst-case scenarios, a full-blown return of quarantines and lockdowns, experts say.
A person’s immunity always drops to some degree following immunization or natural infection, said Dr. Greg Poland, director of the Vaccine Research Group at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.
But will your immunity against COVID fade quickly, as it does with the flu or the common cold, or will it last longer as it does in diseases like measles or whooping cough?
“Antibody levels fall over time. That is true for every single vaccine that we give,” Poland said. “We’ve never immunized against coronaviruses before, so that question is really open-ended.”
People’s immunity against seasonal coronavirusesthose that cause the common coldfades quickly. That’s why you can catch a cold again and again.
But the vaccines developed against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID, appear to be creating high levels of antibodies that protect even as they wane.
Offit made a similar point.
It’s simply too soon to tell, experts say.
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Questions And Answers About Covid
On this page, you will find answers to some of the most common questions people are asking about COVID-19 disease and vaccines. Just click on the question of interest and the answer will appear below it.
Can’t find what you’re looking for?
You can also find information related to COVID-19 in these additional resources:
- Printable Q& A, “COVID-19 vaccines: What you should know” English | Spanish | Japanese
- Animations: How COVID-19 Viral Vector Vaccines Work and How mRNA Vaccines Work.
- Myths and misinformation surrounding COVID-19 vaccines webinar The recording is free to view. Healthcare workers interested in free continuing education credits can get more information on this page of our website.)
Should I Get It Right Away Or Wait
There’s no clear-cut answer on whether those eligible for a second booster need to rush out for one. Dr. Peter Marks, director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, told reporters Tuesday he would advise older relatives to get another booster right away “because of the higher level of protection.”
“COVID-19 has had a really disproportionate impact on people 65 and older,” he said. “One in 100 are not with us today who were with us before the pandemic because of COVID-19.”
It might make sense to plan a booster shot for late summer so it reaches maximum efficacy in the fall, when cases of COVID tend to rise.
But vaccine efficacy wanes over time, so getting a booster now means you won’t have maximum protection in six or seven months. A BA.2 variant, dubbed “stealth omicron,” is now the leading strain in the US, but how serious it will become — and how quickly — remains to be seen.
Dr. Monica Gandhi, an infectious disease expert and professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, said it might make sense to plan your booster around respiratory pathogen season in the fall, when cases of COVID tend to go up.
“I’d rather my parents get the booster in late summer, so they’re fully protected in the fall,” Gandhi told CNET.
Dr. Eric Topol, a professor of molecular medicine at Scripps Research, says there are many factors to consider when scheduling your next booster.
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