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Updated on September 27, 2022 7:56 am
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Updated on September 27, 2022 7:56 am
All countries
Updated on September 27, 2022 7:56 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on September 27, 2022 7:56 am
All countries
Updated on September 27, 2022 7:56 am
All countries
Updated on September 27, 2022 7:56 am
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Does Melatonin Help With Covid

Do Vitamin D Zinc And Other Supplements Help Prevent Covid

In-Depth: Studies suggest melatonin helps COVID patients recover

The appeal of safe, natural treatments is undeniable. Its true for age-old conditions such as the common cold, and for new diseases, especially if they have no known cure. So it makes sense that there would be a lot of interest in supplements for COVID-19, whether as prevention or treatment.

Indeed, zinc, melatonin, vitamin C, vitamin D, and other supplements have been commonly prescribed from the earliest days of the pandemic.

But do they work?

The Surprising Way Melatonin May Block Covid

Covid-19, Health News, Melatonin

We recently wrote about how melatonin is being considered as a possible treatment for COVID-19. The Cleveland Clinic-led study cited in that article showed using melatonin led to a 30 percent reduced likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. However, at that time the researchers could only theorize as to why melatonin may have that effect.

A more recent study has shed light on why some people are not infected with SARS-CoV-2 or have no symptoms of COVID-19 even when testing positive for the virus and the reason is directly connected to melatonin

How Melatonin Prevents Sepsis

This isnt the first time melatonin has been highlighted for its ability to prevent and treat sepsis. A 2010 paper27 in The Journal of Critical Care noted that melatonin helps prevent and reverse septic shock symptoms by:28

  • Preventing lipopolysaccharide -induced oxidative damage, endotoxemia and metabolic alterations
  • Suppressing gene expression of the bad form of nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase
  • Preventing apoptosis

Similarly, a 2014 study29 in the Journal of Pineal Research pointed out that melatonin accumulates in mitochondria, and has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that could be useful in the treatment of sepsis.

This was a Phase 1 dose escalation study in healthy volunteers to evaluate the tolerability and health effects of melatonin at various dosages. They also assessed the effect of melatonin in an ex vivo whole blood model mimicking sepsis.

No adverse effects were reported for dosages ranging from 20 mg to 100 mg, and the blood model testing revealed melatonin and its metabolite 6-hydroxymelatonin had beneficial effects on sepsis-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cytokine responses The authors further explained:30

In rat models of sepsis, melatonin reduces oxidative damage and organ dysfunction and also decreases mortality.

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Still A Lot Of Work To Do

Thats not to say this association between melatonin, which you can buy over-the-counter at any pharmacy, and COVID-19 is a sure thing. Nor does it mean you should up your melatonin intake immediately. Theres still a lot of research left to do.

Says Dr. Cheng, Its important to note that this doesnt mean people should start taking melatonin without first consulting with their health care provider. Were excited about these results and to study that connection more, but large-scale observational studies and randomized controlled trials are essential to confirm what weve found here.

Would Melatonin Prove To Be Beneficial For Covid


Viral infection with SARS-CoV-2 can cause severe inflammatory responses and oxidative stress the use of melatonin may be able to attenuate some of these reactions. SARS-CoV-2 enters the alveolar epithelial cells via ACE2, facilitated by the S1 and S2 subunits of the spike protein on the virus.36 S1 allows attachment to ACE2, whereas S2 mediates the fusion of the virus to the cell membrane.37 Calmodulin regulates the surface expression and retention of ACE2 in the plasma membrane. Melatonin indirectly inhibits coupling of ACE2 with SARS-CoV-2 during viral particle fusion through its inhibition of calmodulin.38 Viral RNA released into the cytosol results in translation of the viral genome and production of new viral particles. Cleavage of the viral polyproteins is facilitated by the main SARS-CoV-2 protease, known as chymotrypsin-like protease, which is inhibited by melatonin.38

The combination of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of melatonin provides a possible treatment for SARS-CoV-2 due to its effects on all stages of its life cycle including cell entry, viral replication, and deleterious downstream signaling cascades, as shown in the Figure. Melatonin is evidenced to intervene at each level to support the hosts immune system and suppress a harmful overreaction.

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Melatonin Zinc And Vitamin C: Potential Adjuvant Treatment For Covid

  • Interdisciplinary Program of Health Sciences, Cruzeiro Do Sul University, São Paulo, Brazil

The use of nutraceutical approaches may regulate the immune system, performing a potential strategy to contain the worst outcomes of COVID-19. We reviewed the current evidence surrounding nutritional/nutraceutical approaches for the therapy in patients with COVID-19. We searched the PubMed database to report randomized controlled trials and observational research that used melatonin, zinc, or vitamin C supplementation as an intervention for COVID-19 treatment. To date, we found only three concluded studies that assessed zinc supplementation and melatonin therapy in patients with COVID-19, but with inconclusive data, relatively small sample size, and early termination of the trial. On the other hand, vitamin C therapy appears to reduce hyperinflammation and improve the oxygen support status of patients with COVID-19. However, a large part of this research involves pilot trials, and there are still conflicting data regarding mortality rate, mechanical ventilation, and duration of symptoms of patients with COVID-19. Melatonin, zinc, and vitamin C supplementation should be investigated further on the nutritional status-immune response, and data from ongoing trials are needed to understand these molecules as a therapy strategy in patients COVID-19.

Analyzing Genes And Lung Melatonin Production

To test their theory, the researchers selected genes involved in viral cell entry, intracellular traffic, mitochondrial activity and transcription and post-translation processes to create a physiological signature of COVID-19. Next, they used RNA sequencing data to quantify the level of expression of the COVID-19 signature genes in 288 samples from healthy human lungs.

They then correlated these gene expression levels with a gene index that estimates lung melatonin synthesis capacity based on their analysis of lungs in healthy rodents. What they found was a low index reading correlated with a high level of expression of genes that encode proteins for resident macrophages and epithelial cells.

The index also negatively correlates with genes that modify proteins in cell receptor CD147, a viral entry point in immune cells like macrophages. This indicates that normal lung melatonin production may naturally protect against SARS-CoV-2.

We found that when MEL-Index was high the entry points for the virus in the lungs were closed, and when it was low these doors were open, Markus says. When the doors are shut, the virus wanders around for a time in the pulmonary airspace and then tries to escape in search of another host.

Besides potentially using direct application of melatonin to the lungs to stop SARS-CoV-2, another idea could be to use the MEL-Index as a predictive biomarker to detect asymptomatic carriers of the virus.

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Can Melatonin Disrupt The Virus Pathology

One of the most dangerous aspects of this novel coronavirus is its newness. We have never experienced this virus before and thus have to start from scratch when looking at treatment options.

Thankfully many new studies are rapidly arising to answer this question. One such study was recently published one from the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences looking at melatonin as a potential adjuvant treatment.

Typically, the SARS-CoV-2 pathology causes excess inflammation, oxidation, and immune responsiveness through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. This results in an abundance of cytokines in the body including IL-1B and IL-18 due to upregulation of NF-kB.

Normally, cytokines in small amounts are helpful with fighting off infections, but in abundance, these proteins can cause harm to the body. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, this cytokine storm can progress into acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress.

You may recognize melatonin as the hormone that helps us fall asleep, but researchers have found evidence to suggest that it may also help disrupt the pathology of SARS-CoV-2 and put a stop to it before it causes damage to the lungs and health of a patient.

Furthermore, melatonin has been shown to be extremely safe as a treatment, with few adverse side-effects even at higher doses.

A Texas Physician Claims He Treated Hundreds Of Covid

In-Depth: Melatonin helps people with severe COVID recover. How about long haulers?

The long list of potential COVID-19 treatments that researchers have suggested has one more addition: melatonin. A Texas doctor claims that he has treated 400 COVID-19 patients with the hormone, with few individuals developing severe enough cases to require hospitalization.

The announcement comes with no study to discern whether the supplement aided recovery or if this is just a coincidence, as a majority of COVID-10 cases don’t need hospitalization. The treatment appears to have provided vitamin C and vitamin D to patients as well. Neither vitamin qualifies as a verified and scientifically backed SARS-CoV-2 treatment, but their inclusion means that even if patient success was due to these supplements, the melatonin might not be the only factor.

Vague success claims aside, a handful of others have written about the possible ways melatonin might reduce the severity of a SARS-CoV-2 infection, and there’s currently a clinical trial running in the U.S. to examine this possibility. However, at this time, early SARS-CoV-2 intervention with melatonin is not well supported, says Cesar Borlongan, a neurologist at the University of South Florida. Much more rigorous research is needed to determine whether the molecule can do more than regulate sleep-wake cycles.

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Dr Oz Bought Thousands Of Doses Of Hydroxychloroquine During Pandemic

Melatonin, a dietary supplement often used by insomnia sufferers, could be used to possibly help prevent or treat COVID-19, according to researchers at the Cleveland Clinic.

The hormone which regulates the sleep-wake cycle was associated with an almost 30 percent reduced likelihood of contracting the disease, the scientists said in research published in the journal PLOS Biology, KIRO 7 reported.

Additional studies are required about the over-the-counter supplement, the researchers said.

It is very important to note these findings do not suggest people should start to take melatonin without consulting their physician, lead researcher Feixiong Cheng of the Cleveland Clinics Genomic Medicine Institute said in a statement, WebMD reported.

Large-scale observational studies and randomized controlled trials are critical to validate the clinical benefit of melatonin for patients with COVID-19, he added. But we are excited about the associations put forth in this study and the opportunity to further explore them.

Cheng and his team used artificial intelligence to sift through a COVID-19 registry of nearly 27,000 people at the hospital. They found that people who take melatonin are nearly 28 percent less likely to test positive.The difference is even more significant among blacks.

Importantly, melatonin usage is associated with a 52 percent reduced likelihood of a positive laboratory test result for SARS-CoV-2 in African Americans, the study said.

Studies Show Melatonin May Help Fight Coronavirus

Its nothing new to have an illness or viral scare, however, when epidemics grow to become pandemics such as the novel coronavirus, also known as COVID-19, cause for concern rises and preventative measures increase worldwide.

Although the current COVID-19 pandemic will cause only mild illness in most individuals infected, both the fast-spreading and growing global death toll of this disease are causing fear and mandated lockdowns in many communities worldwide. As the global medical research community focuses its efforts on finding effective treatments and a vaccine for this virus, the research cannot come soon enough, as most of the treatments in development will not be available to help those who are currently infected.

However, several studies suggest that existing drugs or supplements, such as melatonin, may provide promising results for infections such as COVID-19, leading some professionals to wonder if doctors will soon be prescribing melatonin for coronavirus and other serious viruses in the future.

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Studies Show The Effectiveness Of Melatonin In Viral Diseases

Still, the fact that melatonin can be used effectively to treat COVID-19 has been confirmed by many scientists in various studies. The study, Can Melatonin Be a Potential Silver Bullet in Treating COVID-19 Patients? underscores the potential of melatonin in combating SARS-CoV-2 infection due to its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In addition, melatonin can be an adjuvant, as it may increase the effectiveness of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

In addition, research supports the use of melatonin in both prophylaxis and therapy for COVID-19 in at-risk patients, particularly given its high safety. Other studies show that melatonin reduces vascular permeability and anxiety in intensive care patients while improving sleep quality, which may have a beneficial effect on how COVID-19 progresses.

Scientists specializing in melatonin research recommend taking 3 mg at least three times a day , preferably spread throughout the day, as a precaution and to protect against infection. If you have been infected, the recommended dose is 15 to 24 mg per day. Melatonin also augments the immune system after vaccination to improve its response.

Melatonin Has Many Mechanisms Of Action

Why kids are struggling to sleep during the coronavirus ...

When it comes to viral infections, melatonin doesnt actually target the virus itself. It primarily aids the host, lowering the overreaction of the host cells to the pathogen, thereby raising the hosts tolerance to the virus. As explained in the featured Melatonin Research commentary,31 This tolerance allows the host sufficient time to develop the adaptive immune response and finally eradicate the invading pathogens.

Part of melatonins benefit against COVID may also have to do with the fact that it enhances vitamin D signaling34 and, together, melatonin and vitamin D synergistically enhance your mitochondrial function. In fact, your mitochondria are the final common targets for both.35

Ive written many articles detailing the importance of vitamin D optimization to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and more serious COVID-19 illness. The evidence for this is frankly overwhelming, and raising vitamin D levels among the general population may be one of the most important prevention strategies available to us. To learn more, download my vitamin D report, available for free on Melatonin may also combat SARS-CoV-2 infection by:36

Show more

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Melatonin Is An Integral Part Of Front Line Protocol

Early in 2020, the Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance 45 developed preventive, outpatient treatment and inpatient protocols46 based on the insights of the founding critical care doctors. Dr. Paul Marik,47 a critical care doctor known for his life-saving vitamin C sepsis protocol,48 is one of those doctors.

This was followed by a paper published in the Frontiers in Medicine in May 2020,50 in which he and a team of scientists presented a therapeutic algorithm for melatonin in the treatment of COVID-19 specifically. Melatonins multiple actions as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral make it a reasonable choice for use, they wrote.

Based on its known mechanisms of action, the FLCCC has included melatonin in its early treatment and hospital treatment protocols from the start. You can .51

As a supportive therapy, the FLCCC recommends taking 6 mg before bed if youre treating early or mild symptomatic COVID-19. The hospital treatment protocol calls for anywhere from 6 mg to 12 mg of melatonin at night, until discharge.

For patients treating long-haul COVID-19 syndrome , they recommend taking between 2 mg and 12 mg nightly. Begin with a low dose and work your way up as tolerated. If your sleep is disturbed, lower your dose.

Why Supplements Might Help Prevent Or Treat Covid

While science can show whether a drug is effective, we may not always know why. When antibiotics were first discovered in the 1920s, there was limited understanding of the biology involved. But lacking an explanation for their benefit did not discourage doctors from recommending these highly effective treatments.

If its less clear whether a drug works, biologic plausibility that is, a logical and well-understood reason why the drug should work increases the expectation that it might.

So, what suggests that vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, and melatonin might help work against any virus?

  • Vitamin C is an antioxidant that has long been promoted as a key player in healthy immune function.
  • Zinc may have antiviral activity, whether by improving immune cell function that counters viral infections or by reducing the ability of viruses to multiply.
  • Some evidence suggests that combining vitamin C and zinc may limit the duration and severity of cold symptoms.

The cases for vitamin D and melatonin differ. While there is also evidence that vitamin D and melatonin may have positive effects on immune function, a specific antiviral effect remains unproven.

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How Melatonin May Combat Covid

Melatonin may actually have a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2, specifically increasing the tolerance of the body to the virus, Cheng explains.

Still, Cheng says, this isnt definite. There are many possible mechanisms of melatonin in treating COVID-19, and our group is actively investigating it using cell-based and pre-clinical models, he says.

Overall, Cheng says, the effectiveness of melatonin in COVID-19 patients has to be determined by randomized controlled trials. We hope we will receive some good news from ongoing trials, yet our large-scale patient data analysis and network medicine findings support the potential of possible treatment of melatonin in COVID-19 patients, he says. Importantly, the cost of melatonin is much lower than other drugs under ongoing COVID-19 trials, which will be great to fight the pandemic by accessibility to the general population.

There are currently seven ongoing trials to test melatonin as a possible treatment for COVID-19, Cheng says.

The information in this article is current as of the date listed, which means newer information may be available when you read this. For the most recent updates on COVID-19, visit our coronavirus news page.

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