Global Statistics

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Updated on September 24, 2022 8:57 pm
All countries
Updated on September 24, 2022 8:57 pm
All countries
Updated on September 24, 2022 8:57 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on September 24, 2022 8:57 pm
All countries
Updated on September 24, 2022 8:57 pm
All countries
Updated on September 24, 2022 8:57 pm
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Does The Covid Vaccine Shed

Can Pregnant Women Get The Covid

Do COVID vaccines shed the virus, cause variants?

Pregnant women were not included in the early COVID-19 vaccine studies, but some participants were either pregnant and did not know it or became pregnant during the course of the study. Likewise, tens of thousands of pregnant women have been immunized since the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines became available, and many of them are also being monitored through the CDCs V-safe program.

With data from thousands of these women now in hand, no concerns have been identified and the vaccine works. While pregnant women and their babies will continue to be monitored, the CDC recently changed its statement about COVID-19 vaccines for pregnant women to more clearly recommend these vaccines for pregnant women.

Two factors, in addition to the vaccine data, were important for informing vaccine recommendations for pregnant women:

  • First, some pregnant women are at high risk for COVID-19 because of their jobs, such as healthcare workers, or existing health conditions.
  • Second, pregnant women are more likely to be hospitalized and be admitted to the intensive care unit with COVID-19 than women of the same age who were infected but werent pregnant.

All pregnant women should keep these two important points in mind:

  • Pregnant women who get the COVID-19 vaccine should take acetaminophen if they develop a fever after vaccination, as fever during pregnancy can negatively affect a developing baby. Taking acetaminophen during pregnancy has been found to be safe.
  • How Do We Know The Virus In The Sample Is Infectious

    To test for SARS-CoV-2, the scientists employed a measurement called threshold cycle that uses glowing dyes to reveal the quantity of viral RNA in the nose.

    SARS-CoV-2 virus infects nose and upper airway. It is very difficult to get a very high level of antibodies for long periods of time in that area. The immune system is not really designed to put high levels of antibodies at those sites, Gupta says.

    Ct values correlate with the viral load, which is the number of viral particles present in the body. When the quantity of virus passes a certain threshold, researchers expect an infected person to shed SARS-CoV-2 and potentially infect others. The Wisconsin study analyzed the nasal swabs from 719 cases of unvaccinated and fully vaccinated people who had all tested positive and found that 68 percent of the studied breakthrough patients had very high viral loads. High viral load is a sign that the virus is replicating, Gupta says.

    To discover whether the nasal swabs had infectious virus, the Wisconsin researchers grew virus from 55 patient samples in special cells prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Grandes team detected infectious virus in nearly everyone: from 88 percent of unvaccinated individuals and 95 percent of vaccinated people.

    We put the samples onto cells, and the cells died when they got infected. And so that clearly demonstrates that there is virus there, and that it’s infectious, Riemersma explains.

    What Is The Difference Between The First And Second Dose Of The Covid

    In the United States, the ingredients in the vial for dose 1 and dose 2 of the same brand are exactly the same. When people talk about dose 1 doses and dose 2 doses, they are just talking about vaccine supply. If you arrive for dose 1 and the person behind you is getting dose 2, they can come out of the same vial.

    One vaccine used in some other countries, Sputnik V, has different components in dose 1 and dose 2. Both are adenovirus vector vaccines, but dose 1 uses adenovirus 26 and dose 2 uses adenovirus 5 .

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    Live Virus Vs Protein

    The distinction between a vaccine using a live virus and a vaccine that uses a harmless part of a virus, such as a protein, to trigger an immune response is important, Offit said.

    Vaccines using a part of a virus to start a response, such as the spike protein produced by both the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna mRNA vaccines, cannot lead to the virus reproducing and shedding. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is a viral vector vaccine. It uses a harmless adenovirus, modified so that it cant replicate, to deliver instructions to cells to produce the spike protein, so the vaccine cant lead to shedding either. But vaccines using a live virus can replicate and shed.

    Offit said an example of a vaccine that sheds or creates whats calledcontact immunity is the oral polio vaccine, which is no longer in use in the U.S. In that case, Offit said, people are given virus strains through the mouth the virus then reproduces in the intestine and is shedded in the feces. Unvaccinated people pick up the virus from the vaccine mostly by touching things a vaccinated person had touched, especially if that person didnt adequately wash their hands.

    Micaela Martinez, an infectious disease ecologist at Columbia University who has studied the history of polio, said indirect vaccination is usually a good thing. It has been a really great thing for eradication initiatives, she said, and its usually not harmful because it uses an attenuated virus, with very little or no capability to cause disease.

    How Do Adenovirus Vector Vaccines Work


    Adenovirus vector vaccines take advantage of a class of relatively harmless viruses, called adenoviruses. Some adenoviruses cause the common cold, but others can infect people without causing illness. To use these viruses for vaccine delivery, scientists choose types of adenovirus that do not cause illness and to which most people have not been exposed. They alter the virus by removing two of the genes that enable adenovirus to replicate in people, and they replace one of those genes with the one for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

    Find out more about adenovirus vaccines in this Vaccine Update article, Getting Familiar with COVID-19 Adenovirus-replication-deficient Vaccines.

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    No Evidence To Suggest Covid Vaccines Shed

    In summary, it is true that viral shedding can occur when an infected individual spreads viral particles via the nose and mouth, transmitting the virus to uninfected people. It is also true live attenuated vaccines can case vaccine shedding. However, there is no evidence to suggest that either of the two forms of COVID-19 vaccines, mRNA and viral vector vaccines, can cause viral or vaccine shedding that would result in infecting unvaccinated individuals.

    For more coverage on Snopes coverage related to COVID-19 vaccine misinformation:

    What Do You Know About The Halt On The J& j Vaccine

    Federal health officials recommended a pause on the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine after six women developed blood clots in their brain up to 3 weeks after their vaccine. The blood clots in the brain are called cerebral venous sinus thrombosis . While a few of these women had an underlying health condition, no pattern of pre-existing conditions emerged. These cases are similar to those caused in European countries by the AstraZeneca vaccine, which is not currently used in the United States. The J& J and AZ vaccines are similar in that both use an adenovirus vector to induce immunity to the SARS-C0V-2 surface protein, but they use different adenovirus vectors. The J& J vaccine uses a human adenovirus, and the AZ version uses a chimp adenovirus.

    The pause was recommended for three reasons:

    • First, the FDA and CDC needed time to review these cases and collect as much information as they could to figure out what was happening.
    • Second, they needed to update healthcare providers across the country on what to watch for in their patients. In this way, physicians can properly diagnose and treat the condition. This condition is very rare and treating it with blood thinners could make this situation worse.
    • Third, the pause allowed for the public to quickly become aware of the potential side effect, so that people who got the vaccine and those around them would be more likely to recognize the need to seek medical attention if they experience symptoms.

    Also Check: How Much Are Cvs Covid Tests

    What Is Viral Shedding

    Even though viruses can cause a lot of damage, they are typically very simple organisms. They often contain only a few proteins and either DNA or RNA, known generally as nucleic acids. The nucleic acids are instructions for making more viruses. But even with these instructions, viruses do not have everything they need to reproduce. In order to survive, viruses must infect another organism, such as a person. Once inside the organism, the virus must gain access to a cell, which has the necessary machinery and building blocks to make more viruses. By taking over the cell, the virus is able to redirect the cells activity for its own benefit making more of itself to survive.

    As viruses are produced in the nose, they may gain entry to other parts of the body, where they can infect more cell types and cause additional symptoms or complications. But these newly formed viral particles can also have a second fate. They can leave the infected person in nasal and oral secretions. Viral shedding refers to this second fate. Because these viruses can go on to infect someone who is exposed to the nasal or oral secretions, viral shedding and the spread of disease are closely intertwined.

    During the COVID-19 pandemic, viral shedding has been discussed in relation to masking and vaccinations.

    What Side Effects Will My Child Experience From The Covid

    Will COVID-19 Vaccines Shed Their Components Into My Body?

    Side effects in children 12 to 15 years of age were similar to what has been found in other age groups, including pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, fever, chills, muscle pain, or joint pain. Likewise, other than injection site pain, side effects were more common after the second dose compared with the first dose. Most side effects were mild or moderate.

    No one in the study experienced an allergic reaction following vaccination, but this age group is not less likely to experience such a reaction therefore, teenagers should remain at the site where the vaccine was given for 15 or 30 minutes based on their risk and history with severe allergic reactions using the same guidance offered for adults.

    Recently, a small number of cases of myocarditis, or heart inflammation, have been identified in teens and young adults, particularly in the 4 days after receipt of the second dose of the vaccine. Chest pain, shortness of breath, or related symptoms should be reported to a healthcare provider, so that teens can be appropriately diagnosed and treated. Find out more in this video.

    Find additional information:

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    What Ingredients Are In The Covid

    The mRNA vaccines include:

    • mRNA This mRNA is for the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
    • Lipids – These are molecules that are not able to dissolve in water. They protect the mRNA, so that it does not break down before it gets into our cells. These can be thought of as little bubbles of fat, which surround the mRNA like a protective wall. There are four different lipids in the Pfizer vaccine and three in the Moderna vaccine. One of the lipids in both vaccines is cholesterol. The lipids are the most likely components of the vaccine to cause allergic reactions.
    • Salts and amines – The Pfizer vaccine contains four salts. One is table salt. The salts are used to keep the pH of the vaccine similar to that found in the body, so that the vaccine does not damage cells when it is administered. The Moderna vaccine also contains four chemicals to balance the pH, but two are in a class of organic compounds known as amines and two are acetic acid and its salt form, sodium acetate. Acetic acid is the main component of vinegar .
    • Sugar This ingredient is literally the same as that which you put in your coffee or on your cereal. It is used in both of the vaccines to help keep the bubbles of fat from sticking to each other or to the sides of the vaccine vial.

    These are the only ingredients in the mRNA vaccines.

    NOT in the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines:

    • Animal Products

    What Is Long Covid

    Long COVID, also known as COVID syndrome or long-term COVID, is a condition characterized by long-lasting symptoms related to previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptoms can last for weeks or months after viral clearance and resolution of the initial infection. Examples of the types of symptoms that affected individuals report include fatigue, difficulty thinking or concentrating , headache, loss of taste or smell, dizziness, heart palpitations, chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, joint or muscle pain, anxiety, depression, or fever. Symptoms sometimes appear or worsen after physical or mental activity. The reasons for or susceptibility to these long-lasting effects remain uncertain but are being studied.

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    Covid Vaccines Dont Contain Live Virus To Shed

    However, none of the COVID vaccines approved for use anywhere around the world so far use live virus.

    Instead, they use other technologies to train our bodies to recognise SARS-CoV-2 and to mount a protective immune response should we ever be exposed to it.

    For instance, the AstraZeneca vaccine is a viral vector vaccine. This uses a modified chimpanzee virus to carry into the body the genetic instructions to produce the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Your body then uses these instructions to make the spike protein, and to raise a protective immune response.

    The Pfizer vaccine is an mRNA vaccine, which contains the genetic material to code for the spike protein. Once inside your cells, your body uses those instructions to make spike protein, again raising a protective immune response.

    Read more:What’s the difference between viral shedding and reinfection with COVID-19?

    COVID vaccines dont give you the disease or give you a positive COVID test. Again, they dont contain live virus. They contain fragments of spike protein or the instructions on how to make it.

    Even if you could shed spike protein after vaccination, that wouldnt be enough to cause an infection. For that you need the entire virus, which the vaccines dont contain.

    And the mRNA in the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines is very short-lived, and is quickly degraded in our cells. Again, the mRNA wouldnt be enough to cause an infection. It would need to be packaged inside a live virus, which our vaccines dont contain.

    How Well Does The Covid


    The clinical trial measured two things to evaluate how the vaccine worked:

  • Disease While 18 participants in the placebo group got COVID-19 at least seven days after having the second dose of the vaccine, none in the vaccinated group were infected. This represents 100% efficacy.
  • Immune response Now that we know what antibody levels adults experience following vaccination, studies can compare the levels in other groups to see if the vaccine works as well. These are often referred to as non-inferiority studies, meaning the vaccine is being tested in the study group to make sure it works at least as it does in another group previously studied. In the Pfizer study, average neutralizing antibody responses were more than 1.5 times higher in 12- to 15-year-olds compared with older children and young adults. While we still do not know if a certain level of virus-neutralizing antibodies indicates that an individual is protected against infection, we can be confident that vaccinated teens respond equally well, if not better than, adults.
  • Recommended Reading: How Much Is Covid Test At Cvs

    Should I Stop Taking My Daily Dose Of Aspirin Before Getting The Covid

    If your daily dose of aspirin was prescribed by your physician following a stroke or heart attack, we recommend speaking to that doctor about whether to stop taking your medication for a day or two prior to vaccination. If, however, your daily dose of aspirin is because you have risk factors for a stroke or heart attack but have never had a stroke or heart attack, you should consider discontinuing the aspirin not only prior to your COVID-19 vaccine, but all together. The data show that while daily aspirin helps prevent second strokes or heart attacks, it does not help prevent first occurrences, even in people who are at increased risk. Our director, Dr. Paul Offit, carefully reviewed the data related to this topic for his book, Overkill: When Modern Medicine Goes Too Far.

    Find out more in this Parents PACK article, “Medications and COVID-19 Vaccines: What You Should Know.”

    What Is Their Function In A Vaccine

    A vaccine works by putting a low dose of a viral component into the body to teach it what to look out for. This builds up immunity. Putting a whole, live virus into the body could cause disease, so smaller components of the virus that dont cause disease are often better to use in vaccines.

    The spike proteins cover the surface of the coronavirus, so they provide a useful feature for the body to quickly identify. If the body can recognise a spike protein, it will fight off the coronavirus faster if it enters the body at a later date.

    Here is an analogy straight from your bathroom: the spike protein is a bit like a toothpaste cap, with the toothpaste inside paralleling the viral genome. We can recognise a toothpaste cap immediately, even if it isnt on the tube.

    Get an update of science stories delivered straight to your inbox.

    Some vaccines will use this whole protein, and others will use mRNA to make the protein once inside the body although the body quickly disposes of the mRNA. In both cases, the spike protein is the only part of the whole virus apparatus that enters the body.

    Once the body observes the spike proteins in the vaccine, it will roll out the antibody army to attack it. This is what causes side-effects such as fever, headache and fatigue.

    However, nobody can catch side-effects from another vaccinated person because an immune response isnt an infectious disease.

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