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Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
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Does Vitamin D Help With Covid

Vitamin D: New Possible Treatment For Covid

Top doctor validates vitamin D as a way to combat coronavirus
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    Active forms of vitamin D were found to inhibit the replication and expansion of COVID-19, revealed new study. The study’s findings also suggest lumisterol, produced by a chemical reaction in the body using light, works to block COVID-19. Vitamin D and lumisterol metabolites were able to block two specific enzymes required for the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle, according to the team of researchers from the University of Alabama at Birmingham the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences in New Delhi, India and the University of Western Australia. The study is published in the American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism and has been chosen as an APSselect article for September.

    Does Having Low Vitamin D Increase Your Risk Of Catching Covid

    Studies have linked low vitamin D levels with hundreds of diseases, including depression, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and even an increased risk of catching respiratory viruses, including influenza.

    âAt least 100 diseases have been associated with low vitamin D levels because if youâre sick and you have a chronic disease, or a severe acute disease, your levels go down,â says Tim.

    Several studies have linked low vitamin D levels to an increased likelihood of catching COVID and suffering from severe symptoms during the pandemic. However, a recent review of all the scientific evidence for associations between vitamin D levels and COVID susceptibility and severity concluded that there was very low-quality evidence for a link.

    Although John acknowledges the limitations of observational studies, which can spot correlations but canât prove that one thing causes another, he points out that many relationships that are now widely accepted, such as smoking causing lung cancer, were first identified in observational studies.

    The Link Between Vitamin D Inflammation And Covid

    Almost two years into the pandemic now and researchers are all still learning what can be done to stack the odds against COVID-19 or reduce the severity of the disease if we do end up with the virus.

    Quite a bit of research has stacked up, including:

    And of course, theres been no shortage of recommendations to increase vitamin D levels.

    Now researchers are looking into an active metabolite of vitamin D that may help shut down dangerous levels of inflammation seen in patients with severe COVID-19.

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    Can Vitamin D Help Protect Against Covid

    Some studies suggest an impact, particularly for those who are vitamin-deficient. But for now, the jury is out

    From the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers examining the question of why some people were better protected from the infection than others began to look at a possible role for vitamin D. The nutrient, which is obtained from food and exposure to sunlight, is known to contribute to a well-functioning immune system in a variety of ways, including defending the body from invading viruses and other pathogens. Vitamin D is cheap, easily available and relatively safe, says genetic epidemiologist Fotios Drenos of Brunel University London. Investigating whether the vitamin could make a difference in COVID patients was an important question to ask, he says.

    Researchers already knew that vitamin D can be helpful in staving off respiratory infections. A 2017 meta-analysis of 25 randomized controlled trials involving about 11,000 people concluded that giving daily or weekly vitamin D supplements reduced the risk of acute respiratory infectionswith the strongest impact predictably falling on those who started off with a serious deficiency of the vitamin. That meta-analysis, led by Adrian Martineau of Queen Mary University of London, was with data from a total of 46 trials and 75,500 participants. Martineaus team confirmed its earlier finding but determined that the impact of the supplements appears to be quite small.

    Do Vitamin D Zinc And Other Supplements Help Prevent Covid

    Does vitamin D combat Covid? : Coronavirus

    The appeal of safe, natural treatments is undeniable. Its true for age-old conditions such as the common cold, and for new diseases, especially if they have no known cure. So it makes sense that there would be a lot of interest in supplements for COVID-19, whether as prevention or treatment.

    Indeed, zinc, melatonin, vitamin C, vitamin D, and other supplements have been commonly prescribed from the earliest days of the pandemic.

    But do they work?

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    Less Mystery More Biochemistry

    Vitamin C is not just a nice-to-have that is mainly important for the old, the sick and vegans. On the contrary, its biochemical functions are the same and equally important in every body. Vitamin C is one of the micronutrients that, although they do not provide the body with energy, are essential for its basic functions. These include cell metabolism and our defense system.

    Vitamin C: Good for the immune system and for fighting infections

    Vitamin D In Innate Immunity

    One aspect of innate immunity influenced by calcitriol is the enhancement of phagocytotic activity of macrophages. Macrophages and monocytes use Toll-like receptors to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns on infectious agents, and in turn, phagocytose these agents in what is known as the first line of defence. Calcitriol has been shown to enhance the antimicrobial capabilities of these innate immune cells.

    Immune signalling such as those of IFN, STAT-1, lipopolysaccharide and TLRs increases expression of 1 hydroxylase in monocytes. 1 hydroxylase catalyses the formation of 1,252D3, which has been shown to stimulate monocyte differentiation, with cells looking phenotypically like macrophages following 1,252D3 exposure . In macrophages, stimulation with 1,252D3 has an anti-inflammatory effect by increasing IL-10 production and decreasing pro-inflammatory markers such as TNF, IL-1, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 , by means of the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase pathway .

    In addition, while TLR activation results in increased expression of the VDR, 1,252D3 is able to downregulate the expression of miRNA155, which when expressed, reduces anti-inflammatory gene expression . Studies have also shown that the ligand-bound VDR is able to modulate the epigenome of immune cells, monocytes in particular .

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    Limitations And Future Directions

    In addition, it is important to acknowledge data limitations in observational studies. There are numerous reasons for the conclusions drawn from analysis of the dataset not being representative, and thus not being applicable. These include insufficient power, having a sample that is not representative of the population, the potential for false positives or negatives, or even unique circumstances that were overlooked and not accounted for in the multivariate analysis.

    What About Children Babies And Pregnant Women

    Explained: Does Vitamin D protect against coronavirus disease?

    The advice is:

    • breastfed babies from birth to one year old should be given a daily supplement of 8.5 to 10 micrograms of vitamin D to make sure they get enough
    • formula-fed babies should not be given a supplement until they are having less than 500ml of infant formula a day, because formula contains vitamin D
    • children aged one to four should be given a daily supplement of 10 micrograms

    The dose for adults applies to pregnant and breastfeeding women. A higher dose may be recommended for pregnant women with dark skin or with high-risk pregnancies.

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    Evasion Of Immune System

    In order to survive within the host cells, coronavirus adopts multiple strategies to avoid immune sensing. Similar mechanisms of evasion can be postulated and adopted to SARS-CoV-2 which has little reported information as of yet. Any microbial agent possesses pathogen-associated molecular patterns that can be recognized by pattern recognition receptors within the host cells to control its invasion. Accordingly, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV enhance the production of double membrane vesicles within which they can replicate, thereby avoiding the host detection of their dsRNA.157 In addition, similar to SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 can inhibit the production of INF classes in the infected bronchial cells lines culture.158 This cellular cultures result is consistent with the finding of a clinical study that revealed that patients with severe COVID-19 had demonstrated a marked decrease in IFN-I compared with patients with mild or moderate disease.159 These findings have supported the proposal that vitamin D3 may be of great benefit to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection.159

    Whats The Evidence That Supplements Are Helpful For Covid

    Though COVID-19 is a new illness, a few clinical trials have explored the possibility that supplements may be effective. And, unfortunately, most of the evidence is unconvincing.

    For example, a few observational studies link lower blood vitamin levels with a higher risk of testing positive for the virus that causes COVID-19 . But studies like these cannot prove that vitamin D protects people against infection. Further, a randomized controlled study of people with moderate to severe COVID-19 who received a high dose of vitamin D showed no benefit.

    Similarly, a 2021 study of zinc and vitamin C demonstrated no benefit for people with mild COVID-19. In this study, people whose symptoms did not require hospital admission were randomly assigned to receive

    • only vitamin C, 8,000 mg/day
    • only zinc, 50 mg/day
    • both supplements at the doses above
    • neither supplement.

    The researchers found that people receiving the supplements, whether individually or combined, had no improvement in symptoms or a faster recovery when compared with otherwise similar patients receiving neither supplement.

    Proponents of melatonin for COVID-19 have encouraged researchers to perform trials of this supplement, but so far convincing evidence of benefit is not yet available.

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    Why Is Everyone Talking About Vitamin D All Of A Sudden

    If youve been paying attention to the headlines lately, youve probably seen that vitamin D deficiency has been linked to COVID-19 infections and fatalities. New research has suggested that the rate of infection and deaths appeared to be much higher in areas where people had lower amounts of vitamin D in their systems. This finding was especially significant in Europe.

    Researchers discovered that southern European countries like Italy and Spain had more COVID-19-related cases and deaths than northern European countries. How does vitamin D absorption factor in when it comes to these two regions?

    People in northern Europe tend to consume more sources of vitamin D, like supplements and cod liver oil. In southern Europe, many people have darker complexions. When you have more melanin or pigmentation in your skin, its much harder for the body to convert sunshine into vitamin D. And as we know, sun exposure is one way that we can get it.

    Some of the studies floating around right now are still being reviewed, so dont buy all the vitamin D supplements you can find and please dont start guzzling cod liver oil. Keep reading to find out why its important to weigh all of the evidence and talk to your doctor before doing anything.

    Literature Search And Study Selection


    Two authors independently searched several databases using the following groups of keywords with no language restrictions up to June 5th, 2021,: 2019-novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, 2019-nCoV, vitamin D, death, severe and ICU. The details of the search strategy are described in Supplemental Table . We also searched the reference lists of relevant publications to identify further studies. The following inclusion criteria were used: 1) human studies that were published as original articles 2) reports designed as cohorts with estimated effects and 95% confidence interval results that reported the association between vitamin D, COVID-19 risk, and death and 3) clinical trials that assessed vitamin D supplementation on clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Case-control, cross-sectional were excluded. When multiple papers reporting on the same study were identified, the most informative or complete article was included.

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    What Is The Advice

    With more people staying indoors during the pandemic, some may have been deprived of vitamin D.

    Normally, many of us get it by spending time outside. Our skin makes it when exposed to the sun.

    The NHS says people should consider taking 10 micrograms of vitamin D a day if they are spending a lot of time indoors.

    Scottish and Welsh governments and Northern Ireland’s Public Health Agency issued similar advice during lockdown.

    Before the pandemic, people in the UK were already advised to consider taking supplements from October to March.

    Public Health England recommends vitamin D throughout the year if:

    • you are not often outdoors
    • you live in a care home
    • you usually wear clothes that cover up most of your skin when outside

    People with dark skin may also not be getting enough, even if they spend time outdoors, and should consider an all-year-round supplement.

    There is evidence that black, Asian and minority ethnic people have a higher risk of getting seriously ill with coronavirus.

    Vitamin D3 And Immune Responses

    During antigen presentation, monocytes and macrophages elicit an appropriate adaptive immune response which after sequence of events recruit and activate T and B-cells that perform varied functions pertaining to immune response. For example, activation of dendritic cells during airway breach due to contraction of a certain virus is followed by the triggering of production of specific antibodies for antigen elimination and cytokine secretion which aids in killing of infected cells by T-cells . The type of immune response depends upon the type of antigen as well as the specific type of T-cells activated due to antigen presentation. Factors like 1,252D3 can influence this process by exerting an anti-inflammatory and inhibitory effects on adaptive immune system. Previous studies have indicated the increased expression of CYP27B1, rate limiting enzyme of 25D3 hydroxylation to 1,252D3, on activation and maturation of dendritic cells . Other studies also have reported the induction in expression of Treg cells in dendritic cells on treatment with 1,252D3 .

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    Does Vitamin D Combat Covid

    Its cheap, widely available and might help us fend off the virus. So should we all be dosing up on the sunshine nutrient?

    In March, as coronavirus deaths in the UK began to mount, two hospitals in northeast England began taking vitamin D readings from patients and prescribing them with extremely high doses of the nutrient. Studies had suggested that having sufficient levels of vitamin D, which is created in the skins lower layers through the absorption of sunlight, plays a central role in immune and metabolic function and reduces the risk of certain community-acquired respiratory illnesses. But the conclusions were disputed, and no official guidance existed. When the endocrinology and respiratory units at Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS foundation trust made an informal recommendation to its clinicians to prescribe vitamin D, the decision was considered unusual. Our view was that this treatment is so safe and the crisis is so enormous that we dont have time to debate, said Dr Richard Quinton, a consultant endocrinologist at the Royal Victoria Infirmary in Newcastle.

    Only one patient who received vitamin D required ICU admission, and they were later released

    To Davis, all of this emerging research pointed towards vitamin Ds efficacy, which made the apparent reluctance across the world of governments, philanthropic organisations and the private sector to fund high- quality studies seem curious.

    Hancock was adamant there was no link, but you could see the penny drop

    Why Is It So Difficult To Develop Treatments For Viral Illnesses

    Doctor turned author says Vitamin D can lessen the coronavirus affects

    An antiviral drug must be able to target the specific part of a virus’s life cycle that is necessary for it to reproduce. In addition, an antiviral drug must be able to kill a virus without killing the human cell it occupies. And viruses are highly adaptive. Because they reproduce so rapidly, they have plenty of opportunity to mutate with each new generation, potentially developing resistance to whatever drugs or vaccines we develop.

    In June 2021, the US government announced that it will invest more than $3 billion to develop antiviral medications to treat COVID-19 and to prepare for future pandemic threats. The money will be used to speed up the development and testing of antiviral drugs that are already in clinical trials, and for additional drug discovery with a focus on medications that can be taken by mouth. While COVID-19 vaccines remain central to protection, antiviral medications may be important for people whose bodies do not mount a strong response to the vaccine, who experience breakthrough infections, and for those who are unvaccinated.

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    The Effect Of Low Vitamin D Level On Covid

    The categorical analysis revealed that vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was not associated with an significant increased risk of COVID-19 infection or in-hospital death . When vitamin D level was analyzed as a continuous variable, each 10ng/ml increase in vitamin D level was not associated with a significant decreased risk of COVID-19 inflection or death .

    Comparisons With Previous Studies And Further Research

    In contrast, several meta-analysis studies found a positive correlation between low serum vitamin D levels and worse clinical outcomes . However, they included case-control studies or reported unadjusted estimate effects, which might cause greater bias. For example, findings from the UK Biobank found a positive association between low vitamin D and COVID-19 infection, but the association was not significant after adjusting for confounders . The present study included only cohort studies and multivariate-adjusted studies, which should reduce the potential bias. Evidence from a few Mendelian randomization studies also showed that vitamin D status did not causally affect susceptibility to and the severity of COVID-19 infection . Overall, these results strongly suggested no association between serum vitamin D and COVID-19.

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