Viral Types And Strains
Vaccines target a specific disease-causing pathogen, such as a virus. One of the difficulties in developing a vaccine for the common cold is there are at least 200 different viruses that can cause cold symptoms, including adenoviruses, coronaviruses, parainfluenza, and rhinoviruses.
Rhinoviruses are to blame for up to 50% of all common colds. That seems like a big enough target to focus on. But of these rhinoviruses, there are more than 150 strains circulating at any one time.
Due to the limitations of current technologies, there is no way for one vaccine to protect against all possible types and strains of the viruses that cause the common cold.
The Pharma Giant And Partner Biontech Have Asked Fda To Revise The Vaccine’s Label
by Beth Mole – Feb 19, 2021 9:47 pm UTC
In a bit of good news, Pfizer and BioNTech announced today that their highly effective COVID-19 vaccine does not require ultra-cold storage conditions after all and can be kept stable at standard freezer temperatures for two weeks.
The companies have submitted data to the US Food and Drug Administration demonstrating the warmer stability in a bid for regulatory approval to relax storage requirements and labeling for the vaccine.
If the FDA greenlights the change, the warmer storage conditions could dramatically ease vaccine distribution, allowing doses to be sent to non-specialized vaccine administration sites. The change would also make it much easier to distribute the vaccine to low-income countries.
We have been continuously performing stability studies to support the production of the vaccine at commercial scale, with the goal of making the vaccine as accessible as possible for healthcare providers and people across the US and around the world, Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla said in a statement. If approved, this new storage option would offer pharmacies and vaccination centers greater flexibility in how they manage their vaccine supply.
What Does The Requirement For Ultra
Dr. Cooke: Because the Pfizer COVID-19 mRNA vaccine requires an ultra-low freezing process, widescale distribution to the general public would be hard to achieve even if sufficient doses were available immediately.
That’s because the type of freezer needed to achieve these sub-zero temperatures aren’t found in drug stores or doctor offices, nor in most hospitals or clinics. Fortunately at Houston Methodist, we have many of these freezers, and this is why we’ll be one of the major sites in Houston distributing the vaccine.
In addition, there’s nuance in the specific storage-temperature guidelines for each of the two COVID-19 mRNA vaccines with Moderna’s vaccine having more flexibility than Pfizer’s.
Pfizer’s vaccine can only be kept in a refrigerator for about 5 days before the mRNA begins to degrade, while the Moderna vaccine remains stable for about 30 days in a refrigerator.
In addition, both vaccines will be delivered to hospitals in multi-dose vials, further complicating the temperature-related distribution logistics. Vials will need to be strategically thawed and the doses administered in a timely manner in order to reduce the chance that a vial remains in a refrigerator for too long.
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You May Have Side Effects After Vaccination But These Are Normal
After COVID-19 vaccination, you may have some side effects. These are normal signs that your body is building protection. The side effects from COVID-19 vaccination, such as tiredness, headache, or chills, may affect your ability to do daily activities, but they should go away in a few days. Learn more about what to expect after getting vaccinated.
Should You Still Get The Vaccine If Youve Had Covid
If you have tested positive for coronavirus before, you may have built up some immunity to the virus.
Youll most likely have antibodies – proteins that circulate in the blood and recognise foreign substances like viruses – T cells and B cells.
People who have recovered from the virus have been found to have all of these components.
While scientists still dont know for certain how long immunity from coronavirus lasts, recent studies have provided some answers.
One led by Public Health England showed that most people who have had the virus are protected from catching it again for at least five months.
However, it is likely that this natural immunity wont last as long as the immunity given to you by a vaccine, and you can still be reinfected and pass on the virus to others even if you have no symptoms.
For these reasons, you should still take up the jab even if you have been infected with Covid before.
The NHS Inform guidance states: Even if youve already had coronavirus, you could still get it again.
The vaccine will reduce your risk of another infection and the seriousness of your symptoms if you do get it again.
If you’ve recently tested positive for coronavirus even if you have no symptoms you should wait until 4 weeks after the date you were tested before getting the vaccine.
The vaccine is your best protection against coronavirus.
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What Does Fully Vaccinated Mean
According to CDC guidelines, you are fully vaccinated when it has been:
- Two weeks after your second dose in a two-dose series, such as the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines.
- Two weeks after a single dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine.;However, data from clinical trials are clear that there is further improvement four weeks after the single-shot vaccine, especially for preventing severe COVID-19 or having asymptomatic infection. For this reason, Johns Hopkins Medicine recommends four weeks after the single-dose vaccine to be considered fully vaccinated.
If you dont meet these requirements, you are not fully vaccinated.
With Evidence So Far Booster Shots May Make Sense For Some More Than Others
The vast majority of hospitalizations and deaths in the current wave have been concentrated among unvaccinated people. But the number of breakthrough infections among the vaccinated population has also been rising.
That is to be expected when three out of four US adults have received at least one dose of a Covid-19 vaccine. There are simply more vaccinated people out there than unvaccinated, and while the vaccines provide strong protection against infection, they are not perfect. Sometimes, the virus slips through, though vaccinated people remain much less likely to be hospitalized with Covid-19 or die from it.
But how often does that happen? Is vaccine effectiveness starting to decline, especially with the delta variant now dominant? The answers to those questions influence the debate over booster shots. And we are starting to get some clearer evidence of how well the vaccines are holding up in the real world.
One recent CDC study tracked new Covid-19 cases and hospitalizations from early May to late July in New York state. The study period covers the transition from the alpha variant to delta, which became dominant by the start of July, but only includes part of the recent surge in reported cases.
But the study found that the vaccines remained resilient against the most severe symptoms, with the estimated effectiveness against hospitalization holding steady around 95 percent from the start to the end of the study period.
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Keeping The Cold Chain Properly Chilled
While changing vaccines themselves may take time, other ways of managing the cold chain are already happening, especially in low- and middle-income countries where electricity and refrigeration are harder to come by.;
PATH, the global health organization, developed temperature-tracking methods for vaccine distribution a generation ago by designing stickers that change color with increased heat, taking into account a vials cumulative exposure to temperatures outside its required refrigeration range. This information helps reduce spoilage and wasted dosesif, say, a freezer goes out, medical staff dont have to assume vaccines are spoiled.
More than 9 billion of these stickers have helped in the successful distribution of various vaccines worldwide, and as covid-19 vaccines finally roll out to more countries, theyll be another way of ensuring proper temperatures.;
What Are The Coronavirus Vaccine Side Effects
You may have pain in the arm where you got the shot, and you might run a fever and experience body aches, headaches and tiredness for a day or two. Chills, swollen lymph nodes can also occur.
For the vaccines that use two doses, if you have not had COVID-19, the chance of having noticeable side effects is higher after the second shot. Those who have had COVID-19 may experience stronger side effects after the first dose.
Experiencing side effects;does not mean that you have COVID-19, but signals that your immune system is responding to the vaccine. These side effects are considerably less risky to your health than having COVID-19, but if they persist, call your doctor and ask about taking over-the-counter pain and fever reducers to help you feel better.
In addition, a small number of people have developed a serious blood clot condition after they received the J&J vaccine, and there have been rare cases of myocarditis associated with the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines.
Read more about coronavirus vaccine safety.;
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Can I Get The Covid Vaccine If Im Not Well
The NHS has released guidance for people who are feeling unwell but are due to receive their Covid vaccine.
It says you should still attend your appointment even if you have a mild illness, which could include a cold.
However, if you become very unwell you should stay at home and book another appointment for after you have recovered.
If you have Covid symptoms, are self-isolating or waiting for your coronavirus test result you should also not attend your appointment.
You are able to easily cancel and rearrange your vaccine booking through the NHS website.
Meanwhile, the advice in Scotland is similar.
The NHS Inform guidance states: If you’re unwell on the day of your appointment, you should still go for your vaccination if it’s a minor illness without fever.
If you feel very unwell your vaccine may be postponed until you have fully recovered.
Do not attend your vaccine appointment if you feel unwell with symptoms of coronavirus. Self-isolate and book a test instead.
If you have further questions about your upcoming appointment if you are feeling unwell, contact your GP who will be able to assist you.
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The uracil problem can be dealt with by adding a modified version of the nucleotide, which Toll-like receptors overlook, sparing the RNA from an initial immune system attack so that the vaccine has a better chance of making the protein that will build immune defenses against the virus. Exactly which modified version of uracil the companies may have introduced into the vaccine could also affect RNA stability, and thus the temperature at which each vaccine needs to be stored.
Finally, by itself, an RNA molecule is beneath a cells notice because its just too small, Mishra says. So the companies coat the mRNA with an emulsion of lipids, creating little bubbles known as lipid nanoparticles. Those nanoparticles need to big enough that cells will grab them, bring them inside and break open the particle to release the RNA.
Some types of lipids stand up to heat better than others. Its like regular oil versus fat. You know how lard is solid at room temperature while oil is liquid, Mishra says. For nanoparticles, what theyre made of makes a giant difference in how stable they will be in general to the things inside. The lipids the companies used could make a big difference in the vaccines ability to stand heat.
Questions or comments on this article? E-mail us at;
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Myth: Now That We Have A Vaccine For Covid
FACT:;The thousands of viruses that cause various diseases are very different. Many change year by year, making it difficult to develop one vaccine that works for a long period of time.
Developing vaccines for some disease-causing viruses is tough. For example, the virus that causes HIV can hide and make itself undetectable by the human immune system, which makes creating a vaccine for it extremely difficult.
The common cold can be caused by any one of hundreds of different viruses, so a vaccine for just one of them would not be very effective.
How Will Storage Temperature Requirements Impact Initial Vaccine Distribution
The types of freezers that can keep the current COVID-19 vaccines stable, especially Pfizers, are expensive and generally only found in hospitals and labs. A clinic, a nursing home, or even health departments may not have freezers that can hold things at -94°F, Dr. Talaat says.
Transportation and storage are two of the biggest hurdles for the worldwide immunization rollout. A Reuters report from last month called the vaccines complex requirements an obstacle for even the most sophisticated hospitals in the United States. Rural and underfunded healthcare providers without the resources to improve their cold storage face even greater obstacles.
Since Modernas vaccine holds up well in normal freezers, Pfizers subzero option will be the most difficult to ship. The company is currently shipping its vaccine in so-called pizza trays, which hold 195 vials that remain stable for a few weeks, thanks to a steady supply of dry ice.
Right now, the Pfizer vaccine is being stored at the companys production facilities and at freezer farms, huge storage sites equipped with specialty freezers about the size of refrigerators.
Vials of Moderna vaccine are still difficult to ship, but have caused fewer headaches so far. You go from specialty freezers that only labs and hospitals have to freezers that any clinic will have, Dr. Talaat explains. Both vaccines are already being distributed to government officials, healthcare workers, and nursing home residents.
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How Will A Vaccine Prevent Covid
The coronavirus that causes COVID-19 has spikes of protein on each viral particle. These spikes help the viruses attach to cells and cause disease. Some of the coronavirus vaccines in development are designed to help the body recognize these spike proteins and fight the coronavirus that has them.
An effective vaccine will protect someone who receives it by lowering the chance of getting COVID-19 if the person encounters the coronavirus. More important is whether the vaccine prevents serious illness, hospitalization and death.; At this time, all three vaccines are highly efficacious at preventing serious illness, hospitalization and death from COVID-19.; Widespread vaccination means the coronavirus will not infect as many people. This will limit spread through communities and will restrict the viruss opportunity to continue to mutate into new variants.
If I Get A Coronavirus Vaccination Do I Still Have To Wear A Mask Physical Distance
The CDC continues to monitor the spread of COVID-19 and makes recommendations for wearing face masks, both for those who are;fully vaccinated;as well as those who are not fully vaccinated.
The CDC also recommends that masks and physical distancing are required when going to the doctors office, hospitals or long-term care facilities, including all Johns Hopkins hospitals, care centers and offices.
Johns Hopkins Medicines current mask safety guidelines have not changed, and we still require all individuals to wear masks inside all of our facilities.
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How Does Bnt162b2 Stack Up To Its Competitors
Their relatively relaxed storage requirements mean that they will likely have a leg up on BNT162b2. AZD1222 will be significantly more accessible in a lot of places, Keating says, although mRNA-1273 is not too difficult to handle either.;
the AstraZeneca vaccine might be better suited for use in different parts of the world,” Atwell says. “It’s definitely more in line with the vaccines that are already available and used all over the world.”
Frequently Asked Questions About Covid
NOTICE: FDA has granted full approvalfor Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices is meeting on Monday, August 30, 2021, to discuss its updated recommendation for this vaccine.
- Below are answers to commonly asked questions about COVID-19 vaccination.
- Bust myths and learn the facts about COVID-19 vaccines
If you have lost your vaccination card or dont have a copy, contact your vaccination provider site where you received your vaccine to access your vaccination record. Learn more;about how you can locate your vaccination provider.
Yes, you should be vaccinated regardless of whether you already had COVID-19 because:
- Research has not yet shown how long you are protected from getting COVID-19 again after you recover from COVID-19.
- Vaccination helps protect you even if youve already had COVID-19.
Evidence is emerging that people get better protection by being fully vaccinated compared with having had COVID-19. One study showed that unvaccinated people who already had COVID-19 are more than 2 times as likely than fully vaccinated people to get COVID-19 again.
If you were treated for COVID-19 with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma, you should wait 90 days before getting a COVID-19 vaccine. Talk to your doctor if you are unsure what treatments you received or if you have more questions about getting a COVID-19 vaccine.
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You Should Wait For At Least Two Days To Resume Exercise
Matthew Laurens, MD, of the University of Maryland School of Medicine, told WTOP News that he recommends waiting until any side effects lessen before jumping back into your normal exercise routine. He notes that side effectsincluding headache, chills, muscle pain, nausea, fever, and tirednesswill probably last about two days, during which you shouldn’t do any difficult workouts.
“Plan to avoid any strenuous activity on those days; not because it would make the vaccine work differently for youit would just help to minimize any discomfort that you might be feeling,” Laurens said.
Laurens also warned against long road trips or anything that needs a significant amount of focus and concentration. “Plan to lay low for the next few days after vaccination,” he said.
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