Global Statistics

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Updated on August 15, 2022 4:18 am
All countries
Updated on August 15, 2022 4:18 am
All countries
Updated on August 15, 2022 4:18 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 15, 2022 4:18 am
All countries
Updated on August 15, 2022 4:18 am
All countries
Updated on August 15, 2022 4:18 am
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How Does Covid Affect Pregnant Women

Avoiding The Coronavirus During Pregnancy

How COVID-19 affects pregnant women

Avoiding infection with the coronavirus is a top priority for pregnant women. Sheffield explains why: Pregnant women can experience changes to their immune systems that can make them more vulnerable to respiratory viruses, she says. These changes mean that expectant mothers should be proactive when it comes to safety measures.

If youre pregnant, you should take precautions to protect yourself from getting COVID-19. Do everything you can, including physical distancing, wearing a mask, hand-washing and staying in close communication with your provider.

She says many practitioners are scheduling less frequent appointments to help pregnant patients limit trips to the doctors office. Other obstetricians are ramping up telemedicine processes so they can continue to monitor pregnant patients without an in-person visit. Ask your obstetrician about these options.

Should pregnant women get a coronavirus test? If you are having COVID-19 symptoms or think you have been exposed to an infected person, call your doctor and follow his or her advice. Adhere to precautions carefully: Stay at least 6 feet from others, wear a mask, and avoid large gatherings and indoor socializing outside of your household.

Sheffield says, Ideally, all pregnant women should be screened for COVID-19 when they are admitted to deliver their babies, but especially mothers with cough, fever or any respiratory symptoms.

Pregnancy and COVID-19: Elsas Story

What Are The Symptoms Of The Omicron Variant In Pregnant Women

Its important to remember that the Omicron variant is still a relatively new strain of COVID-19. The World Health Organization only identified Omicron as a variant of concern in late November before it spread rapidly across the world. It has identified and continues to monitor several subvariants dubbed B.1.1.529, BA.1, BA.2 and BA.3 within the Omicron family.

With that, scientists are still learning more about Omicron and how it can affect people, including pregnant women.

As of now, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention maintains that these are the main symptoms of COVID-19:

  • Fever or chills
  • Congestion
  • Runny nose

These symptoms have been detected in the general population too, and experts say they can apply to pregnant women as well. “At present, there is no data to suggest that presenting symptoms differ between pregnant folks, and those who arent pregnant,” says Kjersti Aagaard, M.D., Ph.D., professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Baylor College of Medicine in Texas.

Michael Cackovic, M.D., a maternal-fetal medicine physician at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Ohio, agrees. “With Delta, we noticed the acute onset of shortness of breath or patients complaining, ‘I cant breathe,'” he says. “With Omicron, the symptoms are pretty much the same as in other groups: cough, congestion, sore throat, headache, muscle pains.”

Advice For Pregnant Women And Their Families From The Uk Government

While the evidence doesnt suggest pregnant women are more at risk, they are included in PHEs listof vulnerable groups, alongside people who are aged 70 and older and those under 70 with certain underlying health conditions.

The Chief Medical Officer to the UK Government, Professor Chris Whitty, said that this was a precautionary measure because not enough is currently known about the effect of Covid-19 on pregnancy and unborn children.

Current guidance for pregnant women with no symptoms of Covid-19

PHEs advice for pregnant women is to strictly follow the social distancing measures that have been issued to the general public.

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Why It Is Important For Pregnant Individuals To Get Vaccinated

Data strongly indicate that the benefits of getting a COVID-19 vaccine far outweigh risks for individuals who are pregnant or might become pregnant in the future.

The CDC recently released data showing the highest number of COVID-19-related deaths in pregnant people in a single month was in August 2021. Data also indicate that 97% of pregnant people hospitalized, either for illness or labor and delivery, with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were unvaccinated.

Good News: Trials Start For New Drug To Manage Symptoms Of Long Covid

How does COVID

The post-COVID syndrome, long COVID, is thought to affect millions of people worldwide. It is defined as signs and symptoms that develop during or following an infection consistent with COVID-19 which continue for more than 12 weeks and are not explained by an alternative diagnosis. The definition says the condition usually presents with clusters of symptoms, often overlapping, which may change over time and can affect any system within the body.

Two of the most common symptoms reported are fatigue and muscle pain. These symptoms are thought to be brought on by a dysfunction in mitochondria found within human cells these are the energy or powerhouses of each cell. Mitochondria play an important role in turning the energy from the food we eat to chemical energy that cells need to do their jobs. It is thought that the SARS-CoV-2 virus interferes with mitochondria and their ability to make this energy, leading to fatigue.

Now the University of Oxford is leading a new phase 2a clinical trial to investigate whether a drug could treat the fatigue and muscle weakness experienced by patients who have recovered from COVID. The drug, AXA1125, is developed by the US-based biotechnology company Axcella Therapeutics. In two previous clinical studies and in preclinical models, it demonstrated the ability to reverse mitochondrial dysfunction and improve energetic efficiency.

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Is My Risk For Blood Clots Higher During Pregnancy If I Get Covid

Possibly. Both pregnancy and COVID-19 increase the risk of developing blood clotting problems.

  • Talk to your doctor about your personal risk.
  • If you are hospitalized for COVID-19, you may get medicine to lower the risk of dangerous blood clotting. Some of these medicines are safe for women who are breastfeeding their babies.

Immunolocalisation Of Viral Proteins In Placentas

Various methods were employed to demonstrate the existence of virus. Immunolocalization of SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein mRNAs by in situ hybridization or viral nucleocapsid protein by immunohistochemistry are among the preferred methods besides the standard RT-PCR method to detect viral RNAs.

Of the 29 studies with placental histopathological correlations, 14 studies had attempted to localize SARS-CoV-2 within placentas via IHC , ISH , or both . Viral nucleocapsid protein and spike protein mRNAs were successfully identified in 17.4% placentas, most commonly expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts with rare expression in cytotrophoblasts , stromal cells , chorionic villi endothelial cells , and intervillous mononuclear cells . In addition, rare viral mRNAs positivity detected by ISH in decidual endothelial cells and endometrial glands were also reported. Of the 30 positive placenta samples with babies that were subsequently tested for SARS-CoV-2, 40.0% were tested positive within 24 h after birth.

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Ultrastructural Analysis Of Sars

There are four studies that explored the presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles with transmission electron microscopy. Hosier et al. was first to report the detection of viral particles within the cytosol of placenta cells in the placenta of a 35-year-old woman whose pregnancy was complicated with severe pre-eclampsia at 22 weeks of gestation . The placenta cells described were later identified as syncytiotrophoblasts, microvilli, and cell process of fibroblasts in terminal villi in a placenta from a 28 year-old woman who presented with severe COVID-19 pneumonia at 28 weeks of gestation . Subsequently, 89 to 129 nm-sized particles within membrane bound cisternal spaces sized, identified as SARS-CoV-2 viral particles, were found localized to syncytiotrophoblast cells in a 34-year-old woman who presented with preterm premature ruptured of membrane . Other than syncytiotrophoblasts, fibroblasts, microvilli, and virions were found localized in fetal endothelial capillary cells close to villous surfaces as well as intravascular mononuclear cells, maternal macrophages, and Hofbauer cells . To our knowledge, there are no published data of ultrastructural examination on placentas evaluating the ultrastructural alterations following SARS-CoV-2 infection.

What Symptoms Do Pregnant Or Breastfeeding Women Need To Be Aware Of

How Does Coronavirus Affect Pregnancy And Newborns?

COVID-19 is mainly a respiratory disease. Symptoms typically appear between 2 and 14 days after exposure to the new coronavirus. Data from people who acquired COVID-19 in China found a median incubation period of 4 days. The most common symptoms whether youre pregnant or not are:

  • cough
  • loss of smell or taste
  • muscle aches and pains

The virus hasnt been extensively studied, so no one can say for sure.

But the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention notes that pregnant women are more susceptible than others to all kinds of respiratory infections, such as the flu. This is partly because pregnancy changes your immune system and partly because of the way pregnancy impacts your lungs and heart.

Even so, as of March 2020, theres no concrete evidence suggesting that pregnant women are more prone to COVID-19 than other people, says a

CDC notes that pregnant women who have gotten other, related coronaviruses have a greater chance of having worse outcomes than pregnant women who dont get these infections.

Things like miscarriage, preterm birth, stillbirth, and having a more severe infection have all been observed in pregnant women with other coronaviruses. And a high fever in the first trimester of pregnancy, regardless of its cause, can lead to birth defects.

OK, take a deep breath. We know that sounds super scary. But all the news isnt dire, especially when we look at pregnant women who have delivered while sick with this particular virus.

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Does The Omicron Variant Cause More Severe Disease In Pregnant Women

It can, and doctors say that there are a few reasons. “Because pregnant women have an aspect of immunosuppression that allows them to carry what amounts to a baby that is one-half genetically different than themselves, any illness has a potentially more dangerous effect on the pregnant woman,” Dr. Cackovic says. “Pregnancy additionally carries the risk of preterm birth, and we are seeing exceptionally high rates with COVID in general.”

Whether this will also happen with the Omicron variant is hard to tell, he says, adding that “more research is needed in this area.”

“Regardless of the variant, pregnant persons have a higher chance than non-pregnant persons of getting admitted to the hospital with COVID symptoms and needing to be transferred to the intensive care unit,” Dr. Simon says.

Experts say vaccination status matters too when it comes to the severity of the disease. A recently published Nature Medicine study out of Scotland found that 98 percent of pregnant patients who were admitted to the ICU for critical care due to COVID-19 were unvaccinated.

“Most people who are vaccinated and boosted do not get COVID,” says Dr. Simon. “And, if they are to get an infection, regardless of the variant, they have a much lower chance of getting hospitalized, an even more substantially lower chance of getting intubated, and an almost zero chance of dying.”

Viral Infections Can Vary Between Sexes

COVID-19 infection rates appear to be similar for both sexes, but adult males tend to experience a more severe course of the disease compared to females.

Males develop greater inflammatory immune responses, including cytokine production, within the first week of diagnosis with severe disease, and we have shown that this contributes significantly to male-biased severe outcomes, including death, Sabra Klein, PhD, a microbiologist at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, tells Verywell.

Cytokines help regulate inflammatory responses in the body, but when they overproduce this can cause an excessive inflammatory reaction called cytokine storm that contributes to severe COVID-19 complications.

However, sex differences in the severity of viral infections are not limited to COVID-19.

Infections caused by the hepatitis B and C viruses tend to be more prevalent and intense for males. Meanwhile, infections caused by the herpes simplex virus type 2 and human immunodeficiency virus cause more severe diseases in females. This means that sex affects a person’s immunity to viruses as well as their outcomes once infected.

Sex differences are reported for both innate and adaptive immune responses to viruses, Klein says. For adaptive immunity, females often have greater T cell responses, including responses of T cells that kill virally infected cells than males and greater antibody responses. We and others have shown this in mice and humans.

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If You Contract Covid During Pregnancy The Sex Of Your Baby Mattershere’s Why

    Angela Underwood’s extensive local, state, and federal healthcare and environmental news coverage includes 911 first-responder compensation policy to the Ciba-Geigy water contamination case in Toms River, NJ. Her additional health-related coverage includes death and dying, skin care, and autism spectrum disorder.

      Should Pregnant And Lactating Women Receive The Covid

      Coronavirus and pregnancy: What to know

      Yes. Johns Hopkins Medicine agrees with and strongly supports the recommendations of the CDC, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine who recommend that all pregnant or lactating individuals, along with those trying to get pregnant, be vaccinated against COVID-19.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention includes pregnant women as a high-risk group for severe COVID-19 illness, though severe disease is fortunately uncommon. The decision to receive the COVID-19 vaccine should be a shared decision among a woman, her care partner and medical provider.

      Starting Sept. 1, 2021, all Johns Hopkins Medicine personnel, including newly hired individuals, are required to be fully vaccinated for COVID-19. This includes women who are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning to become pregnant. We have changed our policy because of recently updated CDC guidance based on accumulated data of the COVID-19 vaccines efficacy. JHM personnel requesting or who have previously been approved for a pregnancy-related exception to the vaccine must provide a note from their physician before Oct. 4.

      JHED ID required: Full vaccination requirements for Johns Hopkins Medicine staff can be viewed on our internal portal.

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      Personal Account: Covid Misinformation And My Family

      Misinformation about the COVID vaccines is rife. It is part of the reason why many choose not to get vaccinated and it is also part of the reason the pandemic will carry on longer than it needs to. I, rather naively, assumed my family having three doctors in it would not fall victim to the deliberate tactics of those spreading misinformation about the vaccines but last week I was proved wrong.

      It was our weekly Saturday night family meal at my mums house. She cooks up a big feast, we all descend on our old family home to eat and spend time together, while the kids play around and the adults have rather boring conversations trying to put the world to rights.

      Surprisingly, we have managed to avoid talking about the COVID vaccines , but this week my brother-in-law was keen to discuss the need for boosters. Now to be clear, I get on very well with my brother-in-law, he is the first person I call when I need something, but on the subject of boosters we disagreed.

      The conversation started in a fairly benign way.

      Have you had your booster yet? my sister asked the room. Everyone nodded, they had either had it or were waiting to have it. Then a brief silence.

      I am not going to have mine, my brother-in-law said, matter of factly. More silence followed.

      What do you mean you are not going to have it? I asked.

      Well, my friend told me that they now want us to have boosters every year, and I just dont think we need them, he said.

      What do you mean? I asked, horrified.

      While Pregnant Women Are At Higher Risk Of Severe Illness The Virus Can Also Trigger Inflammatory And Vascular Responses In The Placenta

      Reported By:| |Source: ANI |Updated: Jan 27, 2022, 06:28 PM IST

      A new study has found that pregnant women should get vaccinated to minimize the detrimental health effects COVID-19 has on the placenta, the fetus, and the newborn.

      The study has been published in ‘The Journal of Infectious Diseases’. The editorial provided a comprehensive review of what is known about the harmful effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women themselves, the effects on their newborns, the negative impact on the placenta, and what still is unknown amid the rapidly evolving field. The safety and efficacy of vaccination of pregnant women are also addressed.

      While pregnant women are at higher risk of severe illness, the virus can also trigger inflammatory and vascular responses in the placenta during critical periods of fetal development in symptomatic and asymptomatic cases.

      In this piece, Dr Roberta L DeBiasi, MD, MS, division chief of Pediatric Infectious Diseases at Children’s National Hospital, commented on two related studies published in the same issue, demonstrating pathologic findings in women’s placentas who had COVID-19 during pregnancy.

      “The authors present a highly plausible mechanism of stillbirth, namely that the virus-induced proinflammatory state ultimately led to placental abruption,” said Dr DeBiasi.

      “Taking the studies together, it’s evident that if a pregnant woman gets COVID-19 they’re at an increased risk of severe infection,” said DeBiasi.

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      Progress Report: Can Severe Covid Increase Your Risk Of Dying In The Next Year

      A study from the United States has found that people who suffered from severe COVID-19 and required hospital admission were more than twice as likely to die in the 12 months after recovering than those who had no infection or even mild disease.

      We are yet to fully understand the long-term sequelae of COVID-19, with symptoms of long COVID, in particular, being widespread and far reaching. But the study that followed 13,638 patients found that the risk of death from all causes was significantly higher in patients who had severe COVID.

      None of those who contracted COVID died from the acute phase of the disease they made full recoveries, and were then followed up on to see if there were any adverse outcomes from having had the illness at all.

      Those under 65 years old who had had severe COVID were most at risk. We would expect to see an increased risk of death in those who had severe COVID and were hospitalised from coronavirus-related illnesses such as pneumonia or respiratory failure, but this was only true for 20 percent of this group. The vast majority of deaths were for causes other than respiratory or cardiovascular conditions. Many of these deaths occurred months after the initial COVID infection and were not easily linked to the coronavirus by the clinicians caring for the patients.

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