Global Statistics

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Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
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How Does The Covid Vaccine Work

Safety And Side Effects

How do mRNA COVID-19 vaccines work?

The COVID-19 vaccines currently approved have been thoroughly reviewed by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in the UK . The regulatory team have completed a full review of the safety information reported from the trials, which includes several months follow-up data from 23,000 people for the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine and 44,000 people for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.

This means that the MHRA has reviewed all the information from the clinical trials of these vaccines, which includes assessing all the side effects and medical conditions that people in the trials experienced.

The number of illnesses reported in the vaccinated group is compared with the control group, to see whether the vaccine could be associated with an increase in any medical conditions. The rates of illness are also compared with the rate of those illnesses in the general population. For any severe illnesses reported, a specialist doctor involved in treating the person and an independent safety committee consider whether the illness could be associated to the vaccine.

All the information about adverse events reported during the trial has been provided to the regulators, and the safety profile of both the Oxford-AstraZeneca and the Pfizer BioNTech vaccines is similar to that of other vaccines.

Is The Moderna Booster Shot A Third Dose

Booster shots of COVID-19 vaccines are currently half doses of the same vaccine used in the first two full shots. The goal is to top up the vaccine formula that reinforces the body’s immune response against the virus and its variants. The Moderna booster authorized by the CDC is a 50-microgram dose, while the first two shots were each 100 micrograms.

Moderna is also working on a combination shot that contains this year’s flu vaccine and its COVID-19 booster vaccine, but that’s not available right now.

Moderna’s booster shot is currently half the size of a full dose.

How Effective Is The Covid

As with any vaccine, the Pfizer vaccine may not fully protect everyone who gets it. However, it is highly effective if people have both doses. That means, if you do catch COVID-19, youre far less likely to fall seriously ill and less likely to transmit the virus to others.

The COVID-19 vaccine stimulates your bodys immune system to produce antibodies and other proteins that will fight the virus if youre exposed to it. This reduces the risk of getting infected and if you do get COVID-19, it means you could have no symptoms or will have much fewer, milder symptoms and recover faster.

While the data is clear that vaccines protect people from the effects of COVID-19, research is ongoing to determine whether a vaccinated person could still transmit the virus to someone else so to be safe, we must assume there is still a risk of transmission.

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New York City Institutes Vaccine Mandate For All Private Employers

Mayor Bill de Blasio of New York said a sweeping coronavirus vaccine mandate would go into effect for all private employers on Dec. 27 to curb the spread of the Omicron variant. Mr. de Blasio said the measure would apply to about 184,000 businesses.

Mayor Bill de Blasio of New York on Monday announced a sweeping coronavirus vaccine mandate for all private companies in the city. Starting Dec. 27, all employees who work in-person are required to have at least one shot of the vaccine, with no option to undergo weekly testing instead of being vaccinated.

It could be the broadest corporate vaccine mandate yet: A federal mandate for large private companies, announced by President Biden in September, has been stalled by legal challenges. New Yorks mandate would apply to around 184,000 businesses.

The impact of the new rule will depend on answers to these questions, the DealBook newsletter writes:

Are Coronavirus Variants More Dangerous


Bollinger says that some of these mutations may enable the coronavirus to spread faster from person to person, and more infections can result in more people getting very sick or dying. In addition, there is preliminary evidence from Britain that some variants could be associated with more severe disease.

Therefore, it is very important for us to expand the number of genetic sequencing studies to keep track of these variants, he says.

Bollinger explains that it may be more advantageous for a respiratory virus to evolve so that it spreads more easily. On the other hand, mutations that make a virus more deadly may not give the virus an opportunity to spread efficiently. If we get too sick or die quickly from a particular virus, the virus has less opportunity to infect others. However, more infections from a faster-spreading variant will lead to more deaths, he notes.

How Will New Variants Change the Nature of the Pandemic?

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How Do I Know Which Pharmacies Have Moderna Appointments

Boosters are available at roughly 80,000 places across the country, including over 40,000 local pharmacies. Some 90% of Americans have a vaccine site within 5 miles of where they live.

A terrific free service in conjunction with the CDC sends you information when you text your ZIP code to this number: 438829. The response will show you COVID-19 vaccine locations in your area, along with the brand they carry for certain age groups, for instance, Moderna 18+. This can save you the trial and error of calling around, or showing up to your appointment to find that your booster of choice isn’t available. The text can also give you a shortcut to make your appointment right from your phone screen.

You can also check to see which vaccines are available where, and call 800-232-0233 for vaccine information.

Other Myths And Facts

No. The federal government does not mandate vaccination for people. Additionally, CDC does not maintain or monitor a persons vaccination records. Whether a state or local government or employer, for example, can require or mandate COVID-19 vaccination is a matter of state or other applicable lawexternal icon.

No. None of the authorized COVID-19 vaccines in the United States contain the live virus that causes COVID-19. This means that a COVID-19 vaccine cannot make you sick with COVID-19.

COVID-19 vaccines teach our immune systems how to recognize and fight the virus that causes COVID-19. Sometimes this process can cause symptoms, such as fever. These symptoms are normal and are signs that the body is building protection against the virus that causes COVID-19. Learn more about how COVID-19 vaccines work.

No. Your menstrual cycle cannot be affected by being near someone who received a COVID-19 vaccine.

Many things can affect menstrual cycles, including stress, changes in your schedule, problems with sleep, and changes in diet or exercise. Infections may also affect menstrual cycles.

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Does The Novavax Vaccine Work Against Variants

Yes. The Novavax vaccine was 93.2% effective against circulating “variants of concern” and “variants of interest,” according to the company.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines “variants of concern” as variants showing evidence of being more transmissible, causing more severe disease or causing significant reduction in antibody neutralization, which may make vaccines or treatments less effective. “Variants of interest” is a lower classification. It refers to variants that may have the potential to affect transmission, diagnostics or the effectiveness of vaccines or treatments, according to the CDC’s definition.

How Will Vaccines Fare Against Omicron

How does Moderna’s Coronavirus vaccine work?

If Omicron can dodge neutralizing antibodies, it does not mean that immune responses triggered by vaccination and prior infection will offer no protection against the variant. Immunity studies suggest that modest levels of neutralizing antibodies may protect people from severe forms of COVID-19, says Miles Davenport, an immunologist at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia.

Other aspects of the immune system, particularly T cells, may be less affected by Omicrons mutations than are antibody responses. Researchers in South Africa plan to measure the activity of T cells and another immune player called natural killer cells, which might be especially important for protection against severe COVID-19, says Shabir Madhi, a vaccinologist at the University of the Witwatersrand.

Madhi, who has led COVID-19 vaccine trials in South Africa, is also part of efforts to conduct epidemiological studies of vaccines effectiveness against Omicron. There are anecdotal reports of breakthrough infections involving all three vaccines that have been administered in South Africa Johnson & Johnson, PfizerBioNTech and OxfordAstraZeneca. But Madhi says researchers will want to quantify the level of protection against Omicron provided by vaccines, as well as by previous infection.

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Is Moderna Making An Omicron Booster Shot

Scientists worry the omicron variant could spread more quickly than the now-dominant delta variant because of the number of mutations the new strain has compared with delta. Moderna is currently working on an omicron-specific booster vaccine, along with testing a COVID-19 vaccine that could protect against several mutated strains of the coronavirus.

Like every other vaccine-maker around the world, Moderna is testing the effectiveness of its COVID-19 vaccine against omicron, but it may be weeks before lab tests show concrete evidence of how well Moderna protects people from the new variant.

As part of its booster testing, Moderna is also investigating whether a 100-microgram dose of its booster provides better protection against the omicron variant — in other words, a third dose rather than a half dose as the booster is currently formulated now.

If Moderna needs to make a new vaccine modified for the variant, it could be available early in 2022.

Will A Booster Dose Of A Covid

When it comes to earlier strains of COVID-19, including Beta, Lambda, even Delta, federal health officials say a booster vaccine can help keep you as protected as possible from becoming sick this winter. It’s especially crucial as flu season is also predicted to impact many Americans, and immune systems can easily be overwhelmed with two infections at once.

As far as Omicron goes, researchers still have a lot to learn about this version of the virus. Dr. Gohil adds that it’s too early to say whether current vaccines can provide perfect protection against this variant, but that everyone in the scientific medical community believes that additional antibodies always equate to better protection overall.

“Although Omicron is very different from the original variant to which the vaccines were made, and we expect efficacy to be lower for this variant, we would still expect some amount of cross-reactive antibodies that could potentially afford protection,” she explains.

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Does The Vaccine Protect Against New Variants

Experts are studying all of the current coronavirus vaccines to check how well they work against new, mutated variants of the virus.

The government’s deputy chief medical officer, Jonathan Van Tam, says there is “plenty of evidence” the vaccines appear to be effective against the Kent variant which is dominant in the UK.

There is less evidence about protection against other variants, such as those identified in Brazil and South Africa.

However a study of around 2,000 people suggests, while the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine may offer more limited protection against mild and moderate disease caused by the South Africa variant. it should still protect against severe disease.

Covid: Vaccines Should Work Against Omicron Variant Who Says

Could the Oxford University/AstraZeneca COVID

Existing vaccines should still protect people who contract the Omicron variant from severe Covid cases, a World Health Organization official says.

It comes as the first lab tests of the new variant in South Africa suggest it can partially evade the Pfizer jab.

Researchers say there was a “very large drop” in how well the vaccine’s antibodies neutralised the new strain.

But the WHO’s Dr Mike Ryan said there was no sign Omicron would be better at evading vaccines than other variants.

“We have highly effective vaccines that have proved effective against all the variants so far, in terms of severe disease and hospitalisation, and there’s no reason to expect that it wouldn’t be so” for Omicron, Dr Ryan, the WHO’s emergencies director, told AFP news agency.

He said initial data suggested Omicron did not make people sicker than the Delta and other strains. “If anything, the direction is towards less severity,” he said.

The new South African study – which has not yet been peer-reviewed – found the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine may result in up to 40 times fewer neutralising antibodies against Omicron than against the original Covid strain.

But Omicron’s ability to escape vaccine antibodies is “incomplete”, said Prof Alex Sigal, a virologist at the Africa Health Research Institute, who led the research.

He said the results, based on blood tests from 12 people, were “better than I expected of Omicron”.

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When Can You Get A Booster Shot For Covid

Anyone over the age of 18 is now eligible for a booster COVID-19 vaccine, as long as it’s been two months for Johnson & Johnson recipients or six months for those who signed up for any two-dose mRNA vaccine. So far, according to official CDC data, around 15% of those who are now eligible for this vaccine have received a booster.

Federal health officials have also approved mixing and matching of various manufactured COVID-19 vaccines. Most healthcare professionals recommend sticking with the same type of shot you received on your first vaccination, unless you received a Johnson & Johnson single-dose shot. You should consult your primary healthcare provider if you have questions about which vaccine you should receive as a booster, as some research has indicated that Moderna boosters may provide some form of enhanced protection, as reported by the Los Angeles Times.

But if you only have access to one kind of shot Pfizer or Moderna alone you shouldn’t delay a booster altogether, as they’re necessary to keep safe during the coming weeks and months, when transmission risk is expected to skyrocket.

Efficacy In Young People

Following Medsafe Provisional Approval, the decision to vaccinate young people aged 1215 years has been approved by Vaccine Ministers, Health Officials and Cabinet.

Pfizers study in 12- to 15-year-olds looked for signs of a strong immune response to the vaccine. Pfizer reported 100 percent efficacy in this age group .

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If The Gap Between Your Appointments Is Less Than 6 Weeks

If you have already booked and the gap between your appointments is less than 6 weeks, you can keep the second appointment or choose to change it.

The important thing is to get 2 doses of the vaccine to be fully vaccinated.

To cancel or modify your booking you can:

  • call the COVID Vaccination Healthline on .

Why Does The Coronavirus Change

How does the coronavirus vaccine work? | VACCINE Q& A

Variants of viruses occur when there is a change or mutation to the viruss genes. Ray says it is the nature of RNA viruses such as the coronavirus to evolve and change gradually. Geographic separation tends to result in genetically distinct variants, he says.

Mutations in viruses including the coronavirus causing the COVID-19 pandemic are neither new nor unexpected. Bollinger explains: All RNA viruses mutate over time, some more than others. For example, flu viruses change often, which is why doctors recommend that you get a new flu vaccine every year.”

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How Does Novavax Compare To The Other Vaccines Available In The Us

The Novavax vaccine was shown to be 90.4% effective overall, with 100% efficacy against moderate and severe cases of COVID-19, according to the company.

That puts Novavax on par with the two-shot Pfizer and Moderna vaccines and more effective than the one-shot Johnson & Johnson vaccine, which was 66% effective in clinical trials.

What Are The Side Effects Associated With Covid

More than 10 million people have gotten at least one dose of their coronavirus vaccine, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tracker. The vast majority who talked about their COVID-19 vaccine side effects or reactions described them as similar to a flu shot.

The most common side effects are a sore arm and sometimes fever, chills, tiredness and headaches for a day or two, according to the CDC. As reported in both studies, the majority of reactions beyond a sore arm happen after the second dose. Those are all signs your body is building an immune response. Read more: COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial volunteers talk about living with the vaccine since August

In a study released in January, the CDC said the risk of anaphylaxis a severe allergic reaction is extremely low. Based on data from people who have received the first of the two recommended doses, only about one in every 90,000 people will experience this adverse reaction. The people most at risk of an adverse reaction are those who have had severe allergic reactions to other medications or food. There have been no deaths. On the other hand, the COVID-19 pandemic has killed more than one out of every 1,000 Americans.

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How Does The Novavax Vaccine Work

Pfizer and Moderna use mRNA technology that teaches cells to make a protein that prompts an immune response. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine uses a viral vector, or a modified version of a different virus, to prompt cells to produce the protein that triggers an immune response.

In contrast, Novavax is a protein subunit vaccine, meaning it uses a fragment of a harmless protein of the virus that’s grown in a cell culture and stimulates an immune response.

Signs Of Increased Reinfection Risk

What to know about COVID

With Omicron, there are already signs that people whove already had COVID-19 may more easily develop reinfection.

South African researchers reported on Wednesday, Dec. 1, that real-world data from the country suggests the variant has a substantial ability to evade immunity from prior infection.

This kind of immune escape was not seen with the Beta and Delta variants during the countrys earlier surges.

However, South African researchers did not have information on the vaccination status of people with the Omicron variant, which limits what they can tell about the effectiveness of the vaccines.

We therefore cannot make any assessment of whether Omicron also evades vaccine-derived immunity, study author Juliet Pulliam, PhD, who directs the South African Centre for Excellence in Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis at Stellenbosch University, said on .

The results were published on the preprint server medRxiv, so the study has not yet been peer-reviewed.

This is just one study, so it may not offer a complete picture of Omicrons behavior, either.

Scientists will need to look at the spread of the variant in other countries, which have different vaccination rates and public health measures in place.

In addition, they will try to control for other factors that can increase a persons chances of acquiring or developing severe illness, such as employment, other medical conditions, and living situation.

These studies will take time.

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