Global Statistics

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Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
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How Easily Is Covid Transmitted

The Coronavirus Pandemic: Key Things To Know

How the COVID-19 virus is transmitted

Mask guidance.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released updated data that suggests 90 percent of the U.S. population are in a location with low or medium Covid-19 community levels and can now stop wearing masks.

New research on symptoms.Research on monkeys found that the coronavirus may infect tissue within the male genital tract, suggesting that erectile dysfunction reported by some Covid patients may be caused directly by the virus. Meanwhile, a study may settle the debate over how Covid robs people of their sense of smell.

N.F.L. drops protocols.The National Football League and the players union agreed to suspend all Covid-19 protocols, effective immediately. The league, which is not in season, is the first of the major professional sports leagues in the United States to halt its coronavirus-related policies

There is no incontrovertible proof that SARS-CoV-2 travels or is transmitted significantly by aerosols, but there is absolutely no evidence that its not, said Dr. Trish Greenhalgh, a primary care doctor at the University of Oxford in Britain.

So at the moment we have to make a decision in the face of uncertainty, and my goodness, its going to be a disastrous decision if we get it wrong, she said. So why not just mask up for a few weeks, just in case?

Even cloth masks, if worn by everyone, can significantly reduce transmission, and the W.H.O. should say so clearly, he added.

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But that defense may not be very effective without a booster.

Balazs study found that the protection afforded by vaccines or a previous coronavirus infection was dramatically decreased against omicron. The one exception was in people whod recently received a booster dose of the vaccine they exhibited potent neutralization of Omicron, according to the study.

That may help to explain why breakthrough cases and reinfections appear to be rising rapidly. A South African research team reported on Dec. 2 more than 35,000 COVID-19 reinfections among the 2.8 million people whod tested positive over the previous three months.

How Easy Is It To Transmit The Coronavirus That Causes Covid

A: Unfortunately, its very easy to transmit the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

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A study of the outbreak that occurred on the Diamond Princess cruise ship showed that an infected person would cause an average of 2.28 more cases. Thats fewer than the measles but higher than the seasonal flu .

More importantly, viral shedding can occur up to five days before symptoms even appear. And asymptomatic shedding may account for up to 60% of cases.

Transmission of the virus occurs via droplets that are expelled through the mouth or nose, like mucous or saliva, and can be easily spread through actions like sneezing and coughing. These viral particles can land directly on the mucous membranes of another person.

Indirect transmission is also possible, either from droplets landing on the skin of another person who then touches his or her mucous membranes or from touching a surface that has been infected. Thats why you should wash your hands frequently and avoid touching your face as much as possible.

The virus can live on surfaces for one to several hours, though how long the virus survives depends on the surface material. For that reason, surfaces that are touched frequently should be cleaned with antiviral solutions at least every 24 hours.

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If You Or Someone You Know Is Sick Or Had Contact With Someone Who Has Covid

People who have been in close contact with someone who has COVID-19excluding people who have had COVID-19 within the past 3 months or who are fully vaccinated

  • People who have tested positive for COVID-19 within the past 3 months and recovered do not have to quarantine or get tested again as long as they do not develop new symptoms.
  • People who develop symptoms again within 3 months of their first bout of COVID-19 may need to be tested again if there is no other cause identified for their symptoms.
  • People who have been in close contact with someone who has COVID-19 are not required to quarantine if they have been fully vaccinated against the disease and show no symptoms.

The Most Dangerous Times For Covid

Coronavirus disease (COVID

According to a recent study, people infected with the COVID-19 virus are most at risk of transmitting it to others between two days before and three days after they develop symptoms, with risk reaching its peak on the day symptoms first present themselves.

In previous studies, viral load has been used as an indirect measure of transmission, says Leonardo Martinez, assistant professor of epidemiology at Boston Universitys School of Public Health and study co-lead. We wanted to see if results from these past studies, which show that COVID cases are most transmissible a few days before and after symptom onset, could be confirmed by looking at secondary cases among close contacts.

The researchers did contact tracing and studied COVID-19 transmission among 8,852 close contacts of 730 primary cases in China from January 2020 to August 2020. A primary case is the first infected person in an outbreak. Close contacts included individuals who lived in the same household or ate together, co-workers, people in hospital settings and riders in shared vehicles.

Those who were infected were monitored for at least 90 days after their initial positive COVID-19 test results to separate asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic cases.

These risk factors had no impact on the finding that close contacts were more likely to catch COVID-19 from the primary infected person if they were exposed shortly before or after that person developed detectable symptoms.

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How Safe Are Outdoor Activities

MIT Medical answers your COVID-19 questions. Got a question about COVID-19? Send it to us at , and well do our best to provide an answer.

Now that Delta is the predominant variant in the U.S., is it safe to be unmasked during outdoor activities where I might end up in close proximity to other people other walkers in my neighborhood or other cyclists or pedestrians when Im riding my bike on a bike path? And suppose I want to walk or ride my bike with a friend? Or attend an outdoor gathering? While I dont know the vaccination status of people in my neighborhood or strangers on the bike path, my friends and I are all fully vaccinated, if that makes a difference.

Weve been getting a lot of these Now that Deltas here, is it safe to questions.

So, lets start by saying that, during a pandemic, no activity involving interaction with other human beings is safe. But risk is relative, and activities that we pegged as low-, moderate-, or high-risk a year ago, when we first began talking about risk assessment, still maintain their relative positions on the overall scale of COVID-19 risk. Even if the more transmissible Delta variant has ratcheted up those risk levels by a few notches.

This news story has not been updated since the date shown. Information contained in this story may be outdated. For current information about MIT Medicals services, please see relevant areas of the MIT Medical website.

How To Protect Yourself

There are COVID-19 vaccines available, and you are encouraged to be vaccinated when it becomes available to you. You should still try to limit your contact with other people. CDC guidelines suggest:

  • Work from home if you can.
  • Avoid travel when possible. This is especially important if you or someone you live with is older or has a health condition that raises the chances of serious COVID-19 illness.
  • Visit with family and friends by phone and computer instead of in person.
  • If you must go out, stand at least 6 feet away from people.
  • Wear a face mask when you go out if you are not vaccinated.
  • If youre sick, stay in a separate bedroom away from others in your home.
  • Do your shopping, especially for groceries or drugstore items, online if possible.
  • Keep your pets away from people and animals outside your home. Cats should stay indoors as much as possible.
  • Clean up pet waste properly. Wash your hands afterward and after you touch them, their food, or their toys.
  • If you have COVID-19 symptoms, limit contact with your pet. If you cant have someone else take care of your animals, wear a face mask when youre around them, and wash your hands before and after you interact with them.


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How Close Are You To Others

If someone’s infected – maybe without realising it because they have no symptoms – they’ll be releasing the virus as they breathe, especially if they cough.

Some of that will be carried in droplets, most of which will quickly fall to the ground but could reach your eyes, nose or mouth if you’re within 2m of them.

So the advice is to avoid being face-to-face if you’re that close.

The infected person will also release smaller particles called aerosols.

Indoors, these can accumulate in the air and be a hazard. Outside they should rapidly disperse.

How Long Are You Together For

Health check: New research shows how easily coronavirus can spread indoors

Walking past someone in the street or having a jogger run by you, means you’re close together for a few seconds at most.

Fleeting encounters are highly unlikely to be long enough for enough virus to reach you.

Prof Cath Noakes, an airborne infection expert from the University of Leeds, says someone would have to cough right at you, at the moment you’re inhaling, for an infection to happen.

But she also warns of friends spending a long time together outdoors and assuming they’re completely safe.

Going for a run with someone and following close behind them for 20 minutes or more, breathing in their slipstream, might be a problem, she says.

“The sad fact is that your greatest risk is from the people you know.”

Scientists have found that the risks are low in fully open spaces.

But they worry about areas that are not just crowded but also partly enclosed, such as market stalls or bus shelters.

Whenever the air is still, it can become stagnant and contaminated.

It’s in environments like narrow pathways or busy queues that government advisers say face coverings may be needed.

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How Does Omicron Spread So Fast A High Viral Load Isnt The Answer

    A hospital worker in Bochum, Germany, cares for a person with COVID-19 at the start of Germanys Omicron-fuelled wave.Credit: Ina Fassbender/AFP/Getty

    In countries around the world, Omicron has rapidly surged past other variants to become the dominant SARS-CoV-2 strain. Now, two studies show that the variant has achieved success despite causing viral levels in the body that are similar to or lower than those of its main competitor, the Delta variant,.

    The results suggest that Omicrons hyper-transmissibility does not stem from the release of large amounts of virus from infected people. Instead, the best explanation for its lightning-fast spread is its ability to evade SARS-CoV-2 immunity caused by either vaccination or past infection, says Emily Bruce, a virologist at the University of Vermont in Burlington.

    The studies have not yet been peer reviewed.

    Virus Rna Can Mislead

    The focus on fomites rather than aerosols emerged at the very beginning of the coronavirus outbreak because of what people knew about other infectious diseases. In hospitals, pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, respiratory syncytial virus and norovirus can cling to bed rails or hitch a ride from one person to the next on a doctors stethoscope. So as soon as people started falling ill from the coronavirus, researchers began swabbing hospital rooms and quarantine facilities for places the virus could be lurking. And it seemed to be everywhere.

    In medical facilities, personal items such as reading glasses and water bottles tested positive for traces of viral RNA the main way that researchers identify viral contamination. So, too, did bed rails and air vents. In quarantined households, wash basins and showers harboured the RNA, and in restaurants, wooden chopsticks were found to be contaminated. And early studies suggested that contamination could linger for weeks. Seventeen days after the Diamond Princess cruise ship was vacated, scientists found viral RNA on surfaces in cabins of the 712 passengers and crew members who tested positive for COVID-19.

    Sanitization of public transport in New York City cost hundreds of millions of dollars in 2020.Credit: Noam Galai/Getty

    But contamination with viral RNA is not necessarily cause for alarm, says Goldman. The viral RNA is the equivalent of the corpse of the virus, he says. Its not infectious.

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    How Easily Can Covid

    On the first day of the second week of school in Cherokee County, a teacher looked out at her class and noticed that one boy wasnt taking notes. As she walked over to see if he needed help, he clutched his head. He told her he had a throbbing headache.

    Headache is a common symptom of Covid-19, so she quickly sent him to the school nurse. A few minutes later, he was back in the classroom. He didnt have a fever, the nurse said, and the boy didnt want to call his mother to take him home.

    The boy stayed in the classroom. He didnt wear a mask. Mask-wearing is encouraged but not required for students in Cherokee County, where several high schools have been temporarily shut down and more than 2,000 students have been quarantined. The teacher, who wore a mask, could only keep her distance and hope for the best.

    School nurses follow their professional judgment, according to Barbara Jacoby, chief communications officer for the Cherokee County School District, who responded by email. Our school nurses, who all are RNs or LPNs, are assessing student symptoms and making the determination on whether to send students home. They are medical professionals and very familiar with the symptoms of COVID-19, she said.

    In a group of 25about the size of an average classthe model indicates theres a 67 percent chance in Cherokee County that at least one person has COVID-19, according to the most recent data.

    Where Do Coronaviruses Come From


    Coronaviruses are viruses that circulate among animals. Some coronaviruses can infect humans.

    Many human coronaviruses come from bats which are considered natural hosts of these viruses. The virus is then thought to be passed on through an intermediate host to humans. The first SARS-CoV originated in bats and was transmitted to humans via civet cats, while MERS-CoV emerged in humans through the intermediate host of camels. The precise way in which SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted from animals to humans is currently unknown.

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    Superspreader Events Can Occur With Both

    During the coronavirus pandemic, several COVID-19 superspreader events have been reported where an infected person transmitted the virus to others. First, there was the choir practice in Washington state. There was also the wedding in Maine and the Rose Garden gathering at the White House.

    The flu can also have superspreader events, noted Linsey Marr, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Virginia Tech who studies airborne viruses.

    Marr said the most famous superspreader example of the flu dates back to 1977 when an Alaska Airlines flight was delayed on the runway for three hours. During that time, the planes ventilation system was off, and within 72 hours of the flight, 72% of the passengers got sick with the flu. The outbreak was ultimately linked back to one individual who had boarded with the infection.

    That incident kind of led to greater acceptance of the idea that the flu transmitted through the air, Marr said.

    However, well likely see more superspreader events with COVID-19 because the population has less immunity to the disease, meaning more people in any given room are likely more susceptible to contracting COVID-19 than the flu.

    So How Long Am I Infectious For If I Have Covid

    At the start of January, the self-isolation period was cut from 10 days down to seven. To do so, you must return two negative lateral flow tests on days six and seven.

    But is it safe to meet up with loved ones on day seven even if you test negative and can end self-isolation? Or do you still risk passing the virus onto them?

    Views on this vary.

    For example, in the US, advice from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states: Available data suggest that patients with mild-to-moderate Covid-19 remain infectious no longer than 10 days after symptom onset.

    Most patients with more severe-to-critical illness likely remain infectious no longer than 20 days after symptom onset.

    This suggests your infectious period depends on how mild or severe your Covid symptoms were.

    Here in Scotland, NHS Inform advice following self-isolation is to:

    • Limit close contact with other people outside your household, especially in enclosed spaces, for 10 days
    • Wear a face covering in enclosed spaces and where you cannot maintain physical distancing
    • Limit contact with anyone who is at highest risk for 10 days
    • Not visit people in care homes, hospitals, prisons or other detention centres for 10 days, unless essential and agreed with staff in advance
    • Continue twice weekly lateral flow testing after the 10 days.

    While official advice is to limit social contact for the 10 days following the end of your self-isolation period, you can begin seeing loved ones immediately.

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    Can I Get Infected From Delivery Food Packages Or Groceries

    It’s highly unlikely that you’ll catch COVID-19 from packages, groceries, or food. The important thing is to limit your contact with other people. If you do your own shopping, try to keep at least 6 feet away from others in the store. That might not be possible all the time, so wear a face mask, too. If you use a delivery service, have them leave groceries, food, or packages outside your front door if you can.

    Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds before and after bringing things into your home. If you want, you can wipe down plastic, metal, or glass packaging with soap and water. Then clean and disinfect countertops and anything else you or your bags have touched.


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