Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 7, 2022 6:30 pm
All countries
Updated on August 7, 2022 6:30 pm
All countries
Updated on August 7, 2022 6:30 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 7, 2022 6:30 pm
All countries
Updated on August 7, 2022 6:30 pm
All countries
Updated on August 7, 2022 6:30 pm
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How Effective Are The Covid Vaccines

When Can I Get The Coronavirus Vaccine

Which Covid-19 vaccine is most effective?

Now that the Food and Drug Administration has issued emergency use authorizations for COVID-19 vaccines, vaccines are being distributed across the United States.

If you are a Johns Hopkins Medicine patient, visit our COVID-19 Vaccine Information and Updates page for current information on getting vaccinated. Your states health department website can also provide updates on vaccine distribution in your area.

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Pfizer And Moderna Vaccines Found To Provide More Protection Against Covid

A recent CDC study compared COVID-19 test results in hospitalized people with COVID-19-like symptoms. They found that unvaccinated people who were previously infected with the virus were over 5 times more likely to test positive for COVID-19. This was compared to fully vaccinated people who received the Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines.

This study included data from over 7,000 adults in the U.S. from January to September 2021. People included in the study were hospitalized with COVID-19-like symptoms. They either tested positive or became fully vaccinated 3 to 6 months before being hospitalized.

People who received the J& J vaccine were not included in the study because of a lack of data.

  • What this means: Its recommended to get vaccinated against COVID-19 even if youve tested positive for the illness in the past.

  • What this doesnt mean: The Moderna and Pfizer vaccines should be preferred over the J& J vaccine. The J& J vaccine wasnt included in this study because of a lack of available data.

To read more about this study, click or tap here.

What About The Other Variants

The most potentially dangerous ones are called variants of concern and, along with Omicron, include:

  • Delta , first identified in India and now the most common type circulating in the UK
  • Alpha , first identified in the UK but which spread to more than 50 countries
  • Beta , first identified in South Africa but which has been detected in at least 20 other countries, including the UK
  • Gamma , first identified in Brazil but which has spread to more than 10 other countries, including the UK

UK officials are also keeping an eye on a recent descendent of the Delta variant, called AY.4.2 or “Delta plus”.

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Which Booster Should I Get After J& j

People who received Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine should get either Moderna or Pfizer as a booster, the CDC says.

The recommendation followed a meeting of a committee of doctors and scientists that advises the CDC who discussed rising concerns of a rare but serious blood-clotting disorder associated with Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine, called thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Since the CDC paused the distribution of the disorder to investigate, more information revealed that it’s less rare than previously understood and occurs in both men and women. . Nine people have died from TTS and all cases required hospitalization or ICU admission, according to a CDC presentation.

A big reason for the CDC’s preferential recommendation on COVID-19 vaccines is the safety, effectiveness and wide availability of Pfizer’s and Moderna’s vaccines in the US. However, Johnson & Johnson still has emergency use authorization for its COVID-19 vaccine, and a booster dose is available to you if you choose to get it for any reason, including having a prior allergy to an mRNA vaccine.

In a statement Thursday, Johnson & Johnson said the company “remains confident in the overall positive benefit-risk profile of its COVID-19 vaccine.”

Read more: What to know if you got Johnson & Johnson’s COVID vaccine

Should People Who Are Pregnant Get A Booster Shot

Good News: Know this BIG revelation about coronavirus ...

The COVID-19 booster recommendations apply to all people 18 years and older, including those who are pregnant. The CDC urges pregnant people to get a COVID-19 vaccine, a booster is half a full vaccine dose.

“People who are pregnant or recently pregnant are more likely to get severely ill with COVID-19 compared with people who are not pregnant,” the CDC says on its website.

While there is no evidence that getting vaccinated decreases fertility in women or men, a recent study also linked COVID-19 infection in pregnant people to a higher risk of stillbirth.

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Vaccine Protection And Variants

When cases increase and transmission accelerates, its more likely that new dangerous and more transmissible variants emerge, which can spread more easily or cause more severe illness.

Based on what we know so far, vaccines are proving effective against existing variants, especially at preventing severe disease, hospitalization and death. However, some variants are having a slight impact on the ability of vaccines to guard against mild disease and infection.

Vaccines are likely staying effective against variants because of the broad immune response they cause, which means that virus changes or mutations are unlikely to make vaccines completely ineffective.

WHO continues to constantly review the evidence and will update its guidance as we find out more. For the latest updates on what we know about the COVID-19 variants, read our latest weekly epidemiological updates and our explainer on the effects of virus variants on COVID-19 vaccines.

One of the best ways of guarding against new variants is to continue applying tried-and-tested public health measures and rolling out vaccines. All COVID-19 vaccines approved for emergency use listing by WHO have been thoroughly tested and proven to provide a high degree of protection against serious illness and death. As stronger virus variants emerge, its important to take your vaccine when its your turn.

New Evidence Shows Omicron Likely Spreads Twice As Fast As Delta In South Africa

But against omicron, that ability dropped dramatically. On average, the antibodies were 40 times less potent against omicron than against the variant circulating in the summer of 2020.

And that’s a lot. “It’s astonishing … in terms of the reduction,” says Pei-Yong Shi, a virologist at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston who has been doing similar experiments to determine the effectiveness of the Pfizer vaccine against the coronavirus.

“We seem to see a drastic reduction in neutralizing activity, far more than with previous variants,” virologist Florian Krammer, who’s at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, wrote on Twitter. “Little activity was left in vaccinated individuals.”

These findings confirm what scientists have been predicting since omicron was first detected several weeks ago. The virus contains many mutations already known to weaken the power of the antibodies made by the immune system.

Based on the results of this preliminary study, scientists say it’s likely we’ll see a lot more breakthrough infections with the omicron variant. And South Africa is reporting a lot of reinfections.

Also the immune system has other tools besides antibodies that can ward off severe disease. In particular, the T cells can clear out the virus after an infection. And scientists think those may hold up better against omicron than antibodies will.

The vaccine manufacturer Pfizer also released a press statement Wednesday supporting these new findings.

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How Much Does The Vaccine Cost

The federal government pre-purchased hundreds of millions of vaccine doses with taxpayer money, so Americans do not have to pay to receive them, including the booster shots.

Vaccine providers are able to charge an administration fee for giving the shot, but this fee should be covered by public or private insurance or by a government relief fund for the uninsured.

Vaccine Protection And Timing

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Vaccines offer strong protection, but that protection takes time to build. People must take all the required doses of a vaccine to build full immunity. For two-dose vaccines, vaccines only give partial protection after the first dose, and the second dose increases that protection. It takes time before protection reaches its maximum level a few weeks after the second dose. For a one-dose vaccine, people will have built maximum immunity against COVID-19 a few weeks after getting vaccinated.

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Mix And Match Boosters

It appears getting a booster shot is going to be a choose your own adventure type of experience after the FDA stipulated that people eligible for boosters can choose any of the jabs, regardless of what brand they initially received.

There is a growing body of evidence that boosting with a different vaccine could induce a broader and longer-lasting immune response though some combinations may work better than others.

In announcing the emergency authorizations for the Moderna and J& J boosters, the FDA stated no preference for who gets what, or in what order. People who got J& J can get a second shot of Moderna or Pfizer. People who got one of the mRNA vaccines can get the J& J vaccine as their booster, the agency said.

Not stated in the FDAs announcement is the fact that this new policy will make life much easier for folks delivering booster shots, especially those trying to boost people living in long-term care, homeless shelters or prisons. They will need to bring only one vaccine when they go to administer booster shots, rather than trying to match people to their original vaccination brand.

Voluntary Reporting By State Health Departments

When the United States began widespread COVID-19 vaccination, CDC put in place a system where state health departments could report COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough infections to CDC.

On May 1, 2021, after collecting data on thousands of vaccine breakthrough infections, CDC changed the focus of how it uses data from this reporting system.

  • One of the strengths of this system is collecting data on severe cases of vaccine breakthrough COVID-19 since it is likely that most of these types of vaccine breakthrough cases seek medical care and are diagnosed and reported as a COVID-19 case.
  • Persons with asymptomatic or mild cases of vaccine breakthrough infections may not seek testing or medical care and thus these types of vaccine breakthrough cases may be underrepresented in this system. For this reason, CDC relies on a variety of additional surveillance approaches to ensure that it is collecting information on all types of vaccine breakthrough cases.

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Amazon Established A Foothold In Diagnostics During Covid

There have been reports of severe allergic reactions to the mRNA vaccines. Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines appear, on rare occasions, to trigger anaphylaxis, a serious and potentially life-threatening reaction. People who develop anaphylaxis must be treated with epinephrine the drug in EpiPens and may need to be hospitalized to ensure their airways remain open. The CDC says people should be monitored for 15 minutes after getting a Covid-19 shot, and 30 minutes if they have a history of severe allergies. J& J recently revealed that a single case of anaphylaxis has been reported in someone who received its vaccine.

The most recent data from the CDC suggest that anaphylaxis occurs at a rate of between two to five cases per one million people vaccinated in the U.S. Many of the people who have developed anaphylaxis have a history of severe allergies and some have had previous episodes of anaphylaxis.

The mRNA vaccines carry a small risk of myocarditis and pericarditis, two types of heart inflammation that are most commonly seen soon after people receive their second shots, health officials have said. Males under 30 seem to be at highest risk, particularly those aged 12 to 17. Most cases reported have been mild and resolved.

TTS occurs most commonly in women between the ages of 30 and 49. The CDC says from March 2 to Aug. 31 there were 54 confirmed cases, nine of whom died.

How Does A Booster Work To Improve Protection Against A New Variant Like Omicron And Why Do We Have To Wait Several Months To Get One

Modernaâs COVID

Improved immunity is not just about having more antibodies it’s also about having the kind of antibodies that can actually take down omicron. For your body to generate those specific antibodies, it takes time at least three months after the first two shots.

You see, right after your first two shots of the vaccine, your immune system rushes and makes a burst of antibodies. But these antibodies aren’t so great. They especially aren’t good at fighting off new coronavirus variants, says immunologist Ali Ellebedy at the Washington University School of Medicine. “That initial group isn’t very well trained.”

The level of these antibodies starts to go down after about a month, and then your body gets to work to “train” these antibodies, Ellebedy says. Special immune cells, called B cells, go into your lymph nodes and start to improve the potency of the antibodies. Eventually, over time, through a process called B cell maturation, these B cells develop new antibodies that not only can recognize and neutralize the original variant of virus but also future variants, such as omicron.

“To protect you from future exposures, you want to have the best, well-equipped ‘soldiers,’ and the way our immune system does this is through this process of refinement in our lymph nodes,” Ellebedy says.

“This process takes time. It can take months.”

But if you get a booster before this process is finished, the shot will essentially amplify the “untrained” antibodies.

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Are There Risks Or Safety Concerns Regarding The Covid Vaccines

As part of their normal activities, the CDC and FDA monitor possible safety issues with the COVID-19 vaccines. These agencies are thorough and transparent about COVID-19 vaccine side effects. While millions in the U.S. have been vaccinated with only mild side effects, some rare issues have been reported and reviewed.

  • In April 2021, the CDC and FDA temporarily paused administration of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine so they could review data on a small number of cases of serious blood clots following shots with that vaccine. Most of these incidents occurred in women under age 50. After this review, the FDA and CDC determined that the benefits of the J& J vaccine outweigh the risk of this very rare side effect, and resumed authorization of vaccination with the J& J shot. Read more about side effects related to a rare blood clot.
  • After observing rare occurrences of myocarditis following the second injection of the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, the CDC released information for the public. Most of these myocarditis events happened in teens and young adults, and the majority of the cases were mild and cleared up on their own. Read more about side effects related to myocarditis.

This review process continues to monitor vaccine safety. Potential risks of COVID-19 vaccines are reviewed and weighed against the benefits of protection that the vaccines offer as well as the known, serious risk of harm due to COVID-19.

For State Health Departments

  • If a possible vaccine breakthrough case is identified:
  • Request that the clinical or public health laboratory hold any residual respiratory specimens from the positive SARS-CoV-2 test.
  • Report the available case data to NNDSS, per normal procedures.
  • Review CDCs screening questions to assess whether the case meets the COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough investigation criteria.
  • If the reported case meets those criteria, CDC encourages state health departments to:
  • Follow the steps for initiating a COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough case investigation.
  • Record the case in the COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough REDCap database.
  • Because CDC would like to characterize the SARS-CoV-2 lineages responsible for COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough cases, including variants, CDC requests state health departments to:
  • Report sequence results from a state public health laboratory, commercial reference laboratory, or academic laboratory by entering the PANGO lineage and GenBank or GISAID accession number into the COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough REDCap database.
  • If SARS-CoV-2 sequencing will not be performed locally and an acceptable clinical respiratory specimen is available, provide instructions for the testing laboratory to send the residual respiratory specimen to CDC.
  • For cases with a known RT-PCR cycle threshold value, submit only specimens with Ct value 28 to CDC for sequencing.
  • If the Ct value is not known , submit the positive specimen may still be submitted to CDC for RT-PCR and possible sequencing.
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    What Is A Variant Virus

    A variant occurs when the virus mutates, or changes, as it replicates and creates a slightly different version of itself. Sometimes, these variant strains just disappear these are the viruses that don’t make the news and scientists are not worried about them.

    Occasionally, a strain becomes a variant of concern when it is able to survive better than the original virus or previous variants of concern.

    They can become more easily passed from one person to another than the original strain or variants. They could also become more or less likely to cause serious illness.

    Do I Have To Get A Booster

    Which Coronavirus Vaccine Is More Effective? Comparison Of Vaccines That Are Ready For Use

    The CDC’s recommendation is that all adults in the US “should” get a booster. This is because even if the omicron variant lowers the efficacy of the vaccines, scientists expect COVID-19 vaccines to remain protective against severe disease.

    Before omicron, earlier in November, the CDC advisory panel voted unanimously to recommend boosters for all adults, but they also acknowledged that some people need them more than others. The guidance was that people age 50 and older “should” get a booster , in addition to other groups who “should” get one because of a clearer benefit, including adults living in long-term care facilities and everyone who received Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine. For all other adults, the choice was more dependent on personal circumstances or preference. Because of the newer variant which may increase risk of infection in people who already had COVID-19 or those who are fully vaccinated, officials are calling for maximum protection for everyone eligible — age 16 and up.

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