Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on July 2, 2022 11:14 am
All countries
Updated on July 2, 2022 11:14 am
All countries
Updated on July 2, 2022 11:14 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on July 2, 2022 11:14 am
All countries
Updated on July 2, 2022 11:14 am
All countries
Updated on July 2, 2022 11:14 am
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How Effective Is Johnson And Johnson Covid Vaccine

Q: Is It Possible To Make Comparisons About The Effectiveness Among The Three Covid

Johnson & Johnsons single-dose vaccine found to be effective vs. COVID-19

A: No. The only way to accurately compare the effectiveness of medical products, such as vaccines or drugs, is by direct comparison in head-to-head clinical trials, which did not occur for these vaccines. Furthermore, the clinical trials for these vaccines occurred in different geographic regions and at different points in time with varying incidence of COVID-19. All of the COVID-19 vaccines that the FDA has authorized for emergency use are at least 50% more effective than placebo in preventing COVID-19, consistent with FDA recommendations provided in our October 2020 guidance document, Emergency Use Authorization for Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19. A vaccine with at least 50% efficacy would have a significant impact on disease, both at the individual and societal level.

A: Yes. Overall, 45.3% of participants in the clinical trials identify as Hispanic/Latino, 19.4% Black or African American, 9.5% American Indian or Alaska Native, 3.3% Asian, 0.2% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, and 5.6% Multiracial.

The demographic characteristics were similar among participants who received Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine and those who received placebo.

How Have The Vaccines Performed The Real World Are They Working As Well As They Did In Clinical Trials

In a study published online in MMWR, the CDC reported that people who had received both doses of either mRNA vaccine were 90% less likely to get infected with COVID-19 than people who were not vaccinated. In clinical trials, the vaccines were 95% and 94.1% effective.

The MMWR study enrolled 3950 adults who were at high risk of exposure to the virus due to their jobs and followed them for 13 weeks, beginning in mid-December 2020. About 63% of the study participants received both doses of vaccine during the study period and an additional 12% received one dose during the study. Each week, the study participants sent a nasal swab for PCR testing, and they reported any symptoms, allowing the researchers to identify both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections.

A total of 180 COVID-19 infections occurred during the study period. Of these, 161 infections were in people who were unvaccinated, compared to three infections in people who were fully vaccinated. Sixteen people who had received only their first vaccine dose at least two weeks earlier were infected. While this translates to one dose preventing 80% of infections, the study did not measure how well the vaccine protects people who do not get the second dose.

The researchers did not comment on variants, and the study was not designed to measure the effectiveness of the vaccines against them. However, its worth noting that several viral variants were circulating during the study period.

How Long Does Protective Immunity Last

The amount of neutralizing antibodies in a person antibodies that defend a cell from the coronavirus is an accurate measure of protection within the first several months after vaccination. Studies show that individuals who received a Johnson & Johnson or an mRNA vaccine continue to produce antibodies for at least six months after vaccination. However, neutralizing antibody levels start to wane over time.

This may sound bad, but it isnt clear that lower antibody levels correlates with an increased risk of severe infection. Antibody levels normally decline over time. The immune systems long-term surveillance is done by memory immune cells that will prevent or reduce disease severity if a person is exposed to the virus at a later time.

More studies are needed to determine the role of memory cells in protection against the virus, and scientists are collecting real-world data from vaccinated people to determine when they may become vulnerable to infection again.

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How Does The Vaccine Work

The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is what’s known as an adenovirus vector vaccine. It uses an inactivated adenovirus, a type of virus that can cause the common cold, that has been engineered to carry the genetic code for the coronavirus’s spike protein. The genetic instructions allow the body to build the spike protein, which the immune system learns to recognize. That way, if the real virus shows up, the immune system will already know how to defend itself.

The vaccine uses a modified adenovirus to enter cells and deliver the genetic code for the spike protein, but the viral vector itself is harmless.

“It’s not a true virus it has been modified so that you don’t get infected,” said the director of the stem cell program at the University of California, San Francisco, Dr. Arnold Kriegstein, a professor of neurology.

The vaccines made by Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech use a different approach to teach the body how to build the coronavirus’s spike protein. Both vaccines use synthetic messenger RNA, or mRNA, to deliver bits of genetic code to cells to trigger an immune response.

How Effective Is It

Johnson &  Johnson COVID Vaccines Paused For Investigation ...

Johnson & Johnson announced that its single-dose vaccine was 66% percent effective at preventing moderate to severe disease from COVID-19 and 85% effective at preventing severe disease. This effectiveness in the Phase 3 trial was reached 28 days after vaccination.

The trial had a temporary delay in October when it paused for an unexplained illness, although no specific details were provided about what happened due to patient privacy. Regulators determined that the event was not related to the vaccine and the trial was safe to resume.

The efficacy against moderate to severe COVID-19 infection varied by region in the trial. It was 72% in the United States, 68% in Latin America, and 64% in South Africa.

The vaccine was also found to be fully protective against hospitalization and death, and the protection against severe disease included multiple variants of COVID-19, including the B.1.351 variant found in South Africa.

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Q: Can People Who Have Already Had Covid

A: While relatively few confirmed COVID-19 cases occurred overall among participants with evidence of infection prior to vaccination, limited data suggest that previously infected individuals can be at risk of COVID-19 and may benefit from vaccination. Furthermore, available data suggest that the safety profile of the vaccine in previously infected individuals is just as favorable as in previously uninfected individuals.

What Do We Know About The Moderna Covid

On December 18, 2020, the FDA granted emergency use authorization to an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine developed by Moderna in collaboration with scientists from the NIH. The vaccine is approved for use in people 18 years and older. This is the second COVID-19 vaccine authorized for use in the US.

The FDA granted EUA based on their own analysis of efficacy and safety data, as well as on the recommendation made by the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee . VRBPAC is a group of outside experts in infectious disease, vaccinology, microbiology, immunology, and other related fields.

In briefing documents submitted to the FDA, the Moderna vaccine showed an overall efficacy of 94.1% in preventing COVID-19. This study enrolled 30,400 adults half received the vaccine, half received a saltwater placebo shot. There were 196 infections among the study participants. Of these, 185 were in the placebo group and 11 were in the vaccine group. All 30 cases of severe COVID occurred in the placebo group, strongly suggesting indicating that the vaccine reduces risk of severe illness.

The vaccine was similarly effective in people older and younger than 65, in men and women, in people with and without medical conditions that put them at high risk for severe illness, and in different racial and ethnic groups.

The most common vaccine side effects were pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and chills.

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What Is The Connection Between The Johnson & Johnson Covid

In July 2021, the FDA warned that the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine may lead to a small but increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome . GBS is a disorder in which the body destroys its own nerve cells. It can lead to muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis, trouble breathing, or, rarely, death. The risk of developing GBS after receiving the J& J vaccine is very low, and benefits of vaccination still far outweigh the risks.

The FDAs warning was based on preliminary reports of about 100 cases of GBS that occurred in people who had received the J& J vaccine. To date, about 12.8 million people in the US have gotten the J& J vaccine. Most of the reported cases occurred in men ages 50 years and older, about two weeks after vaccination.

Almost all required hospitalization because GBS can affect the nerves to chest muscles and the diaphragm, making it difficult to breathe. Most people recover completely from GBS within a few months, but some never regain full strength.

Seek immediate medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms after receiving the J& J COVID-19 vaccine:

  • weakness or tingling sensations, especially in the legs or arms, thats worsening and spreading to other parts of the body
  • difficulty walking
  • difficulty with facial movement, including speaking, chewing, or swallowing
  • double vision or inability to move eyes
  • difficulty with bladder control or bowel function.

Expect The Same Side Effects

Johnson & Johnson’s Single Shot COVID Vaccine Safe And Effective, FDA Says

Aside from the extremely rare blood clots discussed above, the side effects for the J& J vaccine are very similar to those for the mRNA vaccines, including injection-site pain, headache, fatigue, fever, chills and muscle aches, said Dr. Fryhofer.

With most of the side effects occurring within one to two days following vaccination, Dr. Fryhofer recommends choosing a day or two when you dont have a lot of important stuff going on, because you might not feel well.

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Some People Are Concerned That The Overall Efficacy Of The J& j Vaccine 66 Percent Globally 72 Percent In The Us Is Lower Than The 94

The way I think about these vaccine trials is to look at the worst outcomes first hospitalizations and deaths from COVID-19 because thats what got us into trouble to begin with, said Gandhi.

In the J& J trial, the placebo group had 16 hospitalizations and seven deaths from COVID-19, whereas the vaccine group had none, which means the vaccine provided 100 percent efficacy against hospitalizations and deaths.

For severe disease, which includes people who were sick enough with COVID-19 to require medical intervention but recovered without hospitalization, the efficacy was about 85 percent across the board in Brazil, South Africa and the U.S.

Including mild and moderate disease, the overall efficacy was 66 percent, but varied across the regions: 72 percent in the U.S., 64 percent in South Africa, and 61 percent in Brazil. Mild and moderate outcomes could include a range of illness, said Gandhi, and we wont know the details until the full trial results are published, but we do know that everyone recovered without medical intervention.

Admittedly, against mild to moderate disease, it didnt work as well, and I understand peoples concerns, said Gandhi.

Cars lined up at the the City College drive-through vaccination site in San Francisco.

Rural Colorado County Benefits From Single

The Johnson & Johnson vaccine also requires only a single dose, which will alleviate the administrative burdens of scheduling two shots several weeks apart. As a result, it could be ideal for communities that have struggled to get the other vaccines.

“I have many homebound seniors who love the idea of having someone come to their home once or if they have to leave their home, they only have to leave once and then they’re protected,” Jean-Jacques said. “So there are many people who would be very happy with a one-shot vaccine.”

Dr. Carlos del Rio, executive associate dean of the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, agreed, saying the one-dose regimen might be preferable for some people whose work or home lives may make it more difficult to make two appointments.

Some people “cannot afford to take a day off to get a second vaccine,” he said. “If you are unlikely to return for a second vaccine, I think the Johnson & Johnson may be better.”

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Will Johnson & Johnson Recipients Need A Booster

According to the joint statement from the Health and Human Services , Food and Drug Administration , and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , booster shots are likely needed for those who were vaccinated with the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. However, they are waiting on more data before making an official recommendation.

“It is possible that people will boost their immune responses after a second shot of Johnson & Johnson or after a boost with a different type of vaccine,” Liu says.

Earlier this month, the San Francisco Department of Public Health allowed Johnson & Johnson vaccine recipients to receive a supplemental mRNA vaccine dose should they wish to do so. Health officials made it clear that this is not a recommendation nor a new state requirement, but rather, an accommodation for patients who have consulted with their physician about a supplemental dose.

There is no published data to suggest that a hybrid vaccination schedule would afford better protection yet, Venkatesh says. There are ongoing trials that we should expect results from this fall regarding whether receiving one vaccine before another type of vaccine is better.

A study preprint, which has not been peer-reviewed and should not be used to guide clinical practice, found that a first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine followed by a second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine induces higher antibodies than a two-dose AstraZeneca vaccination series.

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Johnson &  Johnson

A two-dose version of Johnson & Johnson’s coronavirus vaccine provides 94% protection against symptomatic infection, the company said Tuesday — making a two-dose regimen of J& J’s Janssen vaccine comparable to a two-dose regimen of Moderna’s or Pfizer’s.

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What Do We Know About The Novavax Covid

The Novavax COVID-19 vaccine appears to be effective and safe, according to an analysis of phase 3 trial results released by the company in a press release. The trial found the vaccine to be 90% effective overall, and 100% effective against moderate and severe disease. The vaccine requires two doses, given three weeks apart, and may be stored using standard refrigeration.

The PREVENT-19 trial enrolled 29,960 participants, ages 18 years and older, across the US and Mexico. Two-thirds of the participants received the Novavax vaccine and one-third received a placebo. The trial was randomized, and observer-blinded, meaning the study participants and those evaluating the study endpoints did not know which participants received the vaccine.

Between January 25 and April 30, 2021, there were 77 confirmed cases of COVID-19 among the study participants. Of these, 63 occurred in the placebo group and 14 occurred in the vaccine group. All of the cases that occurred in the vaccine group were mild. Of those that occurred in the placebo group, 10 were moderate and four were severe. This translated to 100% efficacy against moderate and severe disease. The vaccine was 91% effective in people at high risk, which the study defined as people 65 years or older, with a medical condition that increased risk of severe COVID illness, or whose jobs increased their risk of exposure to COVID-19.

Side effects from the vaccine included arm pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and muscle pain.

Have There Been Any Covid

Issues concerning the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine and a rare incidence of myocarditis after the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, as noted above have been reported.

Trials for the vaccines have had fully independent safety monitoring boards, and safety data are continuously reviewed by the FDA and expert panels. The number of serious problems in test participants was very low, and there was little difference between those who received the actual vaccine and those who received a placebo. Millions of people have received the vaccines since their authorization, and careful safety monitoring of all three COVID-19 vaccines continues.

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Risk Of Thrombosis With Thrombocytopenia

On April 13, 2021, the FDA and CDC recommended a temporary pause in administration of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine while the agencies investigated six reported cases of a rare but severe type of blood clot that affects the brain called cerebral venous sinus thrombosis occurring along with thrombocytopenia , which can make the condition difficult to treat.

In their review the CDC and FDA accounted for nine additional cases of rare blood clots paired with low platelet counts, bringing the total to 15 out of 8 million administered doses. Most cases occurred in women between the ages of 18 to 49 within one to two weeks of vaccination. The agencies concluded that the potential benefits outweigh this very rare risk and lifted the pause after 10 days.

A warning was added to the fact sheets for healthcare providers and vaccine recipients and caregivers about the rare risk of thrombosis in the cerebral venous sinus and other sites along with low platelet counts after receiving the vaccine.

Healthcare providers have also been warned that treating a suspected case of this condition with the blood thinner heparin may be harmful and alternative treatments may be needed along with a consultation with hematology specialists.

Q: Is There Information About The Effectiveness Of Janssen Covid

Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine: Effectiveness, Side Effects and Differences Between Vaccines

A: Information is available for the United States, South Africa, and Brazil. A subgroup analysis was conducted for these countries. Following are the results of this analysis:

  • United States: the vaccine was 74.4% effective and 72% effective in preventing moderate to severe/critical COVID-19 occurring at least 14 days and 28 days after vaccination, respectively.
  • South Africa: the vaccine was 52.0% effective and 64.0% effective in preventing moderate to severe/critical COVID-19 occurring at least 14 days and 28 days after vaccination, respectively.
  • Brazil: the vaccine was 66.2% effective and 68.1% effective in preventing moderate to severe/critical COVID-19 occurring at least 14 days and 28 days after vaccination, respectively.

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