Why Get The Covid
Sandra Trevino, LCSW, is a founding member of Yales Cultural Ambassadors programa 10-year-old organization whose mission is to broaden community participation in clinical trials at the Yale Center for Clinical Investigationand is doubling her efforts to help educate people about COVID-19 vaccines.
In December, the Kaiser Family Foundation released results of a survey in which more than one-quarter of Americans said they would probably or definitely not get the vaccine. Republicans, and rural and Black Americans were most hesitant, according to the survey.
Its a great responsibility to make sure we continue to address the elephant in the room, which is mistrust with regard to the vaccines, says Trevino.
In a recent interview, she explained why shes encouraging everyone to get the COVID-19 vaccine and talked about her own familys experience with COVID-19.
How Are We Actually Doing On Getting People Second Doses
As Yglesias pointed out, state and local data tends to be somewhat more reliable than the CDCs. So I checked out the trends in Maryland and found a similar problem. The state has been averaging about 5,000 first doses per day so far in December. That would translate to as many as 140,000 people in the four-week interval between their first and second doses, if we use the longer Moderna schedule.
But the actual gap between the number of first doses versus the number of second doses? Nearly 500,000. That suggests a lot of people who got that first dose and never came back for a second.
Ohio likewise has a roughly 550,000-person gap between the number of vaccinations started and the number completed. In Washington state, a paragon of good public health practices, there are still 410,000 more people reported as having initiated their vaccination than are reported to have completed it.
None of these states are averaging anywhere near enough new vaccinations for the gap to be fully explained by people waiting the prescribed three or four weeks between shots. There is a real one-dose problem.
I think we can consider them not fully vaccinated, Paul Offit, director of the Vaccine Education Center at the Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, told me. People just dont follow up because they are only so attentive to their own health or for whatever reason. Hopefully people dont think they dont need the second dose.
Is It Ok To Take Medication To Relieve Pain Before Or After The Vaccine
If youre nervous about side effects from the vaccine, you might be considering taking medication to relieve potential pain before your shot.
Dont do that just yet.
Research published in the Journal of Virology found that taking a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug like ibuprofen, which is often recommended to help relieve pain, may impair antibody production and potentially weaken parts of the immune response to the vaccine.
Taking drugs that are used to relieve pain after receiving the vaccine may not be a problem. In the late-stage clinical trials of the Pfizer vaccine, the participants were not prevented from taking these medications.
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Cnbc Health & Science
Read CNBC’s latest global coverage of the Covid pandemic:
Unlike Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine, which requires one dose, Pfizer’s and Moderna’s vaccines require two shots given three to four weeks apart. White House chief medical advisor Dr. Anthony Fauci has repeatedly said over the past few months that the U.S. should stick to the two-dose regimen.
Dr. Paul Offit, a voting member of the FDA’s Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee who reviewed both Pfizer’s and Moderna’s vaccine for emergency use authorization, said the CDC study overall is”good news.”
However, he said he worries that people will now think one dose of the vaccines is “good enough” and won’t return for a second shot. He said studies have shown immunity appears to be actually more “durable” after the second dose, meaning protection may last longer.
“The reason that they are two-dose vaccines is that the second doses give you a titer of neutralizing antibodies, virus-specific neutralizing antibodies that is almost 10 growth fold greater than after the first dose,” he told CNBC. Neutralizing antibodies play an important role in defending cells against the virus.
Secondly, and more importantly, scientists also detected so-called T cells, another important part of the immune response that usually provides longer-lastingimmunity, he said.
If You Did Not Get Your Second Dose
If you had 1 dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine, you will be offered the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for your second dose. This will mean that you have completed your first round of COVID-19 vaccination.
The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine is only used in adults aged 30 and older in Ireland.
You should get your second dose at least 28 days after getting your first dose of AstraZeneca. Bring your vaccination card that shows you have had 1 dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine.
If you recently had COVID-19, wait at least 4 weeks before getting your second dose.
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We Don’t Yet Know Whether Vaccinated People Could Be Asymptomatic Carriers
Questions remain about this vaccine, as a single study can’t address every concern about the shot.
Real-world use across millions of people will be the only way to learn exactly how protective the shots are and whether there are any rare but serious side effects.
For instance, the study didn’t regularly test volunteers to see whether the shots prevented asymptomatic infection volunteers were tested for the virus only if they reported symptoms.
That means vaccinated people could still be infectious and contagious. It’s unclear how well the vaccine prevents people from becoming asymptomatic carriers â if it does at all.
The early results also don’t tell us whether the vaccine protects against both mild and severe illnesses, Bottazzi told Business Insider.
Pfizer’s study looked at whether the vaccine reduced symptomatic COVID-19 cases, regardless of the severity of the symptoms. Some experts want to see data on whether the vaccine also reduces hospitalization and death rates.
It’ll be some time before the trial concludes and we know exactly how well the vaccine works. While Pfizer said the initial analysis found that the vaccine was more than 90% effective, that percentage might change as we get more data on trial participants who’ve gotten infected with COVID-19.
Why Boosters Are Needed
While two doses are likely to provide a good degree of protection against severe disease from Omicron for some time, a booster dose offers greater protection.
Current evidence shows your protection against infection after the primary vaccination course decreases over time. Giving a top up vaccine after a primary course helps boost your immunity against COVID-19.
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When Does It Start Working
The Pfizer vaccine is given in two doses scheduled three weeks apart. It’s not ideal but, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , the second dose may be given up to 6 weeks after the first dose, if necessary. You should not get the second dose early.
These doses are given as injections and offer full protection two weeks after the second dose, the CDC says. The data suggest that after the first dose, some immune response is present in about two weeks.
A CDC report that tracked almost 4,000 healthcare personnel, first responders, and other frontline workers under real-world conditions found that the mRNA vaccines were 80% effective at least 14 days following the first dose and 90% effective at least two weeks after the second dose.
Q: What Safety Data Did The Fda Evaluate To Authorize The Pfizer
A: The available safety data to support the EUA include 37,586 of the participants enrolled in an ongoing randomized, placebo-controlled international study, the majority of whom are U.S. participants. These participants, 18,801 of whom received the vaccine and 18,785 of whom received saline placebo, were followed for a median of 2 months after receiving the 2nd dose. This is consistent with the recommendations set forth in the FDAs October 2020 Guidance on Emergency Use Authorization for Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19.
The most commonly reported side effects were pain at the injection site, tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, joint pain, and fever. Side effects typically started within two days of vaccination and resolved 1-2 day later. Of note, more people experienced these side effects after the second dose than after the first dose, so it is important for vaccination providers and recipients to expect that that there may be some side effects after either dose, but even more so after the second dose.
The FDA also evaluated additional safety data from the larger database that included participants enrolled later during the study who had shorter follow-up . The FDA determined that the findings were similar to those in the population of participants with a median follow-up of 2 months after the 2nd dose.
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Q: How Is Additional Safety Monitoring Being Conducted For The Pfizer
A: The company has submitted a pharmacovigilance plan to the FDA to monitor the safety of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine as it is used under EUA. The pharmacovigilance plan includes a plan to complete longer-term safety follow-up for participants enrolled in ongoing clinical trials. The pharmacovigilance plan also includes other activities aimed at monitoring the safety of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and ensuring that any safety concerns are identified and evaluated in a timely manner.
Pfizer Booster Vs Omicron
Early analysis from the United Kingdom has suggested that boosters have moderate to high vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection, offering 70 to 75 percent protection in the initial weeks after the booster.
Researchers found a slight difference depending on whether the initial doses were from the AstraZeneca vaccine or Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Both groups had Pfizer-BioNTech boosters.
Two weeks after a Pfizer-BioNTech booster dose, vaccine effectiveness for people who received the AstraZeneca vaccine increased to around 71 percent and to about 76 percent for those who initially got the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.
As for severe disease, modeling by Imperial College London found that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine with a booster was around 85.9 percent effective against Omicron, compared with about 97 percent against Delta.
Early data from Pfizer had indicated that a booster dose significantly increased neutralizing antibodies, bringing the vaccines protection close to what two doses provided against the original variant of the coronavirus.
The data comes from a series of lab experiments testing the neutralizing ability of blood samples from people who had two doses of the vaccine and those who had received a booster.
The neutralizing ability of the antibodies collected from those who did not have a booster had a more than 25-fold decline against Omicron than the original variant.
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How Effective Are The Vaccines Against Variants
Soon after the triumph of Keenans first dose, the world had a fresh reason to worry. A SARS-CoV-2 variant identified in the United Kingdom seemed to be spreading unusually fast a different variant first identified in South Africa carried worrisome mutations in the coronavirus spike protein that serves as the basis for most COVID-19 vaccines in use.
Since then, further variants of concern have arrived in a steady parade, brandishing mutations that might boost the viruss spread, or undermine the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Uncontrolled outbreaks generate mutants, says Jerome Kim, director-general of the International Vaccine Institute in Seoul.
Initial laboratory tests suggested that antibodies raised by the PfizerBioNTech vaccine were less effective against the B.1.351 variant identified in South Africa, but it was unclear how that would affect protection against disease. In May, researchers in Qatar published reassuring data showing that people who received two doses of the PfizerBioNTech vaccine were 75% less likely to develop COVID-19 from infection with B.1.351, and were almost completely protected from severe disease. The big question right now is whether introduction of other variants could change the situation, says study author and infectious-disease epidemiologist Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad at Weill Cornell MedicineQatar in Doha. We are watching this on a daily basis, but we have optimism that maybe we have seen the worst.
What Has The J& j Booster Data Shown
For an FDA panel meeting in October to discuss authorization of its booster, J& J provided post-booster data from a large global study. The company reported that, in addition to providing 94% protection against moderate-to-severe COVID-19 in the U.S. , a booster shot given two months after the initial dose increased antibody levels by four to six times, compared to one dose alone.
Another report, a real-world study from the CDC conducted from March through August, showed the J& J single shot to be only 71% effective against hospitalization from COVID-19 in U.S. adults without immunocompromising conditions, compared to 93% for Moderna and 88% for Pfizer. But with the booster dose, the J& J vaccine could be equivalent to the mRNA vaccines, Leslie Sude, MD, a Yale Medicine pediatrician who has helped provide vaccinations, said at the time. Some vaccine experts feel that the J& J vaccine should have always been a two-dose series, but have only recently reached the phase of vaccine efficacy monitoring to confirm that idea.
As far as Omicron, the data is still coming in. Most recently, in late December, a study showed that the Johnson & Johnson shot, China’s Sinopharm vaccine, and Russia’s Sputnik V showed no neutralizing activity against Omicron. The study has not yet been peer-reviewed.
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Strengths And Limitations Of This Study
This study has several strengths: the large sample size, including all community covid-19 testing in England since the start of the vaccination programme, data on symptoms and date of onset, detailed vaccine history, and data on all previous testing. We provide evidence of vaccine effectiveness without restricting to the defined populations and storage, maintenance, and cold chains that can be well controlled in trial conditions but may be more challenging in the real world. The large sample size allowed us to look at fine intervals after vaccination, which helps to understand possible biases that need to be accounted for in this early phase of the vaccination programme. The large sample size also allowed us to estimate effects on severe outcomes, which may not be possible from the trials. Using a test negative case-control design helped to control for confounders that are difficult to measure as a result of differences in health seeking behaviour between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals because outcomes are estimated within a group that we know has presented for testing. In cohort and other observational analyses that compare laboratory confirmed cases with other population based controls, it may be difficult to differentiate between effects being related to vaccinated individuals being less likely to develop disease or less likely to present for a test.
The Pfizer Biontech Covid
The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization has issued interim recommendations for the use of the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine against COVID-19. This article provides a summary of those interim recommendations you may access the full guidance document here.
Here is what you need to know.
According to SAGE, the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is safe and effective. The priority is to start vaccinating health workers at high risk of exposure, followed by older adults, before immunizing the rest of the population.
Who should be vaccinated first?
While vaccine supplies are limited, it is recommended that priority be given to health workers at high risk of exposure and older people, including those aged 65 or older.
Who else can take the vaccine?
The vaccine has been found to be safe and effective in people with various conditions that are associated with increased risk of severe disease.
This includes hypertension, diabetes, asthma, pulmonary, liver or kidney disease, as well as chronic infections that are stable and controlled.
Given the significant risk of severe COVID-19 for moderately or severely immunocompromised persons , WHO advises an extended primary series based on available data, though individual safety monitoring is required, as is consultation with the treating physician.
Should pregnant women be vaccinated?
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Q: Does The Fda Foresee Any Instance In Which A Vaccine Might Receive An Eua And Not Meet The Criteria For A Biologics License Application If A Product Doesnt Meet The Bla Standard Does The Eua Get Revoked
A: If safety or effectiveness concerns arise with a vaccine under EUA, the FDA has the authority to revoke the EUA. However, it is expected that the data supporting the EUA, together with those that will be collected during use of vaccine under EUA, and additional data collected from ongoing trials will be sufficient to support licensure of a vaccine authorized under EUA.
What This Means For You
If you’ve received a single dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine, you likely already have some protection against the virus. But at this time, the U.S. government is not recommending receiving a single dose of either vaccine. Getting your second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine is imperative for achieving high immunity levels and protecting yourself.
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Effectiveness Against New Strains
The COVID-19 virus has changed over time due to mutations that result in a different strain of the virus. This is common for viruses, but some changes have greater impact than others. They may spread more rapidly, cause more or less serious illness, or fail to respond to the existing vaccines.
The CDC will classify some strains as a “variant of concern” when they have the potential for this greater impact. As of December 2021, there were two variants of concern in the U.S. They were:
- Omicron first identified in Botswana and South Africa
- Delta first identified in India