How Does The Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Compare To Other Vaccines
At first glance, the Johnson & Johnson vaccine looks to be the inferior option compared to the vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, both of which reported around 95 percent effectiveness in their Phase 3 clinical trials.
Experts say that in no way should those percentages be interpreted in a way that suggests that the Johnson & Johnson shot with its 72 percent effectiveness is 23 percentage points less effective.
The percentages can’t be compared directly to one another, because the trials were run differently. The vaccines were studied at different times during the pandemic, when different variants were circulating.
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, has been changing ever since it was discovered in Wuhan, China.
“The virus that swept through China was not the virus that left China,” Offit said. “The virus that left China was the first variant, and it was more contagious than the one that originally popped up.”
Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech successfully targeted that variant, called D614G, which was the predominant variant when their trials took place. Johnson & Johnson’s Phase 3 clinical trials began later, after the emergence of other variants.
That could account for the decreased effectiveness reported in Johnson & Johnson’s trials there’s no way to know how the Moderna and the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines would have fared in the same scenario.
Which Symptoms To Look For
After COVID vaccination, patients should expect flu-like symptoms, a mild to moderate headache, fatigue, fever, muscle aches, Dr. Fryhofer said, noting that these symptoms are expected and usually resolve within one to two days.
There is also risk of a rare brain blood clot combined with low plateletscerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia, or TTS. These adverse events were identified through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, which is jointly managed by the CDC and FDA. The highest reporting rate is in 3039-year-old females within 21 days of vaccination and occurs at a rate of 10 cases per million doses administered.
The risk of this concerning combination of blood clots and low platelets is rare but serious, she said. Patients whove had the Janssen vaccine should seek immediate medical attention if they develop shortness of breath, chest pain, leg swelling, persistent abdominal pain, neurological symptoms including severe or persistent headache or blurred vision, or petechiae beyond the site of vaccination.
Patients with these symptoms should contact their physician and seek medical evaluation, Dr. Fryhofer added.
Patients should seek medical care if they develop weakness or tingling sensations in the legs or arms that worsens and spreads to other parts of the body. Other symptoms to be mindful of are difficulty with walking, facial movements and bladder control or bowel function as well as double vision or inability to move their eyes.
Protecting Yourself From The Delta Variant
All the authorized COVID-19 vaccines provide a high degree of protection against severe illness and hospitalization. However, its important to continue practicing various safety measures to minimize the spread of the virus and protect those who are extremely vulnerable to disease.
I dont like the term ‘breakthrough,’ since post-vaccination COVID-19 infections have always been expected and the vaccines were not developed to prevent any infection, Venkatesh says. They were designed to prevent real harm including hospitalization and death.
Many were concerned about the CDC’s recent report that 74% of infections in the Massachusetts COVID-19 outbreak were among vaccinated individuals. However, as vaccination rates increase, it’s expected that a larger proportion of infected people will then be composed of fully vaccinated individuals. It doesn’t dismiss the fact that vaccines are still effective.
While the vaccines are so much better than we had hoped, people should still take long-haul COVID seriously, which can occur even after asymptomatic infections, Liu says. The key for everyone, regardless of what vaccine they were immunized with, is to limit unnecessary and risky interactions as much as possible, re-institute masking and social distancing and hand-washing, even when around people you think are immunized, and especially when you don’t know.
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Will A Booster Shot Be Needed
On Aug. 12, the FDA authorized a third dose of either the Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for people who have a weakened immune system for reasons such as being an organ transplant recipient, having an autoimmune disease, or receiving treatment for cancer.
But the FDAs authorization did not extend to J& J vaccine recipients. Because the J& J clinical trials started after those for Pfizer and Moderna, and because the vaccine was authorized later than the other two, the agency is still awaiting study results that would allow for a second dose recommendation, Reategui Schwarz explains. The interim results of the two-dose regimen trial are expected to be released later this summer, according to a spokesperson at Janssen, the company that makes the J& J vaccine.
Were still looking into data on safety and effectiveness of mixing and matching, she says. For J& J recipients who want another shot, I would say please wait until we have more safety and efficacy data.
However, some other countries have moved forward with advising people who got a dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine which, like the J& J vaccine, uses an adenovirus to follow it with a dose of one of the mRNA vaccines. One study in Spain found that people who received a dose of the Pfizer vaccine after a first dose of AstraZeneca elicited a stronger immune response. Similar trials with the J& J vaccine are ongoing.
Still, those who were vaccinated with the J& J vaccine can feel confident that they are well protected.
A Doctor Explains What Johnson & Johnson’s 66% Vaccine Effectiveness Actually Means
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is 66 percent effective at preventing COVID-19, which seems like a pretty steep drop-off from the numbers put up by Pfizer and Moderna . How much should we be reading into that difference, and is there a certain threshold a vaccine should reach before we can consider it effective? Although Johnson & Johnson’s one-dose vaccine hasn’t been approved yet – the company is currently waiting for FDA emergency authorization – we can already calm some of those anxieties based on what experts know so far.
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Who Else Can Take The Vaccine
The vaccine is safe and effective in people with known medical conditions associated with increased risk of severe disease, such as hypertension, chronic lung disease, significant cardiac disease, obesity, and diabetes.
The WHOs Interim recommendations for an extended primary series with an additional vaccine dose for COVID-19 vaccination in immunocompromised persons can be viewed here.
WHO recommends a second dose of the Janssen Ad26.COV2.S vaccine for immunocompromised persons aged 18 years and older, given 13 months after the first dose in order to increase protection as quickly as possible. The most appropriate timing for the second dose may vary depending on the epidemiological setting and the extent and timing of immune suppressive therapy, and should be discussed with the treating physician. There are no data available to determine the need and timing of a third dose. As data become available, these recommendations will be updated.
The J& J vaccine can be offered to people who have had COVID-19 in the past. But individuals may wish to defer their own COVID-19 vaccination for up to six months from the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection, to allow others who may need the vaccine moreurgently to go first.
This vaccine can be offered to a breastfeeding woman who is part of a group recommended for the vaccination discontinuing breastfeeding after vaccination is not currently recommended.
Q: How Is Additional Safety Monitoring Being Conducted For Janssen Covid
A: Janssen Biotech, Inc. has a pharmacovigilance plan that was assessed by the FDA to monitor the safety of Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine. The pharmacovigilance plan includes a plan to complete longer-term safety follow-up for participants enrolled in ongoing clinical trials. The pharmacovigilance plan also includes other activities aimed at monitoring the safety of the vaccine and ensuring that any safety concerns are identified and evaluated in a timely manner.
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Johnson & Johnson Says Its Booster Shot 94% Effective Against Covid
— A two-dose version of Johnson & Johnson’s coronavirus vaccine provides 94% protection against symptomatic infection, the company said Tuesday — making a two-dose regimen of J& J’s Janssen vaccine comparable to a two-dose regimen of Moderna’s or Pfizer’s.
Plus, the company said, adding a booster dose to a single shot of the vaccine raised immunity even more, and should also protect people strongly against infection.
The company released some details of three studies looking at various aspects of its Janssen vaccine, and said that, taken together, they showed the vaccine provided long-lasting protection that could be boosted with an extra shot.
“Our large real-world-evidence and Phase 3 studies confirm that the single-shot Johnson & Johnson vaccine provides strong and long-lasting protection against COVID-19-related hospitalizations,” Dr. Mathai Mammen, global head of Janssen Research & Development, said in a statement.
“Our single-shot vaccine generates strong immune responses and long-lasting immune memory. And, when a booster of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine is given, the strength of protection against COVID-19 further increases.”
Johnson & Johnson’s single-dose vaccine was given emergency use authorization by the US Food and Drug Administration on February 27. It has been given to about 14.8 million Americans, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In Massachusetts, 308,860 people have had the Johnson and Johnson vaccine.
Should Pregnant Women Be Vaccinated
The Janssen vaccine is a nonreplicating vaccine. No safety issues have been identified following vaccination of more than 1,600 pregnant women using this vaccine platform for vaccines against other pathogens, such as the Ebola virus. Animal developmental and reproductive toxicity studies show no harm to the development of the foetus. Further studies are planned in pregnant women in the coming months. As data from these studies become available, recommendations on vaccination will be updated accordingly.
Who is the vaccine not recommended for?
Individuals with a history of anaphylaxis to any component of the vaccine should not take it.
Anyone with a body temperature over 38.5ºC should postpone vaccination until they no longer have a fever.
The vaccine is not recommended for persons younger than 18 years of age pending the results of further studies in that age group.
Whats the recommended dosage?
A single dose regimen, in keeping with the EUL recommendations for this vaccine, remains an acceptable option for countries, especially when faced with supply constraints and difficult to reach populations. However, given the evidence demonstrating improved protection with a second dose, a 2-dose regimen is what has been recommended by the Sage, whenever possible. The administration of the second dose will result in increased protection against symptomatic infection, and against severe disease.
Intervals between doses
Is it safe?
How efficacious is the vaccine?
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What Are The Side Effects
The most common side effects reported in Johnson & Johnson’s clinical trials are generally expected after any vaccination. They include pain at the injection site, redness of the skin, muscle pain, headache, fatigue, nausea and fever. While they may be uncomfortable, they actually signal that the immune system is responding to the vaccine.
“It’s better tolerated than the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine in terms of local, what we call reactogenicity causes less people to have a sore arm, less people have what we call systemic side effects, including fatigue, fever, myalgias headache,” Goepfert said.
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No serious or long-term side effects were reported during Johnson & Johnson’s clinical trials, but the company is investigating two cases of severe allergic reactions that were reported later. Health care providers are advised to monitor people who have histories of allergic reactions for 30 minutes after vaccination and all other patients for 15 minutes.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, rare cases of anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction, occurred at a rate of 4.5 cases per 1 million doses administered of both the Moderna and the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines.
Data Suggests Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Still Effective Against Delta Variant
Angela Underwood’s extensive local, state, and federal healthcare and environmental news coverage includes 911 first-responder compensation policy to the Ciba-Geigy water contamination case in Toms River, NJ. Her additional health-related coverage includes death and dying, skin care, and autism spectrum disorder.
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Q: How Can We Be So Sure About The Effectiveness Of The Janssen Covid
A: In a randomized, blinded clinical trial, participants are not aware of whether they received vaccine or placebo. Therefore, any mitigation efforts would have affected those who received vaccine and placebo equally. The relatively high number of COVID-19 cases occurring among placebo recipients suggests that any mitigation efforts among trial participants may not have been very effective at preventing COVID-19.
Mixing And Matching Is Ok
The language CDC uses in the recommendation for the kind of booster to give is neutral and vague. It doesn’t specify what kind of booster to give, and this is not an oversight, said Dr. Fryhofer. The bottom line: you can boost with any authorized COVID vaccine.
The booster doesnt have to match the primary vaccine series type. This is called heterologous boosting, she added. On the other hand, boosting with the same type of vaccine as the one you originally received is called homologous boosting. Either strategy is permitted.
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What You Need To Know About The Fda Warning
The FDA made its decision based on preliminary reports from vaccine recipients and health care providers, made through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System . This is a government reporting system that anyone can use, which collects information and helps identify unusual patterns. Of the 100 reports, 95 were serious and required hospitalization, and there was one reported death. Most of the cases were in men, and many of those men were ages 50 or older.
The agency made it clear that there is still more learn. Although the available evidence suggests an association between the Janssen vaccine and increased risk of GBS, the FDA said in a statement, it is insufficient to establish a causal relationship.
How Effective Is Johnson & Johnson Covid
The Johnson & Johnson one-dose vaccine received FDA authorization on Feb. 27. Photo by Maurice Ramirez
With the FDAs emergency use authorization of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine on Feb. 27, the U.S. now has three highly effective vaccines against COVID-19.
All three vaccines Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer, and Moderna completely prevented hospitalizations and deaths in clinical trials, which is why public health experts are recommending that people get the first vaccine that is available to them. But the vaccines differ in a number of details of how they work and how they were studied, leading to questions and some confusion.
We asked UC San Francisco infectious disease expert Monica Gandhi, MD, MPH, to unpack some of the big questions around vaccine science, such as how the Johnson & Johnson vaccine differs, how well it works against the new variants, and whether you should be worried about transmitting the virus after vaccination.
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When Will It Be Available
States already got their first batches of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine this week. In addition to the 4 million doses that shipped out Monday, the company is expected to have delivered a total of 20 million doses by the end of the month.
A deal between Johnson & Johnson and Merck was announced Tuesday to speed production of the single-dose vaccine. As was first reported by The Washington Post, the federal government brokered the partnership between the pharmaceutical giants after Biden administration officials learned that Johnson & Johnson had fallen behind on its manufacturing targets.
Johnson & Johnson CEO Alex Gorsky said Monday on NBC’s “TODAY” show that the company is aiming to distribute 100 million shots by the end of June and 1 billion by the end of the year.
How Well The Vaccine Works
- The J& J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine was 66.3% effective in clinical trials at preventing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection in people who received the vaccine and had no evidence of being previously infected. People had the most protection 2 weeks after getting vaccinated.
- In the clinical trials, the vaccine had high efficacy at preventing hospitalization and death in people who did get sick. No one who got COVID-19 at least 4 weeks after receiving the J& J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine had to be hospitalized.
- CDC will continue to provide updates as we learn more about how well the J& J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine works in real-world conditions.
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Rural Colorado County Benefits From Single
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine also requires only a single dose, which will alleviate the administrative burdens of scheduling two shots several weeks apart. As a result, it could be ideal for communities that have struggled to get the other vaccines.
“I have many homebound seniors who love the idea of having someone come to their home once or if they have to leave their home, they only have to leave once and then they’re protected,” Jean-Jacques said. “So there are many people who would be very happy with a one-shot vaccine.”
Dr. Carlos del Rio, executive associate dean of the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, agreed, saying the one-dose regimen might be preferable for some people whose work or home lives may make it more difficult to make two appointments.
Some people “cannot afford to take a day off to get a second vaccine,” he said. “If you are unlikely to return for a second vaccine, I think the Johnson & Johnson may be better.”