Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 22, 2022 9:24 pm
All countries
Updated on June 22, 2022 9:24 pm
All countries
Updated on June 22, 2022 9:24 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 22, 2022 9:24 pm
All countries
Updated on June 22, 2022 9:24 pm
All countries
Updated on June 22, 2022 9:24 pm
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How Is Covid Vaccine Made

Safety Monitoring After Vaccination

Preparations Made For Coronavirus Vaccine

Even after emergency use authorization has been granted, Dr. Kenyon said safety data will continue to be collected, as participants are followed for up to 2 years. This adds another layer of reassurance as a person shifts from a trial to a real-life setting.

The trial is tens of thousands of participants, but for the vaccine program, you are getting into the millions. While unlikely, it may uncover any undetected toxicities that were not picked up by the trial.

The V-safe .

It is a smartphone-based system where you will be contacted actively by CDC to see how you are doing after being vaccinated and therefore pick up any adverse events that were not picked up in the trials, Dr. Kenyon explained.

What You Need To Know

  • mRNA vaccines are a new type of vaccine to protect against infectious diseases.
  • mRNA vaccines teach our cells how to make a proteinor even just a piece of a proteinthat triggers an immune response inside our bodies.
  • The benefit of mRNA vaccines, like all vaccines, is those vaccinated gain protection without ever having to risk the serious consequences of getting sick with COVID-19.
  • COVID-19 vaccines are not interchangeable. If you received a Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine, you should get the same product for your second shot.
  • Learn more about getting your vaccine.

Messenger RNA vaccinesalso called mRNA vaccinesare some of the first COVID-19 vaccines authorized for use in the United States.

A Guide To Global Covid

  • Governments, multilateral organizations, and private firms have spent billions of dollars to develop effective vaccines for the new coronavirus.
  • More than a dozen vaccinesincluding ones by Pfizer and BioNTech, Moderna, and Sinopharmare already being distributed, with hundreds of millions of people fully vaccinated so far.
  • Vaccines go through rigorous testing for safety and effectiveness before they are approved for public use, a process that typically takes years.

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How Long Before A Coronavirus Vaccine Takes Effect

The mRNA vaccines require two doses. While people will have some immunity after the first dose, protection will be most likely about one week after receipt of the second dose.

The adenovirus vaccine requires one dose. While people will have some immunity about two weeks after being vaccinated, protection will be more robust about one month after receipt of the vaccine.

Was The Genome Of The Virus Subject To Peer Review Or Fda/cdc Oversight

Coronavirus Pandemic: COVID

The viral genome is not a product it represents scientific knowledge, so organizations like the FDA or CDC would not have oversight over the information. However, this question gets at the heart of how science is done. Scientists by their nature are skeptics, and the scientific process is designed to challenge rather than accept results. In this manner, several points offer reassurance that the genomic sequence was vetted for accuracy:

In this manner, the pillars of scientific integrity peer review and reproducibility can offer everyone reassurance that the genomic sequence was accurate not to mention the fact that vaccines based on the information have been effective at preventing infection.

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I Had A Breakthrough Covid Infection And It Made Me Even More Grateful For The Vaccine

When COVID-19 first emerged as a threat in my area, I shut it down – and by that I mean my family of six closed up shop. No more trips to the store or get-togethers with friends. Our children shifted to online learning and my husband’s job became remote. For the next 18 months, we lived as buttoned up as possible, especially because I was pregnant. My husband, my teenager, and I got vaccinated as soon as the shots were available to us. We masked anytime we needed to go out, which mainly consisted of visiting doctor’s offices for essential appointments.

Then, in August of 2021, our kids went back to school because no online option was offered this year. Within a few weeks – bam! – my daughter, who had masked every day, came home from school with the sniffles, and two days later, she tested positive for COVID. Although we isolated her, the infection spread throughout the house, with three more of our children testing positive, including our new baby, and then, finally, me.

I wasn’t even remotely surprised to test positive even though I was vaxxed. I’d heard about cases of breakthrough infections happening, and the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention reported this was possible. I’d been caring for sick kids for days. Plus, I’d been feeling slightly congested. Interestingly, I’d used a home test to confirm my COVID status about every other day since our first family member tested positive. Even with symptoms, I got a negative result two days before I tested positive.

What Is The Difference Between The First And Second Dose Of The Covid

In the United States, the ingredients in the vial for dose 1 and dose 2 of the same brand are exactly the same. When people talk about dose 1 doses and dose 2 doses, they are just talking about vaccine supply. If you arrive for dose 1 and the person behind you is getting dose 2, they can come out of the same vial.

One vaccine used in some other countries, Sputnik V, has different components in dose 1 and dose 2. Both are adenovirus vector vaccines, but dose 1 uses adenovirus 26 and dose 2 uses adenovirus 5 .

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Can Vaccines End The Pandemic

Even with a variety of vaccines approved for emergency use, there remains the tremendous challenge of making enough of them for the worlds population. Though multilateral initiatives such as COVAX and individual governments are investing billions of dollars to expand production plants, current global manufacturing capabilities are far below whats neededonly about a dozen countries have the capacity to produce COVID-19 vaccines.

This task has not only motivated countries to scale up production, but also pitted them against one another amid a limited vaccine supply. Wealthy countries including Australia, Canada, and the United States struck deals with manufacturers to provide their countries with more than enough doses for their populations, leaving lower-income countries unable to immunize but a small proportion of their citizens in the coming months. China and India have large vaccine industries, which allows them to reserve some of their vaccine supplies for their own residents. Experts including CFRs Thomas J. Bollyky have warned that bidding wars over vaccines lead to inequitable distribution and, ultimately, fail to eliminate the risk of new outbreaks. In a , WHO Director General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus echoed this, writing that leaving large swaths of the global population unprotected is epidemiologically self-defeating.

For Foreign Affairs, experts lay out a strategy for the long fight against COVID-19.

Can Mrna Vaccines Change The Dna Of A Person

Coronavirus: Unproven COVID-19 vaccine made available in China

Since mRNA is active only in a cells cytoplasm and DNA is located in the nucleus, mRNA vaccines do not operate in the same cellular compartment that DNA is located.

Further, mRNA is quite unstable and remains in the cell cytoplasm for only a limited time mRNA never enters the nucleus where the DNA is located so it cant alter DNA.

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Can I Return To Life As Normal After I Have Been Vaccinated

It is going to take time for an adequate number of people to be vaccinated. It is also not certain yet whether vaccination will prevent transmission as well as protecting the vaccinated person from severe disease. These are among the reasons why even after we receive the vaccine, we need to keep practicing mask wearing, physical distancing and personal hygiene.

How Did The Vaccine Companies Decide Which Mrna To Use

In order for a virus to reproduce and cause infection, it must get into cells and take over the cellular machinery. Because viruses attach to cells using a particular protein on their surface, in this case the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, scientists understood that blocking that attachment would be a direct way to prevent infection. One way to block this attachment is with antibodies that bind to the surface protein. As such, when the genome was published, scientists developing the nucleic acid or protein subunit vaccines chose the gene for the spike protein, anticipating that this would be the most direct route to developing an effective vaccine.

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Could The Mrna Vaccines From Pfizer And Moderna Cause The Same Clotting Problem As The J& j Vaccine Did

The Johnson & Johnson /Janssen COVID-19 vaccine is an adenovirus vector vaccine, which is different from the Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines. At the time of the J& J/Janssen pause, more than 182 million doses of the mRNA vaccines had been administered and no cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome, or TTS, had been reported. Three people out of about 85 million doses of Moderna had blood clots, but they did not have low platelets. The number of blood clots experienced by those who got the Moderna vaccine would be expected based on the background rate of clotting in the general population.

Where Can I Get The Vaccine

Novavax begins clinical trials of COVID

States have lifted their eligibility restrictions, but each state has slightly different approaches to distribution. As such, we suggest checking your state health department website. We also recommend checking for vaccine at local pharmacies, healthcare facilities, mass vaccination sites or mobile clinics.

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If I Have Already Had Covid

Everyone should be offered the COVID-19 vaccine, regardless of whether they have already had the infection previously. However, those who are currently infected with COVID-19 should postpone vaccination until after their illness has run its course and after they have met their health authorities criteria to discontinue isolation.

Given that persons who have had COVID-19 develop immunity for at least a few months following illness, health authorities may decide to postpone their vaccination to use their current supply for those not yet affected by the disease and until more vaccines become available.

What Should I Do If I Took Pain Medicine Before Getting The Covid

While your initial immune response may have been lower, you will likely still have developed some immunity. Even if your immune response is somewhat lower overall, you are likely to develop sufficient levels of immunity to reduce your chance for infection. In addition, even if you were infected, you would be likely to experience disease that is less severe and of shorter duration.

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Is It Safe To Get The Covid

The CDC recommends waiting until your symptoms go away and you are no longer isolating. If you happen to be infected, but dont know because you have not yet developed symptoms or you have an infection without symptoms, the vaccine is not likely to be harmful. It would increase your bodys immune response against the virus.

How Well The Second Dose Works

Serious Progress Made In Development Of Coronavirus Vaccine

In the early clinical trials, researchers studied how much of the mRNA to include in each dose of the Pfizer vaccine and how many doses people should have. They measured the level of antibodies in the blood that were produced after each dose.

After the first dose

After the first dose, the antibody levels were much lower compared to those seen after natural infection with COVID-19.

After the second dose

After the second dose, the antibody levels were higher than those seen after the first dose, and higher than those seen after natural infection.

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If A Person Has Allergic Reactions To A Food Or Medication Can They Get The Vaccine

People with severe allergies to a COVID-19 vaccine ingredient or a previous dose of COVID-19 vaccine should not get that type of COVID-19 vaccine . They may be able to get the alternative type after consultation with an allergist or immunologist. Individuals with a known allergy to polysorbate should not get the COVID-19 vaccine made by Johnson & Johnson/Janssen.

People with immediate allergic reactions to an injectable medication can most often get the COVID-19 vaccine however, they should remain at the site where they were vaccinated for 30 minutes of observation, instead of the 15 minutes that the general public is recommended to wait. Anyone with this type of allergy who has questions or concerns should discuss the situation with their healthcare provider to assess the potential risks and benefits of receiving the COVID-19 vaccine.

People who have had an anaphylactic reaction to anything else are allowed to get the COVID-19 vaccine, but should remain at the site where the injection was given for 30 minutes, instead of the 15 minutes that the general population are recommended to wait.

If a person with history of allergies continues to have concerns about whether or not it is safe to get the COVID-19 vaccine, they should contact their primary care provider or allergist, who has the benefit of their complete medical history and will, therefore, be in the best position to discuss any potential risks and benefits for that individual.

If I Am Taking Anticoagulants Can I Get The Covid

Patients on blood thinners are asked to speak with a healthcare provider because the vaccine is given intramuscularly, which increases the risk for bleeding. The vaccine itself does not increase the risk for this group of patients.

Find out more in this Parents PACK article, “Medications and COVID-19 Vaccines: What You Should Know.”

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If A Person Is Vaccinated Against Covid

People will not spread the virus after vaccination with the mRNA or adenovirus vaccines. The vaccines do not deliver live virus nor do they cause the body to produce virus, so there is no chance for a vaccinated person to spread the vaccine virus to others, even if they have side effects.

Of note, however, we do not yet know if these vaccines prevent infection or if they only prevent disease:

  • Disease means people experience symptoms of illness.
  • Infection means that a virus can infect a persons cells and reproduce, but the person may or may not have symptoms or be contagious.

If the COVID-19 vaccines only prevent disease, a person could be infected following an exposure and potentially spread the virus. Additional studies are underway to determine whether the vaccines prevent infection as well as disease. Scientists expect that even if someone experiences an asymptomatic infection, they will not be likely to infect others however, we need to wait for the data to know for certain. Therefore, in situations of higher risk for exposure vaccinated people should still use masks and practice social distancing measures as recommended by the CDC.

Find out more about viral shedding in the Parents PACK article, “Viral Shedding and COVID-19 What Can and Cant Happen.”

Over A Decade Of Research To Innovate Mrna As A ‘bioplatform’

International: COVID

One of the reasons Moderna’s mRNA Covid vaccine development moved so quickly is because scientists had been working with mRNA for years.

“Messenger RNA technologies have been in development from a basic science perspective for over 15 years,”Kizzmekia Corbet, the scientific lead for the Coronavirus Vaccines & Immunopathogenesis Team at NIH, who helped make the vaccine possible, told the NIH Record.

And Moderna has been working with mRNA technology “since its inception in 2010 for myriad therapeutic areas,” including cancer therapies, Afeyan tells CNBC Make It , and with clinical development of mRNA-based antiviral vaccines since 2015.

What Moderna did over many of those years was develop mRNA as what scientists call a bioplatform, which allows for speedier vaccine development. Bioplatforms are systems that can easily be scaled and tailored for many different diseases.

Traditionally, developing any vaccine essentially has been a bespoke effort.

“The benefits of a bioplatform is the ability to quickly redeploy the platform once established and refined in the case of Moderna’s mRNA platform, to create and test new vaccines based on new viral sequences,” Afeyan tells CNBC Make It .

All of this makes mRNA vaccines virtually programable. Corbet and Bancel describe the process as “plug and play.”

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Hitting The Vaccine Accelerator

To accelerate vaccine production, researchers needed to:

  • streamline the process and undertake various stages of development at the same time
  • fund as many vaccine candidates as possible using a range of different approaches and technologies
  • have trials running at a number of locations around the world
  • build manufacturing capacity to be able to meet demand.

So, how is the global research community developing potential vaccines for COVID-19 and how are we part of this accelerated pipeline?

A Closer Look At How Covid

COVID-19 mRNA vaccines give instructions for our cells to make a harmless piece of what is called the spike protein. The spike protein is found on the surface of the virus that causes COVID-19.

  • First, COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are given in the upper arm muscle. Once the instructions are inside the muscle cells, the cells use them to make the protein piece. After the protein piece is made, the cell breaks down the instructions and gets rid of them.
  • Next, the cell displays the protein piece on its surface. Our immune systems recognize that the protein doesnt belong there and begin building an immune response and making antibodies, like what happens in natural infection against COVID-19.
  • At the end of the process, our bodies have learned how to protect against future infection. The benefit of mRNA vaccines, like all vaccines, is those vaccinated gain this protection without ever having to risk the serious consequences of getting sick with COVID-19.
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