Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
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How Likely Is It To Get Covid After Vaccine

What Causes The Immune Reactions

Are you more likely to get COVID-19 immediately after having the vaccine?

In the case of the authorized COVID-19 vaccinesPfizer, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnsonall contain a genetic blueprint for manufacturing spike proteins, which sit on the surface of the coronavirus and enable it to infect human cells. When human cells receive these instructions, they churn out copies of spike protein. But since the cells make only a piece of the virus, and not the whole pathogen itself, we dont get sick. But while the foreign spike cant cause disease, it can activate a two-step immune responseexactly as it is supposed to do.

The immediate physical reaction to the COVID-19 vaccine is caused by the innate immune system. When a person receives a shot, a flurry of white blood cells called macrophages and neutrophils arrive at the injection site and begin producing chemicals called cytokines. This response triggers a wide range of symptoms, from inflammation and swelling at the injection site to fever, fatigue, and chills.

Return On Investment Of Immunisation In Gavi

A study covering the 73 Gavi-supported countries shows that, for every US$ 1 spent on immunisation in the 20212030 period, US$ 21 are saved in health care costs, lost wages and lost productivity due to illness and death. When considering the value people place on lives saved by vaccines which is likely to include the value of costs averted plus the broader societal value of lives saved and people living longer and healthier lives the return on investment is estimated to be US$ 54 per US$ 1 spent.

Sim S.Y., Watts E., Constenla D., Brenzel L., Patenaude B.N. Return On Investment From Immunization Against 10 Pathogens In 94 Low- And Middle-Income Countries, 201130. Health Affairs, 2020

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Immunocompromised People Are At Risk Of Reinfection Too

People with immune problems are at a higher risk for COVID-19 reinfection than the general public, which is why the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has authorized booster shots of Pfizer-BioNTechs and Modernas COVID-19 vaccines for immunocompromised individuals.

We always knew that people with immune problems were more likely to have less of a response to the vaccine and more likely to get a second infection after they got the vaccine, Dr. Esper says. Booster shots are designed to help reduce that likelihood.

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Symptoms Depending On Vaccine Status

The most common symptom in people who have had two doses of a vaccine is a headache.

It’s followed by a runny nose, sneezing and sore throat.

The data come from researchers at King’s College London, who collect information from people with positive tests via the ZOE Covid Symptom Study App.

The study reports: “A persistent cough now ranks at number eight if youve had two vaccine doses, so is no longer the top indicator of having Covid.

“Curiously, we noticed that people who had been vaccinated and then tested positive for Covid-19 were more likely to report sneezing as a symptom compared with those without a jab.

“If youve been vaccinated and start sneezing a lot without an explanation, you should get a Covid test, especially if you are living or working around people who are at greater risk from the disease.”

People who have had just one dose have similar symptoms headache, runny nose, sore throat, sneezing and a persistent cough.

Researchers said: “As we can see, after the protection from only once vaccine, one of the original indicators of a persistent cough has made the top five symptoms, but still comes below sneezing and a runny nose in rankings, which were previously thought to be unrelated to infection.”

Why Can Infections Happen

Coronavirus vaccine: Treatments, cure sought like for SARS, MERS

Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines tout efficacy above 90 percent. They still leave room for the potential of infection after the second dose.

Among the more than 40,000 people involved in the Pfizer vaccine study:

  • 170 participants contracted the virus
  • 162 were in the placebo group
  • 10 people experienced severe illness
  • 9 of those with severe illnesses were in the placebo group

For Modernas 30,000 person trial group:

  • 95 participants contracted the virus
  • 90 were in the placebo group
  • All 11 severe cases were found in the placebo group

It looks like theyre very protective against severe disease that can lead to hospitalization and theyre very protective against even dying from COVID. So, the good news is its very rare. I can happen but pretty unlikely, Smith said.

The Pfizer vaccine is only 52-percent effective after its first dose. The Moderna vaccine is slightly more effective after the first dose at 80 percent. These figures allow an opportunity for a patient to contract COVID-19 between doses, too.

Vaccines are showing to be effective against new variants of the disease, as well. As long as there are people not vaccinated, the virus will continue to have human hosts in which to mutate.

Another reason someone may become infected is that neither of the available vaccines provides instant protection. It can take several weeks for immunity to develop after the second dose is administered.

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Am I Eligible For A Booster Vaccination

All adults are currently eligible for a booster jab and the most vulnerable groups will also be eligible for an extra spring booster dose . These eligible groups are:

  • adults aged 75 years and over
  • residents in care homes
  • individuals aged 12 years and over who are immunosuppressed, as defined in the COVID-19 healthcare guidance Green Book.

The JCVI have announced that autumn boosters are likely to be recommended to certain groups, too. We’ll update this page with further details and timelines once they’re announced.

When will I be offered a booster jab?

At present, if you’re aged 18 or over and it’s been at least 2 months since your second vaccine dose, you can book an appointment now although your appointment won’t be until 3 months after your second vaccine dose.

The NHS may contact you directly about booking your booster jab, or you can call 119 or visit the NHS website to book.

You can also visit a vaccine walk-in centre if it’s been 3 months since your second vaccine. You can find your closest walk-in centre here.

Why do we need booster jabs?

Research has shown that the protection the vaccines provide starts to lessen as time goes on. With a new variant and rising cases, it’s important that everyone who is eligible goes and gets their booster.

Which vaccine will I receive as my booster jab?

Most people will be offered a booster of Pfizer or Moderna vaccines, regardless of which vaccine you had for your first and second jabs.

Do I need to get my flu vaccine too?

What About Future Covid

So far, the preliminary data shows our current vaccines are effective at protecting against circulating variants. But as the virus mutates, there is an increasing chance of viral escape. This means there is a greater chance the virus will develop mutations that make it fitter against, or more easily able to evade vaccinations.

Scientists are closely monitoring to ensure our current and/or future vaccines are effective against the circulating strains. To help the fight against COVID-19 the best thing we can do is minimise the spread of the virus. This means get vaccinated when you can, ensure you maintain social distancing when required, and get tested if you have any symptoms.

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Vaccination Reduces Chance Of Getting Long Covid Studies Say

Vaccination against COVID-19 reduces the risk of developing long COVID and improves long COVID symptoms among those who were unvaccinated when infected, according to a new comprehensive review by the U.K. Health Security Agency.

The review includes data from 15 U.K. and international studies, with seven studies examining whether COVID-19 vaccination before infection protects against developing long COVID and seven studies looking at the impact of vaccination among people who already had long COVID. One study examined both.

In six studies, those who received one or two vaccine doses before coronavirus infection were less likely to develop symptoms of long COVID after infection.

In two studies, fully vaccinated people were less likely than unvaccinated people to develop medium- or long-term symptoms such as fatigue, headache, weakness in the arms and legs, persistent muscle pain, hair loss, dizziness, shortness of breath, loss of smell or lung scarring.

In addition, three studies comparing long COVID symptoms before and after vaccination found that most people reported an improvement in symptoms after vaccination, either immediately or over several weeks. A few cases reported a worsening in symptoms after vaccination.

âThere is also evidence that unvaccinated people with long COVID who were subsequently vaccinated had, on average, reduced long COVID symptoms, or fewer long COVID symptoms than those who remained unvaccinated,â the review said.

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How Long Will My Vaccine Last

What If You Get Covid Before Or After First Vaccine Dose? | NewsMo

Evidence is growing that antibody levels decline within a few weeks following vaccination and its expected that levels fall over time without ongoing exposure to the virus.

But current research also shows that protection against severe disease and death appears to be maintained because other immune cells are maintained over longer periods.

We dont yet know the full extent of how long the protection from the coronavirus vaccines will last although the initial clinical trials suggest that people with 2 doses may have enough immune cells to prevent severe disease a year later, says Dr Alaeus.

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You’re 3 Times More Likely To Get Covid After Vaccination If You Have This

By now, there’s enough evidence to show that the currently available COVID-19 vaccines offer plenty of protection from the virus. A study released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in September noted that Johnson& Johnson’s vaccine was 71 percent effective at preventing hospitalization from the virus, while Pfizer’s and Moderna’s two-dose vaccines provided 88 percent and 93 percent protection, respectively. But in the face of waning immunity over time, new variants of the virus, and specific medical conditions that may affect how the vaccines work, breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated people are still possible. Now, a new study has shed light on which people are much more likely to get COVID after vaccination.

RELATED: Virus Expert Warns You Need to Do This to Avoid COVID After Vaccination.

In a study published in the Journal of Medical Economics on Nov. 30, healthcare records from nearly 1.3 million people who had received both doses of Pfizer’s mRNA vaccine were analyzed to determine the rate of breakthrough infections. Results showed the shots were incredibly effective, with 0.08 percent of fully vaccinated patients becoming infected between Dec. 10, 2020 and July 8, 2021. But the results also uncovered that those with weakened immune systems were three times more likely to have a breakthrough infection, with 0.18 percent of immunocompromised patients becoming ill compared to 0.06 percent of non-immunocompromised patients.

The Coming Flu Season And Covid

Elnahal pointed out that coinfection with flu and COVID-19 is possible.

Thats a problem in particular for higher-risk people, Elnahal said. Because people with the same comorbidity that portend for a worse COVID outcome also have conditions that portend for a worse flu outcome.

He explained that COVID-19 is significantly worse than the flu for the average person, and he doesnt think having both at the same time is something he would want to experience.

According to Elnahal, the timing of a COVID-19 booster shot coincides well with the need to get a flu shot.


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Can You Get Covid After Your Booster

It is still possible to get Covid-19 after getting your booster, however it is much less likely.

If you do catch the virus after getting your booster, your symptoms are also likely to be less severe.

It is worth noting that it takes around a week for the booster to take full effect.

A study by the UK Health Security Agency found that the booster increased protection levels to 93.1 per cent for people who had Oxford/AstraZeneca for their first two doses, and 94 per cent for those who had Pfizer.

Moderna said on Monday that in a lab study, blood from 20 people who received its booster had 37 times the number of neutralising antibodies compared to those who have had just two doses.

New research from Imperial College London has suggested the booster could provide around 85 per cent protection against severe illness from the Omicron variant. This is compared to around 97 per cent against Delta.

However, the researchers say there is a high degree of uncertainty until more real-world information is gathered about the strain.

One of the researchers, professor Azra Ghani, said: One remaining uncertainty is how severe the disease caused by the Omicron variant is compared to disease caused by previous variants.

Whilst it may take several weeks to fully understand this, governments will need to put in place plans now to mitigate any potential impact.

Our results demonstrate the importance of delivering booster doses as part of the wider public health response.


Breakthrough Infections: Coronavirus After Vaccination

Two People Tested Positive for COVID After Getting Vaccine

    A breakthrough infection is an infection with a virus, bacterium or other germ after you have been vaccinated. This is an expected occurrence for a small percentage of those receiving any vaccine, since no vaccine for any disease is 100% effective in preventing infection in every person who receives it.

    Breakthrough coronavirus infections happen when someone who has been fully vaccinated for COVID-19 becomes infected with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Lisa Maragakis, M.D., M.P.H., senior director of infection prevention, and Gabor Kelen, M.D., director of the Johns Hopkins Office of Critical Event Preparedness and Response, explain what you need to know about breakthrough coronavirus infections.

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    Hpv Vaccine: Demand Outpaces Supply

    Global demand for human papillomavirus vaccine continues to outpace available supply, despite manufacturing capacity expansion efforts of a major supplier to Gavi. Countries were unable to scale up as originally envisioned, with multi-age cohort vaccination deferred until supply availability improves. This translated into more than 7.1 million girls vaccinated by end 2020 compared to the original target of 40 million. In Gavi 5.0, Gavis fifth strategic period , we expect increased HPV vaccine supply from both existing and new manufacturers.

    New Variants Play A Leading Role

    Apart from the vaccine and patient characteristics, breakthrough COVID-19 infections can occur because of the virus itself, said Dr. Sanghavi. What youre seeing right now is there are reports about newer variants such as the Delta variant, which is rampant and is a predominant feature in a lot of the world right now.

    Compared to the original virus, the Delta variants inoculum is three to four times higher and thats why its more infectious, he said, adding that we have some reports that suggest that the sera of immunized patientswhen it reacts to the Delta variantthat antibody is not as effective as it is in the original virus.

    The challenge with this virus, since the beginning of the pandemic in 2020, is that it is evolving and adapting and some of these variants are more viral and spreading faster, Dr. Sanghavi said. And so far, at least, what we know is that the three vaccines that we have in America are protecting against the Delta variant.

    This is good news, but the concern always is that if there is another variant and the current vaccines that we have dont provide that immunity that we have right now, he added.

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    What Are The Side Effects Of The Vaccine

    Each vaccine has gone through trials to ensure the risk of serious side effects is very low. However, as with other vaccines such as the flu vaccine there are some common side effects. These include:

    • A sore, ‘heavy’ arm where you had your injection.
    • Feeling tired.
    • A headache.
    • General achiness or mild flu-like symptoms.

    A small proportion of people might experience swollen glands. If this happens to you, you’re advised to take paracetamol.

    If you do experience any of these side effects, they’re likely to last no longer than a week. But if they get worse, or if you’re concerned, you should call NHS 111 and explain your symptoms let them know you’ve had a vaccination.

    Any side effects you experience can also be reported to the MHRA Yellow Card Scheme by your doctor.

    Serious reactions to vaccines are uncommon but can happen. People with an allergy to the ingredients of the vaccine should not receive it however, those with other allergies are able to. If youre concerned, speak to your healthcare professional for further advice.

    What Should You Do If You Get Covid

    Pfizer CEO says people will likely need 3rd dose of the COVID-19 vaccine

    If you suspect you have COVID-19 after your first vaccine shot, go and get tested like you would normally, Dr. Subramanian said. Getting an accurate test is especially important because some vaccine side effects, like fever and fatigue, can mimic some COVID-19 symptoms, so a test can help you tell for sure what’s going on. If you do have COVID-19, you’ll also need to quarantine and keep an eye on your symptoms, Dr. Subramanian added. If they’re getting worse, seek care from a healthcare provider and let them know that you’ve received your first vaccine dose.

    You’re basically following the same process as you would if you got COVID-19 without having been vaccinated. You can still have virus replicating in your nasal passages,” Dr. Subramanian explained, meaning that you can still transmit the virus to others. Don’t take it any less seriously just because you’ve gotten your first shot getting tested, wearing a mask, quarantining, and social distancing from others remain crucial.

    POPSUGAR aims to give you the most accurate and up-to-date information about the coronavirus, but details and recommendations about this pandemic may have changed since publication. For the latest information on COVID-19, please check out resources from the WHO, CDC, and local public health departments.

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