Unvaccinated People Are At Risk
People who have not been fully vaccinated against COVID-19 are most at risk.
In the U.S., there is a disproportionate number of unvaccinated people in Southern and Appalachian states including Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, Missouri, and West Virginia, where vaccination rates are low. .
Kids and young people are a concern as well. A recent study from the United Kingdom showed that children and adults under 50 were 2.5 times more likely to become infected with Delta, says Dr. Yildirim. And so far, no vaccine has been approved for children 5 to 12 in the U.S., although the U.S. and a number of other countries have either authorized vaccines for adolescents and young children or are considering them.
As older age groups get vaccinated, those who are younger and unvaccinated will be at higher risk of getting COVID-19 with any variant, says Dr. Yildirim. But Delta seems to be impacting younger age groups more than previous variants.
Could Herd Immunity Protect Us
Herd immunity happens when a large part of the population — the herd — is immune to a virus. This can happen either because these people got vaccinated or had already been infected. Herd immunity makes it harder for a virus to spread. So even those who haven’t been sick or vaccinated have some protection.
The more contagious a virus is, the more people need to be immune for herd immunity to kick in. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is so contagious that experts estimate about 70% of people in a community will need to be immune to have herd protection. Having vaccines should help eventually achieve that goal.
Unvaccinated People Are At High Risk For Getting Covid
Think you dont need to get vaccinated because youve already had COVID-19? Think again.
This virus can overcome a persons host immunity and cause a second infection, Dr. Esper says. Reports indicate that vaccination provides longer protection than natural infection.
Hes referencing a study that shows that unvaccinated people are 2.34 times more likely to be reinfected with COVID-19 than those who are fully vaccinated which drives home the importance of being vaccinated, even if youve already had the virus.
Almost all the cases that were seeing right now are people who have not been vaccinated, he says.
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Help Us Understand Covid
Millions of users of the COVID Symptom Study app are providing vital information about COVID-19 immunity and reinfection. Their data is helping us to discover how long immunity lasts, whether people can experience symptoms a second time, and if there are areas of the country that have already reached some level of partial herd immunity.
Even if you have had suspected or confirmed COVID-19 already, Tim urges you to and take just one minute a day to log your health.
âDid you get infected earlier in the year and stop logging because you think you can’t get it again? Or have you had a positive test but have never felt ill? We need you to come back and be part of this vital study so we can find out more about reinfection and immunity to help protect everyone.”
Whether youâve tested positive for coronavirus, think you might have had COVID-19 or are sure that you havenât, we need as many people as possible to download the COVID Symptom Study app and encourage friends and family to join too.
It takes just a minute every day to contribute to the worldâs biggest COVID-19 science project, providing life-saving insights that will help us through the months ahead.
Find out more:
How Do We Test For Immunity
Antibody tests, also called serology tests, measure antibodies to coronavirus in the blood. If you have antibodies, it means you’ve been exposed to the virus and your immune system has made antibodies against it. Antibody tests are different from the tests doctors use to check for the virus itself.
Because COVID-19 is so new, there hasn’t been much time for scientists to check the accuracy of antibody tests. They could have false-positive results. That’s when someone tests positive for antibodies but hasn’t really developed them.
Testing for antibodies too soon after an illness can also cause false results. It takes 5-10 days after you get infected to develop antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Antibody tests could give people a false sense of security. They might go back to work and start to travel again when they could still catch or spread the virus. And because people can pass COVID-19 to others without showing symptoms, false positive results could lead to more outbreaks of the virus.
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How Do We Become Immune
When germs enter your body, your immune system springs into action. Here’s how it works:
- Bacteria and viruses like the one that causes COVID-19 have proteins called antigens on their surfaces. Each type of germ has its own unique antigen.
- White blood cells of your immune system make proteins called antibodies to fight the antigen. Antibodies attach to antigens the way a key fits into a lock, and they destroy the invading germ.
- Once you’ve been exposed to a virus, your body makes memory cells. If you’re exposed to that same virus again, these cells recognize it. They tell your immune system to make antibodies against it.
Vaccines work in much the same way. They expose your body to an antigen that trains your immune system to fight that germ in the future. Because vaccines contain weakened or killed versions of viruses, you become immune without getting sick.
Who Will Have To Pay The Crb Back
This applies to the CRB when it was offering $1,000 biweekly and also when it was lowered to $600 biweekly .
However, the federal government is warning CRB claimants that the 10% tax may not be all the tax they need to pay. “You may need to pay more depending on your personal tax situation,” it says.
Those who earned over $38,000 net income in the calendar year will be required to return some or all of the benefit at tax time in 2021, just like in 2020.
Individuals who earned above this amount must reimburse $0.50 of the CRB for every $1 of net income earned above $38,000 on their income tax return. No one will be required to repay more than their total benefit amount for the year.
On the federal government’s website, there is a tool to help Canadians work out whether they may be required to pay back some of the CRB during the tax season.
The federal government has released more rules about who can claim benefits in Canada, and it’s not good news for those who have lost their job over a vaccine mandate.
According to notices on the government website, the Canada Worker Lockdown Benefit and Employment Insurance will most likely not apply to people who are out of work due to a refusal to get vaccinated.
“In most cases, if you lose or quit your job because you didn’t comply with your employer’s mandatory COVID-19 vaccination policy, you won’t be eligible for EI regular benefits,” it reads.
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If Youre Not Vaccinated Are You At Higher Risk Of Reinfection
The COVID-19 vaccines are an important part of the fight against the pandemic. They are 85% to 95% effective at preventing COVID-19 infections, and you reach full immunity 1 to 4 weeks after you finish your vaccination, depending on which vaccine you get.
So, the vaccines prevent COVID-19 infections. But if you already had COVID, does getting vaccinated help prevent a second COVID-19 infection? We dont have exact data for this yet because not only are COVID-19 reinfections rare, so are infections after being vaccinated.
The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions recommendation is to get the COVID-19 vaccine even if youve had an infection, because getting vaccinated creates a stronger immune response than natural immunity. Getting vaccinated can also help protect other vulnerable people who might not get fully protected from a COVID-19 vaccine, because you are less likely to spread COVID-19 to them.
Immunocompromised People Are At Risk Of Reinfection Too
People with immune problems are at a higher risk for COVID-19 reinfection than the general public, which is why the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has authorized booster shots of Pfizer-BioNTechs and Modernas COVID-19 vaccines for immunocompromised individuals.
We always knew that people with immune problems were more likely to have less of a response to the vaccine and more likely to get a second infection after they got the vaccine, Dr. Esper says. Booster shots are designed to help reduce that likelihood.
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Why People Are Getting Covid
Were seeing more reinfections now than during the first year of the pandemic, which is not necessarily surprising, Dr. Esper says.
The CDC says cases of COVID-19 reinfection remain rare but possible. And with statistics and recommendations changing so quickly and so frequently, that rare status could always change, as well.
Dr. Esper breaks down the reasons behind reinfection.
Delta Could Lead To ‘hyperlocal Outbreaks’
If Delta continues to move fast enough to accelerate the pandemic, Dr. Wilson says the biggest questions will be about the heightened transmissibilityhow many people will get the Delta variant and how fast will it spread?
The answers could depend, in part, on where you liveand how many people in your location are vaccinated, he says. I call it patchwork vaccination, where you have these pockets that are highly vaccinated that are adjacent to places that have 20% vaccination, Dr. Wilson says. The problem is that this allows the virus to hop, skip, and jump from one poorly vaccinated area to another.
In some cases, a low-vaccination town that is surrounded by high vaccination areas could end up with the virus contained within its borders, and the result could be hyperlocal outbreaks, he says. Then, the pandemic could look different than what weve seen before, where there are real hotspots around the country.
Some experts say the U.S. is in a good position because of its relatively high vaccination ratesor that conquering Delta will take a race between vaccination rates and the variant. But if Delta keeps moving fast, multiplying infections in the U.S. could steepen an upward COVID-19 curve, Dr. Wilson says.
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Is Getting Reinfected With Covid
As of August, Weissenbach said COVID-19 reinfection cases make up less than 1% of all COVID-19 cases. But tracking reinfection accurately is difficult because of decentralized testing, lack of communication between labs and a limited number of US labs that save COVID-19 testing samples, he said. In order to confirm reinfection, scientists need to compare the genetic material of previous and current tests.
Another factor that might lead to underreported reinfection cases is that many second instances of COVID-19 are mild, which leads people to not realize they’re infected again, virologist Theodora Hatziioannou told Healthline.
Recovering from COVID-19 can require bedrest.
Are You Only At Risk Of Reinfection Due To New Variants Of Covid
New variants are a big concern for reinfection. Scientists are finding new variants that your immune system might not recognize. Worse, many of the new variants are more infectious than the initial COVID-19 virus. So there are definitely reasons to be concerned about new variants.
The question of whether you can be reinfected by the same strain of COVID-19, and how likely it is, is up in the air. COVID-19 is a coronavirus, and other types of coronaviruses that infect humans exist, usually causing mild cold-like illnesses. These other types of coronaviruses circulate throughout the population. Once you get infected, you are only immune for a year or two. After that, you can be reinfected.
Its not clear if the COVID-19 virus will be the same it will take time for us to know for sure. Its possible that we will see more cases of reinfection as time passes, because the protective immune response people get after the first infection with COVID-19 might disappear.
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How Likely Is Your Employer To Require A Covid
If your company employs 100 or more workers, they will be legally required to mandate the COVID-19 vaccine or subject you to regular testing by Jan. 4. Smaller companies can also require workers to get vaccinated, although it’s not considered a federal mandate. Here’s more about who’s required to get vaccinated against the coronavirus.
The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.
Have People Caught It Twice
There were early reports of people appearing to have multiple coronavirus infections in a short space of time.
But the scientific consensus is that testing was the issue, with patients being incorrectly told they were free of the virus.
PHE’s ongoing study on immunity in healthcare workers found 44 potential re-infections in a group of 6,614 people who had previously had the virus.
Researchers conclude reinfection is uncommon but still possible and say people must continue to follow current guidance, whether they have had antibodies or not.
Scientists from Hong Kong recently reported on the case of a young, healthy man who recovered from a bout of Covid-19 only to be re-infected more than four months later. Using genome sequencing of the virus, they could prove he caught it twice because the virus strains were different.
Experts say re-infection isn’t surprising, but it’s likely to be rare, and larger studies are needed to understand why this might happen.
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Ontario Icu Occupancy Will Likely Rise With Growing Covid Case Counts: Science Table
TORONTO Intensive care occupancy will likely rise in Ontario over the coming months along with a steady growth in cases, but it’s unclear how severe the new spike will be, according to new projections from the province’s pandemic advisers.
The new modelling published Friday from the Ontario COVID-19 Science Advisory Table noted that hospitalizations and intensive care numbers are currently stable. But intensive care admissions a “lagging indicator” of rising cases will likely total around 200 patients by the new year.
As of Friday there were 130 patients in Ontario intensive care due to COVID-19. Ontario also reported 598 new COVID-19 cases and four deaths from the virus, marking over a week of growth in the province’s seven-day average for new infections.
Science table member Dr. Fahad Razak said the recent period of case growth is likely to continue, but the full picture is still developing.
“The data that remains to be seen … will be what the trajectory of this rise is and whether it plateaus or if it continues to rise,” the internist at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto said Friday.
Razak said time will have to tell if stronger public health measures will be necessary to avoid a fifth wave like those playing out in parts of Europe, where countries are considering new lockdown measures amid record-high infection tallies.
The pending approval of COVID-19 vaccination for children aged five to 11 may also change the picture, he said.
How Long Does Immunity Last
The immune system’s memory is rather like our own – it remembers some infections clearly, but has a habit of forgetting others.
Measles is highly memorable – one bout should give lifelong immunity . However, there are many others that are pretty forgettable. Children can get RSV multiple times in the same winter.
The new coronavirus, Sars-CoV-2, has not been around long enough to know how long immunity lasts.
But a recent study led by Public Health England shows most people who have had the virus are protected from catching it again for at least five months .
Some are reinfected, however, and, even if asymptomatic, can then harbour high levels of the virus in their noses and mouths, which can be passed on to others.
PHE will continue to monitor the people in this study, who are all healthcare workers, to see how long immunity lasts.
Other clues may come from studies involving other coronaviruses.
Four produce the symptoms of the common cold and immunity is short-lived. Studies showed some patients could be re-infected within a year.
Research at King’s College London also suggested levels of antibodies that kill coronavirus waned over the three month study.
But even if antibodies disappear, then the cells that manufacture them, called B cells, may still be around. B cells for Spanish Flu have been found in people 90 years after that pandemic.
If the same is true with Covid, then a second infection would be milder than the first.
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