Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
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How Long After 2nd Covid Vaccine Are You Immune

How Much Do Boosters Increase Protection

VERIFY: How long will immunity last once you get the COVID-19 vaccine?

Adults aged 50 years and over have 93.1 per cent protection against symptomatic infection after two Oxford/AstraZeneca doses.

This falls from 65 per cent, up to three months after the second dose, to 45 per cent six months after the second dose.

Those who had an initial course of Pfizer get protection of 94 per cent.

This falls to 90 per cent after three months to 65 per cent after six.

But after boosters , protection goes up to 93.1 per cent in those who first got AZ, and 94 per cent in those who had Pfizer.

Looking at hospitalisation, protection falls from 95 per cent to 75 per cent for AZ and 99 per cent to 90 per cent for Pfizer between three and six months after the second dose.

Professor Wei Shen Lim, chair of Covid-19 immunisation for the JCVI, said: Whilst we dont yet have data on protection against hospitalisation and unfortunately people dying from Covid-19, we can expect protection to be even higher than that figure of 93 per cent because thats what happened so far in the vaccine programme.

Efficacy Across Different Groups

A consistently high efficacy was observed in the clinical trials across age groups, sex, race, ethnicity and people with underlying medical conditions.

This means after getting two doses of the Pfizer vaccine, more than 9 out of 10 people are protected against COVID-19 regardless of their age, health status or ethnic group.

The Brink: So Why Is The Cdcs Recommendation To Get Vaccinated Eight Months After The Second Shot

Pierre:It remains to be determined, and more data need to be distributed to all of us. Weve heard information about real-world protection, data coming from cities, hospitals, and long-term care centers. Were still not seeing severe disease, hospitalization, and death six to eight months after people completed the second dose of their Pfizer or Moderna vaccines. The CDC also have said that they want to get out in front of waning immunity, to get people a booster shot before theres a chance for immunity to falter enough to allow for severe infections. They want to get ahead of any declining immunity levels that might overwhelm our healthcare providers. Additionally, there is some unpublished data indicating that the interval in the spacing of the booster may actually lead to longer-lasting, more durable immunity. They suggest we may not need another booster in quite some time but well have to wait and see.

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Some Long Haulers Say They Feel Better After Vaccination

Early in 2021, Iwasaki began seeing tweets from people with long COVID who experienced improvement in their symptoms after getting a COVID-19 vaccine.

, a grassroots group of COVID-19 patient advocates and self-described citizen scientists, found that 42 percent of people with long COVID reported feeling better after getting a COVID-19 vaccine. In another patient survey, by the advocacy group LongCovidSOS, about 58 percent of respondents reported improvements in their symptoms after vaccination.

These surveys suggest that many but not all people with long COVID will have a positive response to the vaccine. They may have lost some symptoms, maintained others, so its not a complete cure, but nevertheless, theres often an improvement after vaccination, says Iwasaki.

Dr. Azola finds the effect of vaccination to be a little bit of a mixed bag. As a physician who has followed long COVID since April 2020 and shares info with doctors at a nationwide collaborative of long-COVID clinics, she has seen a range of responses to immunization in patients. Some report improvements, she says, and some report flares in symptoms that typically last for one or two weeks. Others say that vaccination had no impact on their symptoms at all.

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The Vaccines Are Very Effective And May Help Reduce The Severity Of The Disease


In Phase 3 studies, both the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines were found to be 95% effective in the early months after the vaccine. Put simply, If there were 100 people who would have gotten COVID, it prevented 95 of them from getting it, but it didnt prevent all 100, says Dr. Marks. It definitely provides some protection, but its not perfect.

The good news is that early data found that those who did contract COVID-19 after receiving the vaccine did not develop a severe form of the disease. So even if it doesnt completely prevent illness, the study data shows that it does reduce the severity, says Dr. Marks.

The third vaccine authorized in the United States also provides strong protection against severe illness and death. This vaccine, made by Johnson & Johnson, reported a 72% efficacy rate in preventing moderate to severe disease from COVID-19 in the U.S. and was 85 percent effective in preventing severe disease. Among the people who received the vaccine during clinical trials, after 28 days no one who contracted COVID-19 was hospitalized or died.

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The Brink: Why Are Booster Shots Necessary If The Vaccines Are Working As Well As Scientists Hoped

Pierre:I really want to drive home the point that might be missed in the conversation about boosters: these vaccines have not failed us yet, to our knowledge. Breakthrough infections are expected, no vaccine is 100 percent effective. What we know is, here in the state of Massachusetts, 0.002 percent of fully vaccinated individuals have experienced severe disease. And so thats a really small number of people. We just want to make sure that in the talk about boosters, if people are saying, well why should I bother if fully vaccinated people already need a booster? But I want to be clear that waning immunity is not the same as saying these vaccines have failed, because in fact, we want to give vaccines to prevent severe disease and death, and thats what theyre doing. Theyre working. This is what you want to see.

Am I Protected From Covid

No. It takes a few weeks after vaccination for your body to build up protection against COVID-19. Even though you start to develop some immunity 12 to 14 days after the first shot, you arent considered to be fully vaccinated until 2 weeks after your second Pfizer or Moderna shot.

And if youre wondering if the second shot is really necessary it is. Studies have shown that protection from getting both doses is significantly higher than if you just get one dose. So, its best not to skip your second shot.

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Myth: All Events Reported To The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System Are Caused By Vaccination

FACT: Anyone can report events to VAERS, even if it is not clear whether a vaccine caused the problem. Because of this, VAERS data alone cannot determine if the reported adverse event was caused by a COVID-19 vaccination.

Some VAERS reports may contain information that is incomplete, inaccurate, coincidental, or unverifiable. Vaccine safety experts study these adverse events and look for unusually high numbers of health problems, or a pattern of problems, after people receive a particular vaccine.

Recently, the number of deaths reported to VAERS following COVID-19 vaccination has been misinterpreted and misreported as if this number means deaths that were proven to be caused by vaccination. Reports of adverse events to VAERS following vaccination, including deaths, do not necessarily mean that a vaccine caused a health problem.

Learn more about VAERS.

Vaccine Protection Against Variants Of The Virus

How long will it take to be immune after COVID-19 vaccination?

It is normal for a virus to change. Different variants of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 have been found all over the world. Since there are only minimal differences between the variants and the original virus, the vaccine will not immediately become ineffective. Even if a vaccine is slightly less effective against a variant, it can still offer protection against serious illness and death.

When variants of the virus occur, they will be subjected to research at the national and international levels to determine how they respond to the vaccines.

RIVM is also conducting research on variants of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Read more about that research: Variants of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

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Registering Your Vaccination If You Got It Out Of The Province

If you received a COVID-19covid 19 vaccine outside of Ontario or Canada, you can register your vaccination by contacting your local public health unit .

You must provide proof, such as an immunization record or a proof of vaccination certificate to your PHU to be registered in the system.

If needed, you can book your second dose through:

  • the provincial booking system or calling the Provincial Vaccine Contact Centre
  • your primary care setting
  • public health units that use their own booking system

If you received both doses of a Health Canada authorized vaccine, you only have to provide proof of vaccination to your PHU. No other action is needed. If you received one or two doses of a COVID-19covid 19 vaccine not authorized by Health Canada, please contact your public health unit to see if you need any additional doses.

For more information, read the Ministry of Health COVID-19 Guidance for Individuals Vaccinated Outside of Ontario/Canada.

Getting Your Second Dose Increases Protection

Clinical trials showed the Pfizer vaccine had a higher efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 infection after receiving the second dose. This is supported by recent real-world data.The first dose primes your immune system but protection doesnt last as long because the level of antibodies falls. A second dose gives your immune response a boost with lots more antibodies to help your immune response to mature and provide longer protection.

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Highly Vaccinated Israel Is Seeing A Dramatic Surge In New Covid Cases Here’s Why

So, how long does immunity last after two doses of the vaccine? Six months or so? And at that point, how much protection is left over?

It all depends on which type of immunity you’re talking about, says immunologist Ali Ellebedy at Washington University in St. Louis. Six months after your vaccine, your body may be more ready to fight off the coronavirus than you might think.

“If you were vaccinated six months ago, your immune system has been training for six months you are better ready to fight a COVID-19 infection,” says Ellebedy.

A series of new studies, including two led by Ellebedy, suggests that mRNA vaccines like those from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna trigger the immune system to establish long-term protection against severe COVID-19 protection that likely will last several years or even longer, Ellebedy says.

To understand what he’s talking about, let’s say you received the second Moderna or Pfizer vaccine six months ago. Right away, your immune system got to work and began making antibodies.

These antibodies are a bit like archers outside the moat of a castle. They set up in the lining of your nose and throat, ready to shoot down any SARS-CoV-2 particles that try to enter the moat .

These antibodies can prevent an infection, says bioimmunologist Deepta Bhattacharya at the University of Arizona. They stop the virus from entering cells and setting up shop. They are the body’s front-line defense.

Factors That Can Affect Immunity

What you  and doctors  should watch for if you have COVID

There are different factors that can affect your immune response to a vaccine. Some examples include:

  • Age: Very young children and older adults may have a decreased response to vaccines.

  • Genetics: Your genes may influence how you respond to certain vaccines.

  • Vaccine type: Some vaccines dont provide as much immunity as others, so booster shots may be needed.

  • Health conditions: Certain conditions, like celiac disease and diabetes, may lower your response to vaccines.

  • Being immunocompromised: People with a weakened or suppressed immune system may not develop strong immunity after vaccination.

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You Need Both Doses Of The Two

Scientific studies suggest that taking two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines is very important for achieving the antibody response to provide protection and create lasting immunity.

Dr. Marks says that while there appears to be some protection 14 days after a persons first dose, that initial protection may wane over time, which is why its so important to get the second shot. Theres been talk of using one dose of the mRNA vaccines, and Im not in favor of that, because I think that the protection provided by the first dose of these vaccines should be thought of as a bridge to the next dose, says Dr. Marks. You need that second dose to get the full immunity.

Dr. Marks says that the vaccines protection is generally achieved somewhere between seven to 14 days after the second dose.

Dr. Kristen Marks

Shall I Get My Booster

Yes – it may be the only shot at a normal Christmas.

You may be feeling confused about why you need to get yet another vaccine dose, if scientists said the first two worked so well.

There is a new Covid variant that has prompted a huge booster campaign.

Early indications are that this variant, called Omicron, may reduce the effectiveness of the vaccines, which were designed against the first Covid strain from Wuhan.

It means that in order to get the best protection against it, immunity levels need to be high.

Speaking of the importance of boosters, Deborah Dunn-Walters, professor of Immunology, University of Surrey & Chair of the British Society for Immunology COVID-19 and Immunology taskforce, said: Until the answers to these questions are known it is sensible to increase protective measures where we can.

Since we know that immunity does wane to some extent, and that boosters can increase immunity, then accelerating the booster program will protect more people.”

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The Brink: How Do The Booster Shots Work The Vaccine Formulation For The Pfizer And Moderna Shots Hasnt Changed So How Much Additional Immunity Does A Booster Shot Give Does It Get People Back Up To The 90

Pierre:We know that the mRNA vaccines can give 94 or 95 percent protection after the first series of two shots, and a 98 percent reduction in severe complications. Both Pfizer and Moderna have done booster studies, and we know that Pfizer has submitted the results of the booster trial to the FDA, but we dont yet know what those results say, but we do know those studies were conducted in areas of the US where the Delta variant was gaining hold. I do think the results of that trial will provide some answers to the questions youve asked. The hope, though, is that because of the priming effect , it will allow the bodys immune system to react more aggressively to infection, to fight against any potential COVID infection. The immune-fighting cells have already been primed, so the theoretical conceptwhich we know happens with many other already FDA-approved vaccines like tetanus or whooping coughis that the booster doses increase immunity over time.

The Brink: Weve Heard That It Is Ok To Mix And Match Pfizer And Moderna Vaccines To Get The Booster Shot But So Far The Cdc Has Not Recommended That Its Ok For People Who First Received A Johnson & Johnson Vaccine To Now Get A Pfizer Or Moderna Booster Shot Why Is This The Case

UTMB researcher says two doses of COVID vaccine will give you longer immunity

Pierre:I hope that scientific reticence will dissipate in the next few weeks. We do have information to show a really potent boosting with mixing vaccination strategies. Most of the data, I will say, are from looking at people who first received the AstraZeneca vaccinewhich is made from the same technology that created the J& J vaccinethat really does show important boosting of the protective effect with an mRNA vaccine given as a second dose. Theres also potentially that benefit for J& J. Theoretically, I would love to give my patients who first got a J& J vaccine an mRNA booster shot. My prediction is that yes, we will soon be able to mix and match those vaccine strategies, but we need a little more data before we get to that guidance . The other thing to keep in mind is that there is generally less robust data about J& J because there were far less people who got the J& J vaccine compared to people that received either Pfizer or Moderna. J& J was approved later in the game, so not only do we have fewer patients vaccinated, but by and large those people were vaccinated later.

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The Brink: Anything Else You Want People To Know About Booster Shots

Pierre:One other thing important to talk about is that a few months ago people were talking about getting their COVID antibodies tested. I would just say, we dont have great information yet about how well commercial tests can tell us about protection based on the level of antibodies. So maybe save your time , because antibodies are only part of the immunity story. COVID infection or vaccination also provides T-cell activation, which can provide really good protection against severe infection and death, and an antibody test wont tell you about that. Also, I think people would like to know that here at Boston Medical Center, the vast majority of people who are hospitalized with COVID infections are unvaccinated. And the breakthrough cases we see are by and large in the extremely elderly or people who are severely immunocompromised and were not able to achieve adequate protection from their first vaccine doses.

Latest Coronavirus News As Of 11am On 22 December

Officials say isolating for 10 days avoids only a few more transmissions than 7 days

The isolation period for those who have tested positive for the coronavirus has been cut from ten to seven days in England, providing people have two negative rapid lateral flow tests, on days six and seven of their isolation period. But such people are strongly advised to still work from home, minimise contact with vulnerable people and mixing in crowded spaces, theUK Health Security Agency has said.

The twolateral flow tests should be taken 24 hours apart, and people should not end their isolation early if they still have covid-19 symptoms. The relaxation of self-isolation rules applies whether or not people are vaccinated. But people who are not fully vaccinated and are isolating because they have had close contact with someone who has tested positive still have to isolate for the full ten days.

The rest of the UK and most other countries tell people with covid-19 to isolate for ten days. The UKHSA says analysis shows that releasing people from isolation after seven days and two negative rapid tests has nearly the same protective effect as a ten-day isolation period without testing. This new guidance will help break chains of transmission and minimise the impact on lives and livelihoods, Jenny Harries of the UKHSA said in a statement. It is crucial that people carry out their lateral flow tests as the new guidance states and continue to follow public health advice.

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