Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 9:36 am
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 9:36 am
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 9:36 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 9:36 am
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 9:36 am
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 9:36 am
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How Long Do Covid Vaccines Last

So What Happens To The Vaccine

How long does COVID-19 vaccine immunity last?

Once theyve initiated the immune response, the vaccines themselves are rapidly broken down and cleared from the body.

The mRNA vaccines consist of a fatty shell, which encapsulates a group of mRNA particles the genetic recipe for the spike protein. Once this enters a cell, the shell is degraded to harmless fats, and the mRNA is used by the cells to produce spike proteins.

Once the mRNA has been used to produce proteins, its broken down and cleared from the cell along with the rest of the mRNAs produced by the normal function of the cell.

In fact, mRNA is very fragile, with the most long lasting only able to survive for a few days. This is why the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines have to be so carefully preserved at ultra-low temperatures.

The vector vaccines use an adenovirus, which is harmless in humans, as a vector to deliver a genetic template for the spike protein to the cells.

The vector virus has all of its infectious components removed, so its unable to multiply or cause disease. Then a genetic template for the spike protein is inserted into the vector.

Once the vaccine is injected, the vector virus binds to your cells and inserts its genetic components, before the shell breaks down and is removed.

Read more:How long does immunity last after COVID vaccination? Do we need booster shots? 2 immunology experts explain

Normally, this would cause the cell to start producing more copies of the virus, but since this was all removed, all thats produced is the spike protein.

How Long Do Mrna And Spike Proteins Last In The Body

Vaccines generally work by introducing a piece of a virus or bacteria into your body so you can develop long-lasting immunity to the pathogen. While the piece introduced by the vaccine rapidly fades away, your body’s immune system remembers what it saw. When it encounters the virus or bacteria in the real world it mounts a strong immune response preventing or decreasing the severity of infection.

Some have expressed concern that the spike protein or other parts of the mRNA vaccines build up in the body, particularly in the ovaries or the brain. Here we break down the data to show where mRNA vaccines travel in the body. There is no evidence that any mRNA or protein accumulates in any organ.

Could One Type Of Vaccine Last Longer Than Another

No one knows for sure whether one vaccine will last longer than another. Instead, one question to ask might be whether Pfizer and Modernas mRNA vaccines, which had an especially robust response, also have potential to be the longest lasting, Dr. Meyer says.

The two mRNA vaccines use a relatively new technology that delivers a tiny piece of genetic code from the SARS CoV-2 virus into the body to provide instructions for making copies of spike proteins that will stimulate an immune response. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine takes a more traditional approach that involves an inactive adenovirus .

The mRNA vaccines are a novel tool that hasnt been widely rolled out with any other virus, and so far in clinical trials they have had a much more robust immune response, Dr. Meyer says. Whatever the answer to the question of which will last the longest, the Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines work similarly, so it seems likely that they will have a similar impact on immunity, she says.

Its also possible that the length of immunity is somewhat dependent on the patient, Dr. Meyer adds. While more research is needed, there could be variations in immune responses from person to person based on such factors as age, medical conditions, and medications they may be taking. Overall, though, the mRNA vaccines appear to be so effective that they level the playing field in terms of achieving protection from infection, says Dr. Meyer.

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To What Extent Is Intellectual

Some 11 billion doses are required to vaccinate 70% of the world’s population assuming two doses are given per person. This is the proportion that might be needed to reach population-level, or herd, immunity.

According to researchers at Dukes Global Health Innovation Center, high- and upper-middle-income countries, representing one-fifth of the worlds population, have bought around 6 billion doses but low- and lower-middle-income countries, representing four-fifths of the population, have secured only around 2.6 billion. This includes 1.1 billion doses for COVAX, a scheme in which international funders have pledged to vaccinate one-fifth of the worlds population. By this measure, the researchers say, it could take two or more years for people in the lowest-income groups to be vaccinated.

Thats why India and South Africa are among the countries involved in a campaign to get COVID-19-related intellectual-property rights temporarily waived. This, the campaign’s proponents argue, will unleash a cascade of production.

The proposal was discussed at a WTO meeting on 10 and 11 March, and talks are due to resume next month. Proponents argue that the waiver will enable governments and manufacturers to jointly organize a ramping up of vaccine supply. Without such a waiver, they say, poorer countries will remain dependent on the charity of richer countries and their pharmaceutical industries.

Covid Boosters For Wealthy Nations Spark Outrage

After year

    Israeli President Isaac Herzog receives a third dose of a COVID-19 vaccine on 30 July.Credit: Maya Alleruzzo/AFP/Getty

    Israel has announced plans to begin giving booster shots to older adults next week, in the hope of increasing their protection against COVID-19 and a number of other wealthy countries are considering the same. But global-health researchers warn that this strategy could set back efforts to end the pandemic. Each booster, they say, represents a vaccine dose that could instead go to low- and middle-income countries, where most citizens have no protection at all, and where dangerous coronavirus variants could emerge as cases surge.

    Data do not yet show that extra doses are needed to save lives, researchers say, except perhaps for people with compromised immune systems, who might fail to generate much of an antibody response to the initial COVID-19 shots.

    An internal analysis from the World Health Organization estimates that if the 11 rich countries that are either rolling out boosters or considering it this year were to give the shots to everyone over 50 years old, they would use up roughly 440 million doses of the global supply. If all high-income and upper-middle-income nations were to do the same, the estimate doubles.

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    Frequently Asked Questions About Covid

    NOTICE: FDA has granted full approvalfor Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices is meeting on Monday, August 30, 2021, to discuss its updated recommendation for this vaccine.

    If you have lost your vaccination card or dont have a copy, contact your vaccination provider site where you received your vaccine to access your vaccination record. Learn more about how you can locate your vaccination provider.

    Yes, you should be vaccinated regardless of whether you already had COVID-19 because:

    • Research has not yet shown how long you are protected from getting COVID-19 again after you recover from COVID-19.
    • Vaccination helps protect you even if youve already had COVID-19.

    Evidence is emerging that people get better protection by being fully vaccinated compared with having had COVID-19. One study showed that unvaccinated people who already had COVID-19 are more than 2 times as likely than fully vaccinated people to get COVID-19 again.

    If you were treated for COVID-19 with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma, you should wait 90 days before getting a COVID-19 vaccine. Talk to your doctor if you are unsure what treatments you received or if you have more questions about getting a COVID-19 vaccine.

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    Why Is The Astrazeneca Covid

    Right now, no coronavirus vaccine is fully approved by the FDA. The vaccines in use have been granted emergency use authorization. This means that the known and potential benefits of the vaccine outweigh the known and potential risks.

    The AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is not yet approved in the United States because the FDA has asked AstraZeneca to show results from a large-scale trial.

    The FDA found that in initial trials, some participants mistakenly got half doses of the vaccine. They also

    In March 2021, several European countries paused the use of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine after several reports of blood clots. The clots that are linked to this vaccine have very specific characteristics:

    • They occur in unusual areas of the body, like the abdomen or brain.
    • People affected also have low platelet levels.

    It was found that people with these blood clots showed some symptoms similar to a condition called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia . HIT is usually a rare side effect seen in people who have used the anticoagulant medication heparin, though these people had never taken the drug.

    At this point, researchers arenât sure what part of the vaccine is causing an immune response against a platelet factor involved in this reaction. Because a similar response has been seen in the J& J vaccine, which also uses an adenovirus, and not seen in the vaccines that use mRNA, this may be an issue with vaccines using adenovirus.

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    Naturally Acquired Immunity Is At The Center Of A Political Fight Over President Bidens Vaccine Mandates


    Follow this story and more bysigning up for national breaking news email alerts.

    Its a question that scientists have been trying to answer since the start of the pandemic, one that is central to the rancorous political debates over coronavirus vaccine policies: How much immunity does someone have after recovering from a coronavirus infection, and how does it compare with immunity provided by vaccination?

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has weighed in for the first time in a detailed science report released with little fanfare Friday evening. Reviewing scores of research studies and its own unpublished data, the agency found that both infection-induced and vaccine-induced immunity are durable for at least six months but that vaccines are more consistent in their protection and offer a huge boost in antibodies for people previously infected.

    In comparing the two types of immunity, scientists said research shows vaccination provides a higher, more robust, and more consistent level of immunity to protect people from COVID-19 than infection alone.

    The CDCs bottom line: Given whats known and not known about immunity, people who have been infected with the virus should still get vaccinated. More than 45 million people in the United States have had confirmed coronavirus infections, and tens of millions more the exact number is unknown have had undocumented cases.

    The Sting Of Inequity

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    If there were enough vaccines for every adult in the world, third doses for those in rich countries wouldnt appal so many researchers. But disparities are growing. A July report from KFF, a health-policy organization based in San Francisco, California, finds that low-income countries wont achieve substantial levels of protection until at least 2023, at current vaccination rates. Almost all of the roughly 3.2 billion mRNA vaccine doses expected this year from manufacturers PfizerBioNTech and Moderna in Cambridge, Massachusetts, have been purchased by the United States and Europe, according to the London-based analytics company Airfinity. Although some of those will be donated to countries in need, the KFF report suggests that they will be insufficient. The pace of vaccination in low-income countries needs to increase 19-fold to inoculate 40% of those nations populations by the end of the year, the report says.

    This modest vaccination target of 40% is endorsed by the WHO, the World Bank and the IMF as a threshold that would significantly reduce deaths and allow economies to begin recovery. But because it looks increasingly out of reach, the IMF has revised its economic forecasts for 2021, downgrading projections for developing and emerging economies. It warns that highly infectious variants could derail worldwide economic recovery and wipe US$4.5 trillion from the global gross domestic product by 2025.

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    How Long Do Antibodies Against Covid

    Data indicate that neutralising antibodies last for several months in patients with covid-19 but gently fall in number over time. One study, published in the journal Immunity, of 5882 people who had recovered from covid-19 infection, found that antibodies were still present in their blood five to seven months after illness.3 This was true for mild and severe cases, though people with severe disease ended up with more antibodies overall.

    All of the vaccines approved so far produce strong antibody responses. The study group for the Moderna vaccine reported in April that participants in an ongoing clinical trial had high levels of antibodies six months after their second dose.4 A study in the Lancet found that the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine induced high antibodies with minimal waning for three months after a single dose.5

    Neutralising antibodies are expected to decline in number over time, says Timothée Bruel, a researcher at the Pasteur Institute, given what we know about the immune response to other infections. In April, Bruel and colleagues published a paper in Cell Reports Medicine that looked at antibody levels and functions in people who had experienced symptomatic or asymptomatic covid-19.6 Both types of participant possessed polyfunctional antibodies, which can neutralise the virus or assist in killing infected cells, among other things.

    Are Side Effects More Likely After The First Or Second Dose

    With the two-shot vaccines, people are more likely to report side effects after their second dose, experts have said.

    According to the CDC, side effects after your second shot “may be more intense than the ones you experienced after your first shot.”

    “These side effects are normal signs that your body is building protection and should go away within a few days,” the CDC states.

    In trials of both the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, more people experienced side effects after the second dose.

    But that doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t get your second shot if you get side effects after your first, experts say.

    The CDC also noted that both shots are needed.

    “The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine and Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine both need 2 shots in order to get the most protection,” the CDC states. “You should get the second shot even if you have side effects after the first shot, unless a vaccination provider or your doctor tells you not to get it.”

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    Is It Ok To Take Medication To Relieve Pain Before Or After The Vaccine

    If youre nervous about side effects from the vaccine, you might be considering taking medication to relieve potential pain before your shot.

    Dont do that just yet.

    Research published in the Journal of Virology found that taking a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug like ibuprofen, which is often recommended to help relieve pain, may impair antibody production and potentially weaken parts of the immune response to the vaccine.

    Taking drugs that are used to relieve pain after receiving the vaccine may not be a problem. In the late-stage clinical trials of the Pfizer vaccine, the participants were not prevented from taking these medications.

    At What Point Should You Call A Doctor

    How long does protection from COVID

    In most cases, discomfort from pain or fever is a normal sign that your body is building protection, the CDC states. Still, the agency recommends you contact your doctor or healthcare provider if:

    • The redness or tenderness where you got the shot gets worse after 24 hours
    • Your side effects are worrying you or do not seem to be going away after a few days

    Anyone who believes they are experiencing a severe allergic reaction after leaving the vaccination site should also seek immediate medical care by calling 911, the CDC recommends.

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    Latest Coronavirus News As Of 1pm On 15 December

    Huge study finds myocarditis is at least four times more likely to occur after a covid-19 infection than after a vaccination

    Heart inflammation is more likely to develop after a covid-19 infection than following vaccination, a study of almost 39 million people in England has found.

    The Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna coronavirus vaccines have previously been linked with rare cases of heart muscle inflammation, known as myocarditis.

    Symptoms include breathlessness and chest pain. The condition is generally mild and treated with rest and ibuprofen, although all suspected cases require medical attention.

    Covid-19 infection is also known to cause heart problems, however, so Julia Hippisley-Cox at the University of Oxford and her colleagues followed nearly 39 million people over the age of 16 in England who were registered with an English vaccination database. Their data was linked to national data on hospital admissions, deaths and covid-19 infections either before or after vaccination.

    Within 28 days of an initial dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine, the team recorded an extra two cases of myocarditis per million people. An additional one case per million was noted following a dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, and six extra cases per million followed a first dose of a Moderna jab. There were also an extra ten cases per million after a second dose of Moderna.

    Other coronavirus news

    How Long Does Immunity From Vaccines Last

    The vaccines deployed against COVID-19 in Australia and most of the western world come from two classes.

    Those produced by AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson are viral vector vaccines. They use an adenovirus to prime the immune system to respond to SARS-CoV-2.

    The vaccines developed by Pfizer and Moderna use mRNA-based technology. The messenger RNA gives your cells temporary instructions to make the coronavirus spike protein, teaching your immune system to protect you if you encounter the virus.

    For the viral vector vaccines, despite ongoing trials, theres little data available on the duration of the antibody response. The original studies showed efficacy for one to two months, however the duration of protection, and whether a booster will be needed, require further evaluation.

    Notably, a vaccine similar to AstraZeneca against a related coronavirus showed stable antibody levels over a 12-month follow-up period. This gives hope for lasting protection against similar coronaviruses.

    Read more:How well do COVID vaccines work in the real world?

    The Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines are the first vaccines based on mRNA technology to be approved for human use. So theres still significant research required to evaluate the nature and duration of immunity they induce.

    Initial studies only evaluated short-term efficacy, however recent research has found strong antibody activity at six months.

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