Anxiety Depression And Stress Post
The outbreak of COVID-19 is stressful for many people. People respond to stress in different ways and it is normal to experience a range of emotions, including fear, anxiety, and grief. Being isolated from others during the infection, the real risk of death, and the stress of hospitalization and critical care can trigger post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition, given the contagious nature of COVID-19, the individual is often not the only affected person in the family or circle of friends, some of whom may even have died. Some people may develop a mood or anxiety disorder. For information on post-COVID stress and coping, see the National Institute of Mental Healths resources at National Institute of Mental Health’s Director, Dr. Gordon In the News and NIMH Shareable Resources on Coping with COVID-19.
When Do The First Covid
Not everyone who gets COVID-19 has symptomsin fact, the World Health Organization says 80% of infections are mild or asymptomatic. Yet those who do may develop fever and chills, a cough, muscle or body aches, fatigue, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, or a loss of taste or smell. Other people with COVID-19 have reported headache, sore throat, congestion or runny nose, nausea or vomiting, and diarrhea.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. Yes, thats a pretty large window. But a recent study by US immunologists, published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, narrowed it down. They analyzed more than 180 COVID-19 cases and found that, on average, it takes just over five days for COVID-19 symptoms to hit.
The research team also found that 97% of people who get the virus will develop symptoms within 11 days from the time they are first infected. Any of these symptoms can strike at any time during the course of the illness, from day one to the last days.
What Is The Typical Recovery From Covid
Fortunately, people who have mild to moderate symptoms typically recover in a few days or weeks. However, some people who have had only mild or moderate symptoms of COVID-19 continue to experience dysfunction of body systemsparticularly in the lungs but also possibly affecting the liver, kidneys, heart, skin, and brain and nervous systemmonths after their infection. In rare cases, some individuals may develop new symptoms that stem from but were not present at the time of initial infection. People who require intensive care for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, regardless of the cause, usually have a long period of recovery. Individuals with long-term effects, whether following mild or more severe COVID-19, have in some cases self-identified as having long COVID or long haul COVID. These long-term symptoms are included in the scientific term, Post Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection .
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How Long Can I Expect A Covid
How long can I expect a COVID-19 illness to last?
It depends. Most coronavirus patients have mild to moderate illness and recover quickly. Older, sicker patients tend to take longer to recover. That includes those who are obese, or have high blood pressure and other chronic diseases.
The World Health Organization says recovery typically takes two to six weeks. One U.S. study found that around 20% of non-hospitalized individuals ages 18 to 34 still had symptoms at least two weeks after becoming ill. The same was true for nearly half of people age 50 and older.
Among those sick enough to be hospitalized, a study in Italy found 87% were still experiencing symptoms two months after getting sick. Lingering symptoms included fatigue and shortness of breath.
Dr. Khalilah Gates, a Chicago lung specialist, said many of her hospitalized COVID-19 patients still have coughing episodes, breathing difficulties and fatigue three to four months after infection.
She said its hard to predict exactly when COVID-19 patients will return to feeling well.
The unsettling part of all this is we dont have all the answers, said Gates, an assistant professor at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
Its also hard to predict which patients will develop complications after their initial illness subsides.
Once you get over the acute illness, its not necessarily over, he said.
Read previous Viral Questions:
What To Expect At Home
You tested positive for COVID-19 and are well enough to recover at home. As you recover, you must isolate at home. Home isolation keeps people who are infected with COVID-19 away from other people who are not infected with the virus. You should stay in home isolation until it is safe to be around others.
HELP PROTECT OTHERS
While in home isolation, you should separate yourself and stay away from other people to help prevent spreading COVID-19.
- As much as possible, stay in a specific room and away from others in your home. Use a separate bathroom if you can. Do not leave your home except to get medical care.
- Have food brought to you. Try not to leave the room except to use the bathroom.
- Use a face mask when you see your health care provider and anytime other people are in the same room with you.
- Wash your hands many times a day with soap and running water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not easily available, you should use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
- Do not share personal items such as cups, eating utensils, towels, or bedding. Wash anything you have used in soap and water.
WHEN TO END HOME ISOLATION
If you are tested for COVID-19 after your diagnosis or after having symptoms of the illness, it is safe to be around others if ALL of the following are true:
TAKE CARE OF YOURSELF
It’s important to get proper nutrition, stay active as much as you can, and take steps to relieve stress and anxiety as you recover at home.
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Taking Care Of Children
What is COVID-toe or COVID-fingers, and how can this affect my child?
People can react to infections in different ways. It is not uncommon for someone to have a viral infection and have a rash on his or her body. Like most viral rashes, COVID toe/fingers are another way the body can respond to a viral infection. It is possible this is a skin reaction or a small clog, or micro clot, in the blood vessels. It can be painful for some.
Should you note a rash or COVID fingers/toes in addition to , it is important to call your healthcare provider. Not all people with COVID-19 get COVID-toe, and not all people with swollen toes or fingers have COVID-19.
What are the chances my child will catch multisystem inflammatory syndrome at daycare or at the playground?
We are still learning about multisystem inflammatory syndrome and how it affects children. It is a rare condition, so the chances are low in general. However, we do not know why some children have gotten sick with multisystem inflammatory syndrome and others have not. Based on what we know, the best way to protect your child is by taking everyday actions to in your child and the entire household.
Can you put hand sanitizer on a child younger than 2?
What are the long-term effects on lung function for kids who get COVID-19?
What should parents do if they get COVID-19 and they are the primary caregiver?
How do you know if it is a cold or COVID-19?
Can children get the virus twice in the same season?
Broad Range Of Symptoms
Glatter shared his experience treating patients with COVID-19 in New York City.
In general, while fever is usually the most commonly described initial symptom of COVID-19 infection, the reality of what I see on the front lines is more variable, he said.
In fact, some patients may present only with loss of taste or smell and otherwise feel well, Glatter said. I have also seen patients present with COVID-toes, or chilblains a livedo-type of skin reaction in response to acute inflammation, in the absence of fever, cough or other respiratory symptoms.
Glatter said that other patients have also presented with malaise, headache, and dizziness, that in some ways resemble the symptoms of stroke, but without fever, cough, or any evidence of upper respiratory symptoms.
I have also seen patients present only with chest pain, devoid of any respiratory symptoms, he said. The onset of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea after onset of respiratory symptoms such as fever and cough may also suggest that a person may have COVID-19.
According to Glatter, the bottom line is that healthcare professionals need to be vigilant and keep an open mind when evaluating patients who may have symptoms associated with the disease. They dont always present according to the book, so you must cast a wide net when thinking about who may or may not have COVID-19, he said.
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How Does It Spread
COVID-19 is transmitted through droplets generated via coughing and sneezing.
This means it can spread during close contact between an infected and uninfected person, when its inhaled, or enters the body via the eyes, mouth or nose.
Infection can also occur when an uninfected person touches a contaminated surface.
How Long Are You Infectious When You Have Coronavirus
- Tambri Housen, et al
Lets look at what the science tells us so far.
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Mild To Moderate Symptoms
Even those who go on to experience more severe symptoms typically begin with mild symptoms, most often fever and a dry cough, although they can also include more unusual symptoms such as loss of taste and smell.
Symptoms will remain mild in about 80 per cent of cases, the WHO says, and recovery takes about two weeks in mild cases. Typically, the cough lasts a week longer than the fever, a Chinese study found. Patients with mild or moderate symptoms are told to recover at home.
A key, more severe symptom that sometimes leads to hospitalization is shortness of breath or dyspnea, which shows up on average five to six days after symptoms began, Chinese researchers reported in medical journals JAMA and The Lancet.
As The Global Battle Against The Pandemic Continues We Look At What We Know About The Covid
Compared to this time last year we know much more about the virus and how to fight it including what symptoms it causes, how long they last and how effective the vaccines actually are.
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If Youre Sick Or Caring For Someone Whos Sick
If youre infected with COVID-19, even if not ill, follow the advice of your local public health authority for isolating at home. Most people with mild symptoms will recover on their own.
Adults and children with mild COVID-19 symptoms can stay at home while recovering. You dont need to go to the hospital.
If youre caring for someone at home who has or may have COVID-19, you should follow the appropriate precautions to prevent the spread of illness.
Learn more about:
The only way to confirm you have COVID-19 is through a laboratory test.
Follow the testing directions provided by your local public health authority if you have:
- been exposed to a person with COVID-19
People who are partially or fully vaccinated may still be asked to get a COVID-19 test.
If youve been tested and are waiting for the results, follow instructions:
- on how to quarantine or isolate and
- from your local public health authority
Are Certain People More Likely To Experience Side Effects
There are also some factors that could make you more likely to experience side effects.
Experts say younger people are more likely to experience side effects because they have more robust immune systems.
Women are much more likely to report side effects than men. Some of this may be because they may just be better reporters, but it could be more than just that.
Why is that?
Estrogen can elevate immune responses, while testosterone can decrease it. Many immune modulating genes also live on an “x” chromosome, which women have two of, while men have one.
Data from the CDC also reported women were more likely to experience side effects than men, according monitoring from the first month of vaccinations.
From Dec. 14 through Jan. 13, more than 79% of side effects were reported by women, the data showed. Meanwhile, women received roughly 61.2% of the doses administered during that same time.
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If You Develop A Rash Or Covid Toes You Can Help Others
If you test positive for the coronavirus and develop a rash or COVID toes, you can help doctors learn more about COVID-19. To help, ask your doctor to submit information to the American Academy of Dermatologys COVID-19 registry.
Doctors from around the world are encouraged to participate.
Related AAD resources
Images2-4, 5-8: Images used with permission of Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology and JAAD Case Reports.
JAAD Case Rep. 2020 6:489-92.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 May 4 S0190-962230789-1.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Apr 10 S0190-962230556-9.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Jul 83:e61-e63.
ReferencesBarry J. Pediatric dermatologist explains ‘COVID toes. Dermatology Times, May 20, 2020.
Bosworth T. Heterogeneity seen in COVID-19 skin manifestations. Medscape Dermatology. May 5, 2020. Last accessed May 8, 2020.
Bayers S, Shulman ST, et al. Kawasaki disease: Part I. Diagnosis, clinical features, and pathogenesis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013 69:501.e1e11.
Daneshjou R, Rana J, et al. Pernio-like eruption associated with COVID-19 in skin of color. JAAD Case Reports 2020 6:892-7.
de Masson A, Bouaziz JD, et al. Chilblains are a common cutaneous finding during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective nationwide study from France. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 May 4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.04.161. .
Henry D, Ackerman M, et al. Urticarial eruption in COVID-19 infection. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2020 Apr 15. doi:10.1111/jdv.16472. .
Recovering From Moderate Covid
For people who experience more acute or alarming COVID-19 symptoms such as symptoms that warrant a visit to an ER or even hospitalization, in some cases the recovery process is more lengthy than for those with milder symptoms.
“While recovering from a moderate case of COVID-19, it’s likely you can expect to experience prolonged fatigue, cough and even shortness of breath,” explains Dr. Septimus. “And these prolonged symptoms can go on for several weeks.”
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Is There Medicine I Can Take To Feel Better If I Have Covid
For most people, rest and drinking plenty of fluids are the best treatments. Your doctor may also suggest you take over-the-counter medication for fever.
More severe cases require hospitalization. Hospital care may include breathing support, such as a ventilator, or other treatments.
Coronavirus Self-Checker and COVID-19 Vaccine FAQ
Check symptoms. Get vaccine information. Protect yourself and others.
What Is ‘viral Persistence’ And How Does That Affect The Course Of The Disease
Sometimes the coronavirus sticks around longer than expectedand scientists are still trying to figure out why that happens in some patients, how it varies by individual, and exactly how long the virus stays alive inside the body. This is known as viral persistence, and it affects how long someone is contagious and therefore how long they should stay in isolation.
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What Are The Potential Side Effects
Side effects are possible after receiving any COVID vaccine currently being administered in the U.S.
Experiencing side effects isn’t necessarily a bad thing. In fact, it’s a sign your body is responding and the vaccine is working.
According to Pfizer, about 3.8% of their clinical trial participants experienced fatigue as a side effect and 2% got a headache.
Moderna says 9.7% of their participants felt fatigued and 4.5% got a headache.
The CDC reports the most common side effects for the vaccines is at the injection site. They include:
Will A Mask Protect Me From Catching Covid
After the SARS outbreak, PHAC asked a panel of medical experts for guidance on how flu is transmitted and how best to protect against infection, including the efficiency of face masks.
The report found that masks can offer protection, but there’s no evidence inexpensive masks can protect against flu virus particles small enough to be inhaled into the lower respiratory tract or the lungs. It did find that the N95 masks are the most likely to be efficient, because they filter particles smaller than one micron and provide a tight facial seal.
Early on in the COVID-19 outbreak, Canada’s chief public health officer, Dr. Theresa Tam, said thatwearing a mask when you’re well is not an effective measure for keeping yourself safe from infection.
But the science and advice has changed.
On April 6, Tam told reporters that wearing a non-medical mask can help stop the spread of COVID-19, in large part by protecting those around you. But she stressed the importance of doing so in tandem with other physical distancing measures and handwashing.
“A non-medical mask can reduce the chance of your respiratory droplets coming into contact with others or landing on surfaces,” Tam said. “The science is not certain, but we need to do everything that we can, and it seems a sensible thing to do.”
WATCH | Tam explains how wearing a non-medical mask can help reduce transmission:
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