Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
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How Long For Covid Vaccine

How Do Vaccines Work

How long does coronavirus immunity last? | COVID-19 Special

All vaccines, no matter the technology, have the same fundamental goal to introduce the immune system to an infectious agent, without the risk that comes from disease.

The vaccine needs to follow a similar pathway a virus would have taken to produce an adequate immune response. Viruses enter our cells and use them to replicate themselves. So, the vaccines also need to be delivered in cells where proteins are produced, which mimics a component of the virus itself.

The COVID vaccines all do this by delivering information into our muscle cells, usually in our upper arm. They do this in different ways, such as using mRNA, like Pfizers and Modernas, or viral vectors, like AstraZenecas.

Regardless of the technology, the effect is similar. Our cells use the genetic template in the vaccine to produce the coronavirus spike protein, which is a part of the virus that helps it enter our cells. The spike protein is transported to the surface of the cell where its detected by the immune cells nearby.

There are also other specialised immune cells nearby, which take up the spike proteins and use them to inform more immune cells targeting them specifically against COVID.

These immune cells include B cells, which produce antibodies, and T cells, which kill virus-infected cells. They then become long-lasting memory cells, which wait and monitor for the next time it sees a spike protein.

Do I Need To Quarantine If I’m Vaccinated But Have Been Exposed To Someone With Covid

If youve been exposed to someone with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, you are not required to quarantine if all of the following are true, according to the CDC:

  • You are fully vaccinated for COVID-19 and its been at least 2 weeks since your last dose .
  • Its been less than 3 months since your final dose in the series.
  • You’ve remained asymptomatic since your current COVID-19 exposure.

Comparison With Other Studies

Although existing evidence is limited, our main finding, of reduced odds of experiencing long COVID symptoms after double coronavirus vaccination, is broadly coherent with those from other studies. A study of 455 participants with pre-existing long COVID found reduced symptom burden and double the rate of remission at 120 days post-vaccination compared with unvaccinated controls. A descriptive analysis of 900 social media users with long COVID found that over half had experienced an improvement in symptoms after vaccination while just 7% reported a deterioration. In a study of 44 vaccinated patients and 22 unvaccinated controls previously hospitalised with COVID-19, there was no evidence of a worsening in long COVID symptoms or quality of life after vaccination.

In addition to research into vaccination and pre-existing long COVID symptoms, evidence suggests that the incidence of long COVID is reduced in those infected after vaccination. In a study of 906 fully-vaccinated mobile phone app users, the odds of having symptoms for at least 28 days post-infection were approximately halved after vaccination compared with unvaccinated controls.

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Read More About The Vaccine Rollout:

“Using the most conservative statistics available, there will be 5 million people with long COVID that will have it certainly for months, and potentially for many years,” he said.

“If you take into account the fact that you can have asymptomatic long-COVID that’s when you’re metabolically abnormal, but you don’t necessarily show any symptoms could be potentially tens of millions of people worldwide that could get long COVID.”

As for whether COVID-19 vaccines can alleviate some of the symptoms that long COVID patients experience which some people have reportedly found Professor Matthews says it’s too early to tell.

She says her team is currently measuring how people’s immune systems respond to vaccination, and what that looks like in people with long COVID.

“This will give us some more information as to what vaccination is doing to alter the immune system, that may then help us understand what’s causing long COVID.”

How Do Vaccines Reduce Long Covid

What to expect after a COVID

In addition to reducing infections overall, Professor Nicholson said vaccines were likely driving down rates of long COVID because they were reducing the number of people getting severely ill.

“If you’ve been on a ventilator or you’ve got severe respiratory symptoms, you are more likely to get long COVID respiratory symptoms,” he said.

“In that respect, vaccines will definitely reduce long COVID, because you’re taking away the respiratory damage occurs in severe disease.”

What was less clear, he said, was whether vaccines would help to reduce long COVID symptoms triggered by mild or asymptomatic infections, which were typically more “systemic effects in other organ systems”.

“The people who don’t get seriously ill have got a very strong cellular response that destroys the virus and the cells that are making it,” he said.

“What’s interesting and what we don’t understand yet is why that can still lead to long COVID at the systemic level.”

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Our Ruling: Missing Context

We rate this claim MISSING CONTEXT because without additional context it might be misleading. Vaccines require specific targets against which they train the immune system. COVID-19’s spike protein was identified nearly 20 years ago as a potential vaccine target during the development of the SARS vaccine, following the 2003 SARS outbreak. This has helped expedite the vaccine process, given that vaccine platform technologies have advanced in recent years, as well. Another accelerant was the commercial-scale production of COVID-19 vaccine doses prior to FDA clearance, called at-risk manufacturing, when early results appeared promising. Finding suitable vaccine targets for HIV, cancer and the common cold has been more difficult in comparison as these diseases have either elusive or highly variable targets.

Dear Doctor: How Long Should I Wait After Contracting Covid To Get The Vaccine

Dr. Keith Roach is a physician at Weill Cornell Medical College and New York Presbyterian Hospital. He writes an educational column on infectious diseases, public health and sports medicine.North America Syndicate

DEAR DR. ROACH: Is it safe for an unvaccinated person experiencing long-term symptoms after a COVID-19 infection to get the vaccination, or must they wait until the typical 90-day period for symptoms to diminish or disappear? — P.M.

ANSWER: In general, people can expect to have symptoms of acute COVID-19 infection for up to four weeks after the onset of symptoms. Beyond four weeks, people with persistent symptoms are considered to have post-COVID conditions, also called long COVID. The most typical symptoms are fatigue, shortness of breath and difficulty thinking or with memory, often called brain fog. Other symptoms may include chest pain, cough, loss of taste and smell, and many more. Roughly a third of people with symptomatic COVID-19 symptoms will have persistent symptoms.

Vaccination has not been associated with worsening of symptoms in people with persistent COVID symptoms. There have been some cases of symptoms improving with vaccine. So, for a person who is well past their acute phase, getting the vaccine is safe and may possibly help reduce long COVID symptoms, but is not urgent since immunity is reliable for at least 90 days after infection.

2021 North America Syndicate Inc.

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I Am Pregnant And Plan To Eventually Breastfeed My Baby Is It Safe For Me To Get A Covid

In August 2021, the CDC gave its clearest recommendation to date that women who are pregnant, thinking about becoming pregnant, or who are breastfeeding should get vaccinated against COVID-19. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine also agree that all pregnant and breastfeeding individuals should be vaccinated. The World Health Organization recommends use of a COVID-19 vaccine in pregnant women when the benefit to an individual outweighs the potential vaccine risks. Experts, including the WHO, believe it is most likely safe to get a COVID-19 vaccine if you’re breastfeeding. Similar to any decision regarding over-the-counter medications and supplements during pregnancy, your own doctor is in the best position to advise you based on your personal health risks and preferences.

Here are some factors to consider. First, although the actual risk of severe COVID-19 illness and death among pregnant individuals is very low, it is higher when compared to nonpregnant individuals from the same age group. In addition, COVID-19 increases risk for premature birth, particularly for those with severe illness, and possibly also for other undesirable pregnancy outcomes. Transmission of the virus from mother to baby during pregnancy is possible, but it appears to be a rare event.

Did You Receive A Vaccine That Is On The Who Emergency Use List But Is Not Authorised By Swissmedic Or The European Medicines Agency

How long does COVID-19 vaccine immunity last?

You can apply for a Swiss COVID certificate if you received one of the following vaccines:

  • SARS-CoV-2 vaccine
  • CoronaVac

Did you receive the Sputnik V vaccine? COVID certificates cannot currently be issued for this and other vaccines not recognised by the WHO.


Are you planning a trip to Switzerland ?

You can apply for the COVID certificate online using the National COVID certificate application platform. The canton where you are resident or staying will issue the certificate.

Do you belong to one of the following groups?
  • You are a Swiss national
  • You are a foreign national with a short-term residence permit, residence permit, permanent residence permit or cross-border commuter permit.
  • You are deemed provisionally admitted.
  • You are deemed in need of protection.
  • You are an asylum seeker with a permit or confirmation.
  • You hold a legitimation card under the Host State Ordinance
  • You hold a Ci permit

If so, you must submit the application to the issuing body in person so that your details can be checked on the spot. You will find information on the cantonal websites.

Required information

For your application, you require at least the following information:

  • Information on your nationality or on your residency status in Switzerland
  • Confirmation of vaccination
  • Reason for your stay in Switzerland, how long you are staying and where
  • Proof of address or residence
  • Are you only visiting Switzerland? If so, you will need evidence of your journey to Switzerland .


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Frequently Asked Questions About Covid

NOTICE: FDA has granted full approvalfor Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices is meeting on Monday, August 30, 2021, to discuss its updated recommendation for this vaccine.

If you have lost your vaccination card or dont have a copy, contact your vaccination provider site where you received your vaccine to access your vaccination record. Learn more about how you can locate your vaccination provider.

Yes, you should be vaccinated regardless of whether you already had COVID-19 because:

  • Research has not yet shown how long you are protected from getting COVID-19 again after you recover from COVID-19.
  • Vaccination helps protect you even if youve already had COVID-19.

Evidence is emerging that people get better protection by being fully vaccinated compared with having had COVID-19. One study showed that unvaccinated people who already had COVID-19 are more than 2 times as likely than fully vaccinated people to get COVID-19 again.

If you were treated for COVID-19 with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma, you should wait 90 days before getting a COVID-19 vaccine. Talk to your doctor if you are unsure what treatments you received or if you have more questions about getting a COVID-19 vaccine.

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I Was Vaccinated Abroad How Can I Get A Covid Certificate And How Long Is It Valid

Have you already got an EU Digital COVID Certificate or a certificate that is compatible with the EU Digital COVID Certificate? If so, you dont need to apply for a Swiss COVID certificate as these are also recognised in Switzerland. Further information can be found on the page Travel abroad and global statistics.

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Once I’ve Been Vaccinated How Long Does It Take For Covid

This is not entirely clear. Data released by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration show that COVID-19 protection from the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine was demonstrated in the clinical trials at about 14 days after the first shot. The FDA said some level of immunity may start sooner, but how much is not certain.

The trials also confirmed that the vaccine was 95% effective against COVID-19 seven to 14 days after the second dose.

What Is Long Covid

What to expect after a COVID

In most cases, COVID-19 symptoms resolve after a couple of weeks.

But in a sizeable proportion of patients, symptoms linger for months and sometimes leave people debilitated and unable to work.

The persistence of symptoms or onset of new ones months after infection is known as long COVID, post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 , or post COVID-19.

The World Health Organization recently defined long COVID as a condition that “usually occurs three months from the onset of COVID-19 with symptoms last for at least two months and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis”.

Most commonly, patients report fatigue, breathlessness and “brain fog”, but up to 205 symptoms have been identified, including dizziness, loss of taste and smell, muscle spasms and irritable bowels.

“Long COVID covers almost every organ system in the body,” said Jeremy Nicholson, head of the Australian National Phenome Centre at Murdoch University, which investigates the causes and origins of disease.

“There are kidney effects, liver effects, neurological effects chronic fatigue syndrome.

“All of these things are linked together in COVID-19.”

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What You Need To Know Before Getting Vaccinated

The FDA has granted full approval to one COVID-19 vaccine and has authorized two others. As more people get their shots and more time passes, we will learn how long protection lasts. And we will gain answers to important questions, including whether vaccinations protect against emerging variants. The vaccines offer hope for an end to this pandemic.

Visit our Coronavirus Resource Center for more information on coronavirus and COVID-19.

My Side Effects Are Not Going Awaycould I Have Covid

In some cases, you might get your COVID-19 shot around the same time that you have been exposed to the virus. If this happens, you could develop symptoms of COVID-19in which case you would be capable of spreading it to others.

Some people by chance may become infected with coronavirus between their first and second dose before they are fully immune, DSouza says. It takes several days after infection for symptoms to develop so they might get their second dose.

Common side effects of the vaccine, like fatigue, fever, or body aches, can also occur if you have a COVID-19 infection. The way to tell the difference is by the timing and severity of your symptoms. If you don’t start to feel better within a few days of getting your shot, or your side effects are getting worse, you should get tested for COVID-19.

If your symptoms last longer than 72 hours, it is worth making sure you dont actually have COVID-19, Juthani says. If you do, you didnt get it from the vaccine, you just happened to get it from someone else around the time you got your vaccine.

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Third Doses For Those Who Are At The Highest Risk

We are offering third doses of COVID-19covid 19 vaccines to select vulnerable populations.

You may be able to get a third dose 8 weeks after your second dose if you are:

  • a transplant recipient
  • receiving stable, active treatment for a malignant hematologic disorder
  • receiving an anti-CD20 agent

Your health care provider will contact you.

You may be able to get a third dose 6 months after your second dose if you are:

  • living in a high-risk congregate setting, such as a long-term care home, high-risk retirement home or First Nations elder care lodge

Public health units will work with the homes to give you your shot within your home or at a mobile clinic.

What Do I Need To Know About The Delta Variant

How long could it take to develop coronavirus vaccine?

The Delta variant is different from previous SARS-CoV-2 variants that have made their way to the US. Its highly contagious and may cause more severe disease. It is also more likely than previous variants to be spread by vaccinated people experiencing breakthrough infections.

Evidence presented to the CDC showed the Delta variant to be much more contagious than previous variants, with a risk of transmission similar to chickenpox. It also appears that people who are infected can spread the virus for longer periods of time.

In addition, people who are vaccinated and then get infected can also spread the virus to others, perhaps to the same extent as those who are unvaccinated. This is also new vaccinated people were much less likely to spread previous variants.

Finally, international studies point to the Delta variant being more likely to cause severe disease.

The good news is that while vaccination may be less effective at preventing infection and spread of the Delta variant, it is still highly protective against severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Get the COVID-19 vaccine if you have not already done so.

In July 2021, the CDC advised all people vaccinated and unvaccinated to wear masks in public indoor places, in areas of the country with substantial or high transmission of the virus. Given the threat posed by the Delta variant, its reasonable for everyone to start wearing a mask in indoor public spaces, regardless of the level of virus in your area.

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Did You Receive A Vaccine That Is Approved By The European Medicines Agency

You can apply for a Swiss COVID certificate if you received one of the following vaccines:

  • Comirnaty® / BNT162b2 / Tozinameran
  • Spikevax® / mRNA-1273 / COVID-19 vaccine
  • Vaxzevria® / AZD1222 / Covishield or other licensed products
  • COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen

You also have to be able to prove that you live in Switzerland, are a Swiss abroad or that you plan to travel to Switzerland . To find out which documents you need to present, see the section Required information.


You can apply for the COVID certificate online using the National COVID certificate application platform. The canton where you are resident or staying will issue the certificate.

Do you need help applying for your COVID certificate via the National COVID certificate application platform? If so, you can call the following Infoline +41 58 469 79 63 .

Required information

For your application, you require at least the following information:

  • Information on your nationality or on your residency status in Switzerland
  • Confirmation of vaccination
  • Reason for your stay in Switzerland, how long you are staying and where
  • Are you only visiting Switzerland? If so, you require proof of arrival in Switzerland

The necessary documents must be submitted in German, French, Italian or English.You can also download the COVID Certificate app free of charge from the Apple App Store, or Huawei App Gallery. Your COVID certificate can also be delivered directly to the app.


How long is the COVID certificate valid?

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