Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
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How Long Has The Covid Vaccine Been Available

A Guide To Global Covid

China: COVID-19 vaccine will be available by November
  • Governments, multilateral organizations, and private firms have spent billions of dollars to develop effective vaccines for COVID-19.
  • More than two dozen vaccinesincluding ones by Pfizer and BioNTech, Moderna, and Sinopharmare already being distributed, and about half of the global population is fully vaccinated.
  • Vaccines go through rigorous testing for safety and effectiveness before they are approved for public use.

How Long Does It Typically Take To Develop A Vaccine

Outside of the backdrop of a deadly pandemic, vaccines typically take more than 10 years to develop, according to the British health charity Wellcome Trust.

The first two to five years is usually dominated by discovery research, which includes the development of up to 100 potential vaccines, according to the charity.

The preclinical phase then takes about two years to complete, in which about 20 vaccine candidates are moved to the next round.

Phase three is when human trials are conducted and could take between 5 and 9 years as scientists figure out if the vaccine is safe, activates an immune response and protects against the disease.

The final phase, which is seeking regulatory review and approval, can typically take about one to two years.

The race for a COVID-19 vaccine is charging along at warp speed, however, scientists also arent starting from scratch, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Past research on severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome vaccines gave drugmakers a leg-up in determining potential approaches when vaccine development started earlier this year, the medical center said.

In the early twentieth century, it took scientists about 19 years to develop an effective vaccine for yellow fever, Business Insider reported.

The chickenpox vaccine took 28 years to develop and the polio vaccine took six years, according to William Petri, an infectious diseases specialist at the University of Virginia, writing in The Conversation.

How Is Safety Studied Before Approval

Clinical trials will have to show that the benefits in protecting people against COVID-19 are far greater than the risks and the potential risk of side effects.

Several thousand individuals will have received the vaccine at the time of evaluation. This will allow regulators to assess side effects that affect at least 1 in 1,000 vaccinated people.

Did you know..?

As most side effects occur within four to six weeks after receiving a vaccine, safety data have to cover at least six weeks after completion of vaccination, for approval purposes. However, the studies will follow volunteers up for at least a year to see if there are any longer-term side effects.

Side effects of a new vaccine that are so rare that affect less than 1 in 10,000 people can only be detected after collection of very large data sets. This is likely to be feasible only once large numbers of people have received the vaccine.

A robust safety monitoring plan is in place in the EU to gather and evaluate any side effects that may arise during vaccination campaigns promptly.

For more information, see

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Which Vaccine Will I Get

You cannot usually choose which vaccine you have. When you book, you’ll only be offered appointments for vaccines that are suitable for you.

Most people can have any of the COVID-19 vaccines, but some people are only offered certain vaccines.

For example:

  • if you’re pregnant or under 40 you’ll usually be offered appointments for the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna vaccines
  • if you’re under 18, you’ll only be offered the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine

You should have the same vaccine for both doses, unless you had serious side effects after your 1st dose.

How Much Will The Vaccines Cost

How long do COVID

The federal government, which has a $1.95 billion contract to buy millions of Pfizer-BioNTech doses, as well those from other successful candidates, has promised the shots will be free.

That said, Pfizer-BioNTech has set an initial price at $19.50 a dose, while Moderna, which has a $1.5 billion contract for 100 million doses, will cost taxpayers $25 a dose, Forbes reported.

Two doses three weeks apart are needed for full immunization.

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Effectiveness Against New Strains

The COVID-19 virus has changed over time due to mutations that result in a different strain of the virus. This is common for viruses, but some changes have greater impact than others. They may spread more rapidly, cause more or less serious illness, or fail to respond to the existing vaccines.

The CDC will classify some strains as a “variant of concern” when they have the potential for this greater impact. As of December 2021, there were two variants of concern in the U.S. They were:

  • Omicron first identified in Botswana and South Africa
  • Delta first identified in India

How Is The Efficacy Of Covid

In efficacy studies, volunteers randomly receive either the vaccine or an alternative. This alternative could be a vaccine that does not protect against COVID-19 or a placebo .

Normally, the doctors, clinical study participants and the company carrying out the study do not know who has received the vaccine and who has received the control. This is important to avoid errors when interpreting study results.

The studies measure efficacy endpointsto see how well the vaccine works in the study and the level of protection it offers to participants.

Regulatory agencies recommend that the main endpoint should be how well a vaccine prevents laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 disease of any severity. This means how well the vaccine prevents symptomatic disease in people infected with SARS-CoV-2 as confirmed by a laboratory test.

For more information, see the statement published by members of the International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities in July 2020: ICMRA statement on clinical trials

Did you know..?

Efficacy studies also look at other relevant ‘secondary endpoints’, which give an idea of theother benefits of the vaccine. For example, a vaccine may reduce:

  • the number of people infected
  • the number of severe cases of a disease
  • the severity of the disease.

The reduction in number of people needing hospitalisation or mechanical ventilation or the reduction in the number of deaths can help measure the efficacy of the vaccine in reducing disease severity.

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How To Get Your Covid

If you’re aged 16 or over you can:

If you cannot book appointments online, you can call 119 free of charge. You can speak to a translator if you need to.

If you have difficulties communicating or hearing, or are a British Sign Language user, you can use textphone 18001 119 or the NHS 119 BSL interpreter service.

How Are Clinical Studies Carried Out In Other Parts Of The World

For how long will a COVID-19 vaccine protect you?

Since the COVID-19 pandemic affects people worldwide, it is important for companies developing COVID-19 vaccines to generate robust evidence that meets the needs of regulators around the globe. This is why EMA and other medicines regulators have agreed key principles on how to carry out clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines.

Companies applying for approval of a vaccine in the EU must ensure that clinical studies meet stringent EU requirements no matter where in the world they took place.

For more information, see:

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When Will The Fda Give Full Approval For Covid

  • Two vaccine manufacturers have submitted applications for full approval of their COVID-19 vaccines, but the FDA hasnt yet indicated when a decision will come.
  • COVID-19 vaccines have been given emergency use authorization in the United States but have not yet been granted full approval.
  • So far, the FDA has shown no indication of when it will grant full approval for these vaccines.
  • Experts say full approval may help increase vaccination rates.

All data and statistics are based on publicly available data at the time of publication. Some information may be out of date. Visit our coronavirus hub and follow our live updates page for the most recent information on the COVID-19 pandemic.

Its been almost 7 months since the Food and Drug Administration issued the first emergency authorization of a COVID-19 vaccine: Pfizer-BioNTechs mRNA vaccine.

In the following months, two other COVID-19 vaccines, Modernas mRNA vaccine and Johnson & Johnsons adenovirus vector vaccine, were given emergency use authorization.

Since that first authorization, more than 182.7 million U.S. people 55 percent of the total population have received at least one dose, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

During the vaccination campaign, most people have received an mRNA vaccine either because it was more available or they preferred an mRNA vaccine.

Yet, so far the FDA has shown no indication of when it will grant full approval.

Is There Any Reason My Child Should Not Get The Vaccine For Example If They Have A Certain Underlying Health Issue

Your childs pediatrician is always the best resource if you have questions about your child and the COVID-19 vaccine, so reach out to them if you have specific concerns.

But in general, almost every eligible child should get the vaccine. One exception is kids who have had a severe allergic reaction to a similar vaccine, but these cases are usually very rare.

If your child is 6 months or older, please make sure theyre fully vaccinated.

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How Can I Protect My Family Until We All Receive A Covid

Safe and effective vaccines are a gamechanger, but it is still not clear the degree to which they can protect us against infection and transmission. For the time being, even once vaccinated we need to continue taking precautions to protect ourselves and others. This includes wearing masks, physical distancing and regular handwashing.

Answers To The Most Common Questions About Coronavirus Vaccines


Vaccines save millions of lives each year. The development of safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines is a huge step forward in our global effort to end the pandemic and to get back to doing more of the things we enjoy with the people we love.

Weve gathered the latest expert information to answer some of the most common questions about COVID-19 vaccines. We will continue to update this article as more information becomes available.

List of questions:

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Pfizer To Seek Emergency Vaccine Ok Friday Doses Could Ship In 24 Hours: Azar

Phase two encompasses K-12 teachers, school staff, child care workers, people with underlying conditions that put them at moderately higher risk, public transit workers, those in the food supply system, and those in homeless shelters or group homes, and prison and jail inmates, as well as staffers there. These groups make up about 30 to 35 percent of the population.

Phase three which covers about 40 to 45 percent of Americans includes young adults, children and workers in industries such as hotels, banks, higher education, gyms and factories. However, the guidance says immunization of children will depend on safety testing.

All other Americans not included in the first three phases are covered in phase four.

Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nations top infectious disease expert, said average, healthy Americans could expect to get their first doses as early as April and through July, he told USA Today.

Will A Vaccine Offer Complete Protection Against Covid

Immunization may keep you from getting severely ill but wont necessarily prevent you from getting infected, Fauci said.

The issue is that youre not going to be completely protected against a degree of infection that you might not even notice that you might be able to spread to others, the top doc said in a virtual chat with the Hastings Center.

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Who Should Be Vaccinated First

As there is not enough manufacturing capacity in 2021 to meet all global needs, not everyone will be able to get the vaccine at the same time. Countries must identify priority populations, which WHO recommends are frontline health workers and those at highest risk of death due to COVID-19, such as older adults and people with certain medical conditions. Other essential workers, such as teachers and social workers, should then be prioritized, followed by additional groups as more vaccine doses become available.

How Has A Covid Vaccine Been Developed So Quickly

How do I know COVID-19 vaccines are safe without long-term data?

Analysis: Funding and high public interest contributed to slashing of research and approval time

The emergence of vaccines against Covid-19 has been hailed as gamechanger by experts, but polls have revealed the speed of their development and approval is a matter of concern for some people. We take a look at how and why such processes were so rapid.

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Our Ruling: Missing Context

We rate this claim MISSING CONTEXT because without additional context it might be misleading. Vaccines require specific targets against which they train the immune system. COVID-19’s spike protein was identified nearly 20 years ago as a potential vaccine target during the development of the SARS vaccine, following the 2003 SARS outbreak. This has helped expedite the vaccine process, given that vaccine platform technologies have advanced in recent years, as well. Another accelerant was the commercial-scale production of COVID-19 vaccine doses prior to FDA clearance, called at-risk manufacturing, when early results appeared promising. Finding suitable vaccine targets for HIV, cancer and the common cold has been more difficult in comparison as these diseases have either elusive or highly variable targets.

Ontario Ndp Liberals Want Plan On Fourth Covid Vaccine Shots

TORONTO Ontario’s opposition parties are calling on the provincial government to share its plan for expanded fourth COVID-19 vaccine doses.

Interim New Democrat Leader Peter Tabuns said Monday that details on the plan are needed now that a federal immunization panel is recommending the shots and Quebec has moved ahead with fourth doses for all adults.

“No one in Ontario wants to live through another rash of COVID-19 cases. No one wants our loved ones at risk of getting sick,” Tabuns said in a written statement.

“It’s time for Doug Ford to tell Ontarians what the plan is for expanding access to fourth doses of the COVID-19 vaccine.”

Fourth shots are currently available in Ontario for people aged 60 and older, Indigenous adults and long-term care and retirement home residents, if three months have passed since receiving a third shot. Immunocompromised people are also eligible for additional shots.

The New Democrats want easy and equitable access to fourth shots for the broader population, including through community clinics and doctors’ offices, Tabuns said.

The provincial Liberals have made a similar push for details on the government’s broader fourth-dose plan.

Liberal John Fraser, who represents Ottawa South, wrote to the province’s chief medical officer of health last week asking Dr. Kieran Moore to “provide the rationale for Ontario’s criteria restrictions for fourth doses” so that he could share it with constituents.

Holly McKenzie-Sutter, The Canadian Press

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Full Approval Could Boost Vaccination Rates

The FDAs emergency approval is a less rigorous review process reserved for public health emergencies of which a pandemic clearly qualifies.

There still was robust data showing the vaccines were safe since were based on clinical data involving tens of thousands of study participants, which is the same size trial as would be expected for a drug or vaccine to get full approval.

The EUAs for COVID-19 vaccines were granted based on an average of 2 months of safety follow-up data.

Tice said full review requires companies to submit longer-term data on the vaccines safety, along with additional data on how well the vaccine protects against infection and severe disease.

This will give a better picture of the benefits and risks of the vaccine.

According to a survey last month by the Kaiser Family Foundation , about a third of unvaccinated adults said they would be more likely to get vaccinated if one of the COVID-19 vaccines received full approval from the FDA.

About half of the unvaccinated wait-and-see group said the same. This group which made up about 10 percent of adults surveyed includes a large number of Black and Hispanic adults and younger adults.

Many incentives have been offered to encourage this on-the-fence group to get vaccinated, including million-dollar lotteries, free doughnuts, and free beer, with mixed success.

For them, the nudge toward vaccination might have to come from mandates.

It Began With Chickens


Operation Warp Speed, the private-public partnership initiated by the White House during the pandemic, may give the impression the COVID-19 vaccine developed overnight, but in actuality, it depends on research dating back nearly 100 years.

Coronaviruses were first encountered in April 1930, when a strange respiratory disease ravaged poultry farms across North Dakota and Minnesota, killing tens of thousands of baby birds, The Scientist reports. Unsure of what exactly this illness was, veterinarians Arthur Schalk and Merle Hawn of North Dakota Agricultural College, now North Dakota State University, the viral agent later named infectious bronchitis virus.

Further scientific research into IBV and recognition that it was not like influenza A, a flu virus known to cause bronchitis, would transpire over the next 30 years. In November 1968, a group of scientists wrote to the journal Nature asking for IBV, and viruses resembling it like mouse hepatitis virus discovered in 1947, to be classified as coronaviruses, a name derived from its appearance the spike proteins casting a halo around the surface, much like the sun’s corona on electron microscope imaging.

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Should Pregnant Women Be Vaccinated

Data regarding the safety and efficacy of the use of Novavax vaccine in pregnant women is not yet available. However, based on previous evidence from other protein-based vaccines during pregnancy, efficacy is expected to be comparable to non-pregnant women of a similar age.

WHO recommends the use of the COVID-19 vaccine in pregnant women when the benefits of vaccination to the pregnant woman outweigh the potential risks. To help pregnant women make this assessment, they should be provided with information about the risks of COVID-19 in pregnancy, the likely benefits of vaccination in the local epidemiological context, and the current limitations of safety data in pregnant women. WHO does not recommend pregnancy testing prior to vaccination. WHO does not recommend delaying pregnancy or terminating pregnancy because of vaccination.

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