Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
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How Long Is A Covid Vaccine Good For

Q: How Does The Vaccine Go From Authorized For Emergency Use To Licensed

How long is the COVID-19 vaccine good for?

A: It is the FDAs expectation that, following submission of an EUA request and issuance of an EUA, the manufacturer would continue to collect placebo-controlled data in any ongoing trials for as long as feasible to obtain additional safety and effectiveness information and would also work towards submission of a Biologics License Application as soon as possible.

How Long Will The Covid

It is not yet known how long the protection of the COVID-19 vaccine will last. We will know more through ongoing research. Clinical trials are currently happening to find out if we will need booster doses on an annual or longer basis.

What we do know is that evidence shows;the Pfizer and the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines prevent severe disease, people going to hospital and dying. The aim of Australias COVID-19 vaccination program is to reduce COVID-19 related harm. Vaccines do this by preventing serious illness and death, and, as much as possible, transmission of the virus that causes disease.

With new COVID-19 vaccine developments every day, its normal to have questions or concerns, and possibly feel hesitant about getting a vaccine. That’s why we’re providing accurate, evidence-based answers to questions about COVID-19 vaccines.

Efficacy Across Different Groups

A consistently high efficacy was observed in the clinical trials across age groups, sex, race, ethnicity and people with underlying medical conditions.

This means after getting two doses of the Pfizer vaccine, more than 9 out of 10 people are protected against COVID-19 regardless of their age, health status or ethnic group.

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How Much Do Vaccines Block Transmission

Key clinical trials for currently authorized vaccines determined whether the inoculations could safely avert symptomatic disease in individuals. But blocking transmission of the virus is also crucial for ending a pandemic, and most of those clinical trials did not track asymptomatic infections that could fuel the viruss spread.

Researchers have been trying to fill this gap, and, so far, the data look promising. Results announced by Johnson & Johnson from clinical trials suggest that its vaccine is 74% effective against asymptomatic infections. Researchers studying deployment of the PfizerBioNTech vaccine in Israel have also reported that vaccination reduces the amount of virus found in infected individuals by up to 4.5-fold, suggesting that they could be less likely to shed that virus into the environment, where it might infect someone else.

And a study by Public Health England has found that even a single dose of either the PfizerBioNTech or OxfordAstraZeneca vaccine reduced the spread of disease from infected individuals to household members by up to 50%. Its likely that all the vaccines have some similar effect, says Michael Weekes, a viral immunologist at the University of Cambridge, UK. Overall, its quite an optimistic picture.

How Long Does Protection Against Disease Last

Hospital staff cheer as first COVID

Six months is not much time to collect data on how durable vaccine responses will be, but data could soon emerge from clinical-trial participants who had their first doses last July.

In the meantime, some researchers are looking to natural immunity as a guide. A study in more than 25,000 health-care workers in the United Kingdom found that a SARS-CoV-2 infection reduced the risk of catching the virus again by 84% for at least 7 months. And Abu-Raddad says an unpublished study in Qatar is finding about 90% protection against reinfection as much as a year after a bout of SARS-CoV-2. It seems to suggest that immunity is really strong against this virus, he says. Im optimistic that vaccine immunity is going to last more than a few months and longer than a year, hopefully.

How soon that booster is needed could depend in part on the rate at which antibody levels decline they could drop precipitously or plateau at a low level. One modelling study estimates that low levels of antibodies will be enough to offer significant protection against severe disease. But Pfizer chief executive Albert Bourla has said that he expects a booster to be needed in about 812 months after the second dose of the PfizerBioNTech vaccine.

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How Effective Are The Vaccines Against Variants

Soon after the triumph of Keenans first dose, the world had a fresh reason to worry. A SARS-CoV-2 variant identified in the United Kingdom seemed to be spreading unusually fast; a different variant first identified in South Africa carried worrisome mutations in the coronavirus spike protein that serves as the basis for most COVID-19 vaccines in use.

Since then, further variants of concern have arrived in a steady parade, brandishing mutations that might boost the viruss spread, or undermine the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Uncontrolled outbreaks generate mutants, says Jerome Kim, director-general of the International Vaccine Institute in Seoul.

Initial laboratory tests suggested that antibodies raised by the PfizerBioNTech vaccine were less effective against the B.1.351 variant identified in South Africa, but it was unclear how that would affect protection against disease. In May, researchers in Qatar published reassuring data showing that people who received two doses of the PfizerBioNTech vaccine were 75% less likely to develop COVID-19 from infection with B.1.351, and were almost completely protected from severe disease. The big question right now is whether introduction of other variants could change the situation, says study author and infectious-disease epidemiologist Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad at Weill Cornell MedicineQatar in Doha. We are watching this on a daily basis, but we have optimism that maybe we have seen the worst.

Q: What Safety Data Did The Fda Evaluate To Authorize The Pfizer

A: The available safety data to support the EUA include 37,586 of the participants enrolled in an ongoing randomized, placebo-controlled international study, the majority of whom are U.S. participants. These participants, 18,801 of whom received the vaccine and 18,785 of whom received saline placebo, were followed for a median of 2 months after receiving the 2nd dose. This is consistent with the recommendations set forth in the FDAs October 2020 Guidance on Emergency Use Authorization for Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19.

The most commonly reported side effects were pain at the injection site, tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, joint pain, and fever. Side effects typically started within two days of vaccination and resolved 1-2 day later. Of note, more people experienced these side effects after the second dose than after the first dose, so it is important for vaccination providers and recipients to expect that that there may be some side effects after either dose, but even more so after the second dose.

The FDA also evaluated additional safety data from the larger database that included participants enrolled later during the study who had shorter follow-up . The FDA determined that the findings were similar to those in the population of participants with a median follow-up of 2 months after the 2nd dose.

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Phase Two And Three Clinical Trials Vaccine And Placebo

The efficacy of the Pfizer vaccine was tested in about 44,000 participants aged 16 years and over where COVID-19 was already circulating in communities. About half of these participants were randomised to receive the vaccine and the other half received a saline placebo.

The trial looked at how many people got COVID-19 symptoms after they were vaccinated compared to how many got COVID-19 after getting the placebo.

Participants had two doses of the vaccine or placebo, getting their second dose within 19 to 42 days after their first dose. They were then closely monitored and evaluated for at least 2 months after their second dose.

Should People With Underlying Health Conditions Get The Vaccine

How long does COVID-19 vaccine immunity last?

If you have underlying health conditions, you can get the vaccine. In fact, this is particularly important because some health conditions can put you at a higher risk of serious COVID-19 complications.

Currently, the only exception to this is if youve had a serious or immediate allergic reaction to one or more ingredients in the vaccine. In this case, you should avoid getting the vaccine.

If you have an underlying health condition and have questions about receiving the vaccine, be sure to speak with your healthcare provider.

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Why Might We Need A Booster For Covid

While a booster sometimes is an exact replica of the initial vaccine, it can also be tweaked. With COVID-19, this is key because the vaccine could then be tailored to target particular variants of the virus. ;

The current vaccines are still effective against the variants we are now seeing, particularly for protecting against serious illness that would require hospitalization or cause death. But if the virus evolves further and there is a worse variant, the vaccine could be modified, Dr. Shaw says.;

One of the great things about the mRNA technology, which the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines use, Dr. Shaw notes, is that its easy to change them up to match variants, and they can be quickly produced at scale. This is different from the manufacturing process for the most commonly used flu vaccines, which is a much slower process because influenza virus strains need to be grown in chicken eggs, from which a particular viral protein is purified and formulated into a vaccine, he says.;

But what about the Johnson & Johnson vaccine? The company has reported that its vaccine is effective against the Delta variant, showing only a small drop in potency compared with its effectiveness against the original strain of the virus. But one recent study, which has not yet been peer-reviewed or published in a scientific journal, suggests that the J&J vaccine is less effective against Delta. That has put some urgency on the question of boosters for those who have already received the J&J shot.

Vaccine Efficacy Effectiveness And Protection

This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines from how they work and how theyre made to ensuring safety and equitable access in WHOs Vaccines Explained series.

COVID-19 vaccines have proven to be safe, effective and life-saving. Like all vaccines, they do not fully protect everyone who is vaccinated, and; we do not yet know how well they can prevent people from transmitting the virus to others. So as well as getting vaccinated, we must also continue with other measures to fight the pandemic.

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The Johnson & Johnson Covid

Theres little data that shows how effective the Johnson & Johnson single-shot COVID-19 vaccine is at protecting against the Delta variant. The company is also reportedly researching whether a second shot would boost immunity against the variants.

Study 1

A recent clinical trial suggested that the vaccine was 85 percent effective against severe disease and demonstrated strong, persistent protection against hospitalization and death.

It also showed that the J&J vaccine prompted neutralizing antibody activity, which stops the virus from infecting healthy cells, against the Delta variant at a higher level than it did for the beta variant.

The Pfizer-BioNTech and AstraZeneca vaccines had shown a decline in effectiveness against the latter in another study.

Study 2

Interim results from a study involving 20 people have shown that the J&J vaccine neutralized the Delta variant within 29 days of the first shot, and protection improved over time.

Current data for the eight months studied so far show that the single-shot Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine generates a strong neutralizing antibody response that does not wane; rather, we observe an improvement over time. In addition, we observe a persistent and particularly robust, durable cellular immune response, said Dr. Mathai Mammen, the global head of Janssen Research & Development at Johnson & Johnson, in a July 1 press release.

Study 3

The data has sparked discussions about a possible booster for the one-shot vaccine.

Q: Now That The Pfizer

First batches of Covid

A: Yes, it is still important to continue to practice public health measures. The CDC recommends the following preventive actions:;

  • Wash your hands often with plain soap and water. The CDC recommends washing your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after you have been in a public place, or after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing. If soap and water are not available, the CDC recommends using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60 percent alcohol. Learn more about safely using hand sanitizer.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with a cloth face covering or non-surgical mask when around others.
  • Avoid crowds and practice social distancing .

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Q: Is A Third Dose Of The Pfizer

A: The FDA updated the emergency use authorization for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine to allow for the use of an additional dose in certain immunocompromised individuals. It is best to consult with your healthcare provider.

People who are immunocompromised have a reduced ability to fight infections and other diseases and are especially vulnerable to infections and disease, such as COVID-19.

The FDA evaluated information on the use of a third dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine and determined that a third dose appears to be only moderately effective in increasing potentially protective antibody titers in individuals 12 years of age and older who have undergone solid organ transplantation, and who are diagnosed with conditions that are considered to have an equivalent level of immunocompromise.

What Are The Solutions

While all of this is highly problematic, there is help. As noted by Mikovits, remedies to the maladies that might develop post-vaccination include:

Hydroxychloroquine;and;ivermectin;treatments. Ivermectin appears particularly promising as it actually binds to the spike protein. Please listen to the interview that Brett Weinstein did with Dr. Pierre Kory,19;one of Dr. Paul Mariks collaborators
Low-dose antiretroviral therapy to reeducate your immune system
Low-dose interferons such as Paximune, developed by interferon researcher Dr. Joe Cummins, to stimulate your immune system
Peptide T
Cannabis, to strengthen Type I interferon pathways
Dimethylglycine or betaine to enhance methylation, thereby suppressing latent viruses
Silymarin or milk thistle to help cleanse your liver

From my perspective, I believe the best thing you can do is to build your innate immune system. To do that, you need to become metabolically flexible and optimize your diet. Youll also want to make sure your vitamin D level is optimized to between 60 ng/mL and 80 ng/mL , ideally through sensible sun exposure. Sunlight also has other benefits besides making vitamin D.

The National Vaccine Information Center recently posted more than 50 video presentations from the pay-for-view Fifth International Public Conference on Vaccination held online October 16 to 18, 2020, and made them available to everyone for free.

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Could You Mix And Match Vaccines In A Booster

So-called mixing and matching of vaccines has been used in Europe and other places, particularly when there were supply issues. And there have been recent studies;suggesting this approachwith one dose of AstraZenecas vaccine and one dose of Pfizers vaccinemay even offer more vigorous protection. But here in the U.S., the current public health recommendations are that people should stick with one type of mRNA vaccine for both doses.;

But what about for boostersif they are recommended, should you stick with your original kind?;

That is being evaluated right now. The NIH is sponsoring a study that is ongoing and hopefully, we will have answers to that, Dr. Shaw says.

Could A Booster Cause More Or Worse Side Effects

Why will a coronavirus vaccine take 18 months to develop?

If you were among the unlucky recipients who felt really ill or had any of the rare but largely harmless reactions to your initial COVID-19 vaccination, you may be leery of the idea of a third dose, in case it causes a similar or worse reaction.;

Hopefully, we will have information from the ongoing studies on whether there is any change in rates of adverse effects with boosters, Dr. Shaw says. Its reassuring that for the vast majority of individuals, the currently used vaccines have been safe, and if I had to guess, I would say rates of any problems would remain very low.;

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Myths And Facts About Covid

How do I know which COVID-19 vaccine information sources are accurate?

Accurate vaccine information is critical and can help stop common myths and rumors.

It can be difficult to know which sources of information you can trust. Before considering vaccine information on the Internet, check that the information comes from a credible source and is updated on a regular basis. Learn more about finding credible vaccine information.

When Does It Start Working

After receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, it takes weeks for your immunity to build. According to the CDC, full protection occurs two weeks after the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, or two weeks after the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine.

Although it takes a second dose to reach full protection for the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, data suggests that a significant immune response occurs about two weeks after the first dose. For example, an FDA briefing document for Moderna’s emergency use authorization application listed an overall efficacy of 50.8% between days one to 14 and an efficacy of 92.1% occurring after 14 days for one dose.

A CDC report that tracked almost 4,000 healthcare personnel, first responders, and other frontline workers under real-world conditions found that the mRNA vaccines were 80% effective at least 14 days following the first dose and 90% effective at least two weeks after the second dose.

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