Catching And Passing On Covid
The Pfizer vaccine is effective at reducing the number of people who get COVID-19.
Its harder to find out how well the vaccine stops people passing on the COVID-19 virus. Recent studies show that the Pfizer vaccine can reduce transmission of the virus. These studies looked at the number of people infected with COVID-19 after theyd been vaccinated and their close contacts.
Why Was There A Temporary Pause On The Johnson & Johnson Vaccine
On April 13, U.S. health officials;recommended;a;temporary “pause”;in use of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine after several instances of rare blood clots were reported. Health officials identified 16 cases, mostly among women under the age of 50, three of whom died, out of more than 6.8 million people who had received doses of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine.;
The;pause was lifted;10 days later after a CDC panel of medical experts determined that the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the risks. A warning was added about an increased risk of rare but serious blood clots for women under 50.
The CDC and FDA said the blood clots, called cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, were seen alongside low levels of blood platelets an unusual combination that requires specialized treatment. The agencies said the “adverse events” seem to be extremely rare, but that the pause was important so that health care providers could be made aware of how to recognize and manage such cases.
“One of the things you can take away from all of this is that when the surveillance system, the CDC and the FDA, say that something is safe, you can be sure that it’s safe,” Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s top infectious diseases expert,;said.
What Are The Known Side Effects Of The Covid Vaccines
In general, side effects are not uncommon with vaccines, and the COVID-19 shot is no exception. Your body’s immune reaction could include the same kinds of side effects often seen with other vaccines, including a sore arm, fatigue, fever, chills or headaches.
“This is expected,” Dr. Neeta Ogden, an internal medicine specialist and immunologist, said in an interview on CBSN.
“People should maybe think about vaccinating on weekends, for example,” she said. “You probably might need to take a day off from work. This is predictable and I don’t think that it is alarming.”
Not everyone experiences side effects, but doctors stress that their occurrence is;normal and should not discourage people from getting the shots.;
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I Got A ‘mild’ Breakthrough Case Here’s What I Wish I’d Known
Hipps never ran a fever, though, and did not have bad head or body aches. She started feeling better after about a week, tested negative and went back to working from home and caring for her family. She thought she was fully recovered.
“And I was in my mom’s new car and all of a sudden I felt burning. And I thought there was something wrong with her car,” she says.
Wherever she moved her foot, she could still feel the burning sensation. And then her other foot started burning too. It felt like she was walking on hot coals, she says.
“I’ve learned that this is neuropathy, and this a common symptom of long COVID,” Hipps says.
How Will We Know If A Covid
In order to be declared safe and effective, a COVID-19 vaccine must pass certain tests and standards. Organizations such as the National Academy of Sciences, the National Institutes for Health, and the Food and Drug Administration use scientific data from research to help decide if and when new drugs and vaccines can become available to the public. It is important to note that you cannot get COVID-19 from a vaccine. The vaccines contain proteins or other biological substances to stimulate the immune response, but not the coronavirus itself.
Learn more about the;safety of the COVID-19 vaccines.
Demographics of the COVID-19 Vaccine Trials
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Is There Risk Of Allergic Reaction From Covid
According to the CDC, anyone who has a known severe allergy to any of the vaccine ingredients should not receive that vaccine.
The CDC says people with allergies to certain foods, insects, latex and other common allergens can safely receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Those with a history of severe allergic reaction to injectables or other vaccines should discuss the vaccination with their doctor, who can evaluate and assess their risk.
How Do We Know a COVID-19 Vaccine Will Be Safe and Effective?
How High Are My Chances Of Getting A Breakthrough Case These Days
It used to be quite rare, but the rise of delta has changed the odds.
“It’s a totally different ballgame with this delta phase,” says Dr. Eric Topol, a professor of molecular medicine at the Scripps Research Translational Institute in La Jolla, Calif. “I think the chance of having a symptomatic infection has gone up substantially.”
But, he adds, “quantifying that in the U.S. is very challenging” because our “data is so shoddy.”
The vaccinated still have a considerably lower chance of getting infected than those who aren’t protected that way. Look at data collected from Los Angeles County over the summer as the delta variant started to surge in Southern California: Unvaccinated people were 5 times more likely to test positive than those who were vaccinated.
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Factors In Flu Shot Effectiveness
Influenza viruses are constantly changing and evolving rapidly. Circulating influenza viruses can mutate from one season to the next.
Researchers need to select the specific influenza viruses to include in the vaccine many months before flu season begins. This means whats in the vaccine may not always match whats actually circulating during flu season. This can decrease the effectiveness of the seasonal flu vaccine.
Age can also play a role in vaccine efficacy because your immune system tends to become weaker as you age. The Food and Drug Administration has approved a high-dose flu vaccine for people 65 and older.
The higher dose is aimed at providing a better immune response and therefore better protection within this age group. for those over 65 with the high-dose vaccine.
The CDC also recommends that some children between the ages of 6 months and 8 years receive two doses of the influenza vaccine during the first season in which theyre vaccinated in order to have sufficient protection.
Its still possible to get the flu after being vaccinated, but research has shown that the illness may be less severe and that people who receive a flu shot may be less likely to be admitted to the hospital if they get the flu.
What About Safety Of The Covid
The FDA and other reviewers closely consider diverse populations included in the trials for safety purposes. The clinical trials for the first two COVID-19 vaccines included underrepresented minorities, older age groups, and people with conditions such as obesity, diabetes and heart and respiratory conditions.
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Is It Normal For Immunity From Vaccines To Wane This Quickly
Kelen and Wherry said the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine is beyond original expectations, even with the waning levels of immunity. They said because the vaccine has had so much media attention, expectations from the general public were set too high.
Ninety-five percent protection is just an absolutely amazing number for Moderna and Pfizer when you think that when we were first developing vaccines, we were hoping for 70%, and we were going to accept 50% as very reasonable. And so here we are in the very upper echelons of protection, Kelen said. Coronaviruses mutate, and as delta did, mutate just enough that as immunity wanes, the immunity is imperfect to completely combat it. For some people, obviously not others. It is still pretty effective.
Wherry said it is normal for vaccine effectiveness to wane over time.
We have a few that give you lifelong immunity, but many of them we need boosters at, sometimes 10 years, sometimes yearly, depending on the vaccine every 10 years in the case of things like diphtheria, tetanus, and then often just a second time in your life for something like the chickenpox vaccine.
And there are breakthrough infections following other inoculations, too.
The COVID vaccines still are very effective against the original strain of the virus. But the delta variant is more difficult to fight.
Health experts dont know yet how often people might need boosters.
West Virginia Gov Jim Justice Lobbies For Jabs Amid State Infection Records
West Virginia broke the rolling, seven-day record for new infections;in a week on Friday, Saturday and then again Sunday, according to Johns Hopkins University data. Less than 48%;of West Virginias adult population is fully vaccinated, the lowest of any state,;according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Gov. Jim Justice held a press conference Monday that included physicians who urged vaccinations and discussed the dangers and long-term effects of the virus.
“You have got to;listen to these people,” Justice said. “These are really good people and they are really smart and they are trying to save your life every day.”
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Sputnik V Vaccine Immunity
Sputnik V was technically the first-ever vaccine against the novel coronavirus that got approved for use, clearing all the trials. As of now the vaccine has been administered in millions of individuals in Russia.;
And a recent report has highlighted that the Gamaleya Institutes head, Alexander Gintsburg, claims that Sputnik V is likely to provide up to two years of immunity from COVID-19, “Concerning our vaccine and the platform it was created on, the Ebola vaccine, there is experimental evidence that using this platform, using similar preparation methods, provides protection for two years at least, maybe more.
How Well The Vaccine Works
- The J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine was 66.3% effective in clinical trials at preventing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection in people who received the vaccine and had no evidence of being previously infected. People had the most protection 2 weeks after getting vaccinated.
- In the clinical trials, the vaccine had high efficacy at preventing hospitalization and death in people who did get sick. No one who got COVID-19 at least 4 weeks after receiving the J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine had to be hospitalized.
- CDC will continue to provide updates as we learn more about how well the J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine works in real-world conditions.
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Have There Been Any Covid
Issues concerning the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine and a rare incidence of myocarditis after the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, as noted above have been reported.
Trials for the vaccines have had fully independent safety monitoring boards, and safety data are continuously reviewed by the FDA and expert panels. The number of serious problems in test participants was very low, and there was little difference between those who received the actual vaccine and those who received a placebo. Millions of people have received the vaccines since their authorization, and careful safety monitoring of all three COVID-19 vaccines continues.
What Are The Promising Vaccines For Covid
Around the world, there are currently nearly 150 different COVID-19 vaccines in various stages of testing and development: phase 1 , phase 2 , and phase 3 trials in humans.
In the US, the FDA has granted full approval to the Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, and emergency use authorization to the Moderna mRNA vaccine and the Johnson & Johnson adenovirus vaccine.
Two other vaccine approaches are also showing promise.
A central question for COVID-19 vaccines will be how long protection might last.
Do I Need To Get Vaccinated If I’ve Already Had Covid
Even after you’ve gotten sick from COVID-19 and recovered, you could still get it again. So-called natural immunity varies from person to person. The vaccines, on the other hand, provide a reliably high level of protection.
That said: If you were treated with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma during your illness, you should wait 90 days before getting a COVID-19 vaccine. The CDC also recommends you should talk to your doctor before proceeding.
When Will Children Be Able To Get The Covid
In May 2021, the FDA expanded its emergency use authorization for the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to include adolescents 12 to 15 years old. Previously, the Pfizer vaccine was authorized for use in children 16 years and older, while the Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are authorized for people 18 years and older. Moderna is also conducting age de-escalation studies, in which the vaccines are tested in groups of children of descending age. Johnson & Johnson plans to do the same.
The EUAs extended authorization was based on results from a Phase 3 trial testing its vaccine in children ages 12 to 15. The trial enrolled 2,260 adolescents; half received the Pfizer mRNA vaccine, the other received a saltwater placebo. The immune response in the vaccinated adolescent group was even stronger than that in vaccinated 16- to 25-year-olds enrolled in an earlier study. In addition, a total of 16 symptomatic cases of COVID-19 were reported during the trial, all in the placebo group. Vaccine-related side effects were mild and included pain at the injection site, tiredness, headache, chills, muscle pain, fever, and joint pain. Pfizer has also started testing the vaccine in children younger than 12 years.
The age de-escalation studies are done to confirm that the vaccines are safe and effective for each age group. They also identify the optimal dose, which must be effective, but with tolerable side effects.
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Babies The Delta Variant And Covid: What Parents Need To Know
“There was so much initial euphoria about how well these vaccines work,” says Jeff Duchin, an infectious disease physician and the public health officer for Seattle & King County. “I think we in the public health community, in the medical community facilitated the impression that these vaccines are bulletproof.”
It’s hard to keep dialing up and down your risk calculations. So if you’d hoped to avoid getting sick at all, even slightly, it may be time for a “reset,” Duchin says. This isn’t to be alarmist, but to clear away expectations that COVID is out of your life, and keep up your vigilance about common-sense precautions.
With more people vaccinated, the total number of breakthrough infections will rise, and that’s not unexpected,” he says. “I don’t think our goal should be to achieve zero risk, because that’s unrealistic.”
Efficacy Across Different Groups
A consistently high efficacy was observed in the clinical trials across age groups, sex, race, ethnicity and people with underlying medical conditions.
This means after getting two doses of the Pfizer vaccine, more than 9 out of 10 people are protected against COVID-19 regardless of their age, health status or ethnic group.
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Vaccine Immunity Vs Immunity From Covid
Another reason to cheer: COVID-19 vaccines actually induce higher levels of antibodies than natural infection, says John Wherry, director of the Institute for Immunology at the University of Pennsylvania.
“Early on, looking at people who had recovered from COVID, there were studies that showed antibodies may wane quickly after acute infection, he says. What we eventually realized is that antibodies naturally go up, they come down, and then they settle into a steady state. More recent studies indicate that people who’ve had COVID-19 have good antibody and other immune memory for at least eight to nine months, which was as long as could be analyzed this far into the pandemic.
Since people who’ve been vaccinated mount an even better immune response, Wherry says he thinks immunity from the COVID-19 vaccines will likely last several years, if not longer. He notes that scientists will need to be on alert for canaries in the coal mine that indicate immunity may be waning, particularly in certain populations, like those over 65 or people with compromised immune systems.
“We have to monitor these things and plan accordingly, and be ready to make decisions if we start to see emergence of new infections, he says.
Do I Still Need To Wear A Mask After Receiving A Covid Vaccine
Once you’ve gotten vaccinated it takes about two weeks for the body to develop immunity, so you’ll need to continue taking precautions like social distancing and wearing masks to reduce your risk of infection during that time.
After that, the CDC says it is safe for fully vaccinated people shed their masks in some situations, although it urged the continued use of masks indoors in areas of higher transmission as the more contagious Delta variant spread. Masks are still required for everyone in certain venues like airlines, public transit and health care facilities.
Many states have since dropped their mask mandates, although masks are still recommended for people who are not vaccinated.
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Which Vaccines Has The Fda Approved And Authorized For Covid
In August 2021, the FDA granted full approval to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech. This vaccine had received emergency use authorization in December 2020. The mRNA COVID-19 vaccine developed by Moderna also received EUA in December 2020. The Johnson & Johnson adenovirus vaccine was granted EUA by the FDA in late February 2021. Use of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine resumed on April 23, 2021, after a temporary pause.
Can I Spread It To Others And Do I Need To Quarantine
Unfortunately, you still have COVID and need to act like it.
Even though my first two tests were negative, I started wearing a mask at my house and keeping my distance from my vaccinated family members. I’m glad I did: no one else got sick.
The delta variant is more than two times as contagious as the original strain of the virus and can build up very quickly in your upper respiratory tract, as was shown in a cluster of breakthrough infections linked to Provincetown, Mass. over the summer.
“Even in fully vaccinated, asymptomatic individuals, they can have enough virus to transmit it,” says Dr. Robert Darnell, a physician scientist at The Rockefeller University. “Delta is very good at replicating, attaching, and inserting itself into cells.”
The science isn’t settled about just how likely vaccinated people are to actually spread the virus, and it does appear that the amount of virus in the nose decreases faster in people who are vaccinated.
Even so, wearing masks and staying isolated from others if you test positive or have symptoms is absolutely critical, Darnell says. He also advises getting tested if you are exposed to someone who has COVID, even if you’ve been vaccinated, “because you could very well get infected or ill, and you want to protect those around you, including all the children who aren’t vaccinated.”
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