Search Methods For Identification Of Studies
The literature search was developed by WD and verified by a research librarian. It was carried out on Medline via its PubMed interface, through the following documentary query, as of 01/12/2020: AND ) AND )). No filter was applied.
The research was also conducted on Science Direct through its advanced research . The literature search was completed on 01/12/2020.
Moving Toward A Better Definition Of Long Haulers And A New Name
Very different chronic illnesses may develop in some people who have had COVID-19. So, the National Institutes of Health has proposed a unifying name: post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, or PASC. ;;
Most people who get COVID-19 recover within weeks or a few months. However, some will likely suffer chronic damage to their lungs, heart, kidneys or brain that the virus inflicted. Others will develop long COVID.
We do not yet have a formal definition of long COVID. In my opinion, such a definition should include these three points:
- A medical diagnosis of COVID-19, based on both symptoms and/or diagnostic testing for the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus
- Not having returned to pre-COVID-19 level of health and function after six months
- Having symptoms that suggest long COVID, but no evidence of permanent damage to the lungs, heart, and kidneys that could cause those symptoms.
Is long COVID the same as chronic fatigue syndrome ?
Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has speculated that long COVID likely is the same as or very similar to myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome .
How Long Should I Quarantine After Ive Been Exposed To The Coronavirus
The CDC says that if you might have come into contact with the virus and have no symptoms, you should self-monitor. This means watching for signs such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Stay out of crowded places, keep at least 6 feet away from other people, and wear a cloth face mask when you have to go out.
If you traveled recently or know that you came into contact with someone who has COVID-19, you should self-quarantine. Stay home for 14 days. Its very rare for symptoms to show up after that much time. Check your temperature twice a day, and watch for other symptoms. Stay away from other people, especially those who are at high risk of serious illness because of their age or another medical condition.
If 14 days of isolation creates a hardship, the CDC advises you may be able to leave quarantine:
- After day 10 without testing
- After day 7 after receiving a negative test result
Still, after you leave quarantine, you should continue to monitor yourself for any symptoms.
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How Long Will Symptoms Last
Now that so many more Brits are vaccinated, the symptoms have also changed in people who have been jabbed.
While you are much more protected from the virus if you have been vaccinated, you can still catch it and pass it on – so it’s good to know the new signs.
Most commonly, the first symptoms have traditionally been fever and/or cough, which is usually dry to start with.
However, muscle aches and pains and feeling generally very tired are also common. Sore throat and blocked nose are less common and runny nose or sneezing less common still.
In 85 per cent of people with coronavirus, these;symptoms will have settled within a week;- the minimum time at which you can leave self-isolation.
According to Patient Info, you may continue coughing for a couple of weeks after this, meaning you should be very careful to maintain social distancing, as everyone should.
Overview Of Testing Scenarios
Diagnostic testing is intended to identify current infection in individuals and is performed when a person has signs or symptoms consistent with COVID-19, or is asymptomatic, but has recent known or suspected exposure to SARS-CoV-2.
Examples of diagnostic testing include:
- Testing persons with symptoms consistent with COVID-19, whether or not they are vaccinated
- Testing persons as a result of contact tracing efforts
- Testing persons who indicate that they were exposed to someone with a confirmed or suspected case of COVID-19.
Screening tests are recommended for unvaccinated people to identify those who are asymptomatic and do not have known, suspected, or reported exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Screening helps to identify unknown cases so that measures can be taken to prevent further transmission.
Examples of screening include:
- Testing employees in a workplace setting
- Testing students, faculty, and staff in a school or university setting
- Testing a person before or after travel
- Testing at home for someone who does not have symptoms associated with COVID-19 and no known exposures to someone with COVID-19
An example of surveillance testing is wastewater surveillance.
Critical Appraisal Of Individual Sources Of Evidence
We performed an in-depth assessment of each published/preprint report that offers an estimation of incubation periods among COVID-19 patients. Unlike other topics, the estimation of incubation periods for novel COVID-19 disease is specific and doesnt need the usage of tools to appraise the quality of the knowledge synthesis methods.
Other Modes Of Transmission
SARS-CoV-2 RNA has also been detected in other biological samples, including the urine and feces of some patients.One study found viable SARS-CoV-2 in the urine of one patient.Three studies have cultured SARS-CoV-2 from stool specimens. ;To date, however, there have been no published reports of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through feces or urine.;
Some studies have reported detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, in either plasma or serum, and the virus can replicate in blood cells. However, the role of bloodborne transmission remains uncertain; and low viral titers in plasma and serum suggest that the risk of transmission through this route may be low. Currently, there is no evidence for intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected pregnant women to their fetuses, although data remain limited. WHO has recently published a scientific brief on breastfeeding and COVID-19.This brief explains that viral RNA fragments have been found by RT-PCR testing in a few breast milk samples of mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2, but studies investigating whether the virus could be isolated, have found no viable virus. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to child would necessitate replicative and infectious virus in breast milk being able to reach target sites in the infant and also to overcome infant defense systems. WHO recommends that mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should be encouraged to initiate or continue to breastfeed.
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Can Someone Who Has Had Covid
Once the virus has left your system, you are no longer contagious.
Harvard Health studies have found that you are most contagious in the early stages of the disease, but you probably remain contagious for at least 10 days after you start to experience symptoms.
According to the CDC, if you develop symptoms of COVID-19, you should isolate yourself for at least 10 days after symptoms begin and until you have had no fever for at least 24 hours.;
The only way to be sure youâre no longer spreading COVID-19 is to have two negative tests 24 hours apart.;
Once you are negative for COVID-19, you are no longer contagious. It is also generally assumed that after 10 days, if you have not developed symptoms, you can be cleared to return to work or school.
If You Are At Higher Risk
Though no one is invulnerable, we’ve seen that older adults are at increased risk for severe illness or death from COVID-19. Underlying conditions, including heart disease, lung disease, and diabetes, increase risk even further in those who are older. In addition, anyone with an underlying medical condition, regardless of their age, faces increased risk of serious illness.
Click;here;to read more about what you can do if you are at increased risk for serious illness.
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What Should I Do If I Think I Or My Child May Have A Covid
First, call your doctor or pediatrician for advice.
If you do not have a doctor and you are concerned that you or your child may have COVID-19, contact your;local board of health. They can direct you to the best place for testing and treatment in your area.
If you have a high or very low body temperature, shortness of breath, confusion, or feeling you might pass out, you need to seek immediate medical evaluation. Call the urgent care center or emergency department ahead of time to let the staff know that you are coming, so they can be prepared for your arrival.
Does Incubation Period Of Covid
Published online by Cambridge University Press:;02 September 2020
- Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
- L. Y. Wong
- Y. S. Leo
- Affiliation:Tan Tock Seng Hospital, SingaporeNational Centre for Infectious Diseases, SingaporeSaw Swee Hock School of Public Health, SingaporeLee Kong Chian School of Medicine, SingaporeYong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore
- M. P. H. S. Toh
- Affiliation:Tan Tock Seng Hospital, SingaporeNational Centre for Infectious Diseases, SingaporeSaw Swee Hock School of Public Health, Singapore
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How Contagious Is The Coronavirus Disease
Itâs important to note that emerging research shows that the Delta variant is nearly twice as contagious as previous COVID-19 variants.;
According to the Mayo Clinic, âThe virus appears to spread easilyâ through close contact with other people via respiratory droplets that are released anytime a person sneezes, coughs, or talks.
Those droplets may land on you or a surface that you touch before touching your eyes, mouth, nose, or face.
A number called; Ro indicates how many people the virus typically spreads to from one infected individual.
Ro will vary depending on your location and potential number of exposed individuals. For example, in dense cities, Ro is likely to be higher than in rural areas because people are more likely to come into contact with more individuals.;
Studies have put the COVID-19 Ro as high as 7 and as low as 2. The estimate for the Alpha variant was 1.4-3.9 and the Delta variant is estimated to be 6.;
For context, the seasonal flu Ro tends to be around 1.3 and the measles could have an Ro as high as 18, making measles the highest known to humankind.;
This graphic demonstrates how an Ro of 2 spreads from one person to two people and so on. Graphic source:University of Michigan
Availability Of Data And Materials
Effective Public Health Practice Project
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
Coronavirus COVID-19 . . Available from:
Weekly operational update on COVID-19 – 7 December 2020 . . Available from: .
Quilty BJ, Clifford S, Flasche S, Eggo RM, CMMID nCoV working group. Effectiveness of airport screening at detecting travellers infected with novel coronavirus . Euro Surveill Bull Eur Sur Mal Transm Eur Commun Dis Bull. 2020;25.
Gostic K, Gomez AC, Mummah RO, Kucharski AJ, Lloyd-Smith JO. Estimated effectiveness of symptom and risk screening to prevent the spread of COVID-19. eLife. 9. Available from: . .
Tang B, Wang X, Li Q, Bragazzi NL, Tang S, Xiao Y, et al. Estimation of the transmission risk of the 2019-nCoV and its implication for public health interventions. J Clin Med. 2020;9. Available from: . .
Chinazzi M, Davis JT, Ajelli M, Gioannini C, Litvinova M, Merler S, et al. The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak. Science. 2020;368:395400.
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How Long Before Covid Symptoms Start
The time between getting infected with a disease and starting symptoms is known as the incubation period. The incubation period for COVID-19 is between 2 and 14 days. But the average time before showing symptoms is thought to be 5 days. This is based on a study done in Wuhan, China, where the pandemic started. The study found that the median incubation period was 5.1 days and that 97.5% of people with symptoms will develop these within 11.5 days.;
The day you develop symptoms is classed as day 0 of your infection. If you test positive, its from this day that you can calculate self-isolation periods.;
How Long Are You Contagious With Covid
How infectious someone is depends on how much virus theyre carrying and how much of this virus is able to multiply. ;
An extensive study in the Lancet Microbe has found that people are most likely to pass on COVID-19 during the first 5 days of symptoms starting. The study found that the amount of active virus in peoples throat particles peaked in the first 5 days from symptoms starting. No active virus was found after 9 days of symptoms starting, so its unlikely that the majority of these people would be very infectious beyond those 9 days.
Its still important to always follow self-isolation rules and social distancing guidelines, to prevent the spread of the virus.
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How Is The Virus Transmitted
SARS-CoV-2 spreads mostly from person to person through close contact or from droplets that are scattered when a person with the virus sneezes or coughs.
The novel coronavirus is highly contagious, which means it spreads easily from person to person. According to the CDC , people who have the virus are most contagious when theyre showing symptoms of COVID-19.
Although its much less common, theres a possibility that someone who is infected with the coronavirus can transmit the virus even if theyre not showing symptoms.
Its also possible that the virus can be transmitted via touching virus-contaminated surfaces and then touching your mouth or nose. However, this isnt the main way the novel coronavirus spreads.
When Are People Most Contagious
One 2021 review suggests that a person with COVID-19 is most contagious in the first week of illness. Therefore, they may be most contagious shortly before and shortly after symptoms appear.
For this reason, people should ensure that they isolate immediately if they think that they may have come into contact with the virus or if they have developed symptoms.
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How Can I Protect Myself While Caring For Someone That May Have Covid
You should take many of the same precautions as you would if you were caring for someone with the flu:
- Stay in another room or be separated from the person as much as possible. Use a separate bedroom and bathroom, if available.
- Make sure that shared spaces in the home have good air flow. If possible, open a window.
- Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains 60 to 95% alcohol, covering all surfaces of your hands and rubbing them together until they feel dry. Use soap and water if your hands are visibly dirty.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
- Extra precautions:
- You and the person should wear a face mask if you are in the same room.
- Wear a disposable face mask and gloves when you touch or have contact with the person’s blood, stool, or body fluids, such as saliva, sputum, nasal mucus, vomit, urine.
- Throw out disposable face masks and gloves after using them. Do not reuse.
- First remove and throw away gloves. Then, immediately clean your hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Next, remove and throw away the face mask, and immediately clean your hands again with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
Criteria For Considering Studies For This Review
Types of studies
The protocol for this review was registered with PROSPERO under the number CRD42020196347 .
This systematic review was conducted based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses to study the length of incubation period during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Criteria for eligibility were all published population-based primary literature dealing with incubation period of COVID-19, since December 2019. We included full-text publications and excluded all articles not accepted or peer reviewed, not written in English, editorials, perspective, letter to the editor, review, article info, and comments. We only took articles that used RT-PCR for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Since randomized controlled trials do not apply to this topic, only observational studies with no limit on the number of participants were included. There were no limitations given the types of outcome measures: we accepted all documents that presented results even without a statistical parameter of variability.
Types of participants
We included individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 regardless of the severity of symptoms or associated comorbidities. There were no age, gender, or ethnicity restrictions. We excluded studies including populations with other coronavirus diseases or Middle East respiratory syndrome ). We also excluded studies including populations with mixed viral diseases .
Types of outcome measures
Estimated and calculated incubation period
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How Long Is The Incubation Period Of Covid
If you contract the virus, symptoms may appear anywhere between two and 14 days after you contracted it.
If someone is under observation , they are monitored for 14 days for possible onset of symptoms, says Eudene Harry, MD, an emergency medicine physician in Orlando, Florida. If you haven’t developed symptoms at that point, youre likely in the clear.
How long does COVID-19 last in a person?
How long the symptoms last depends on the severity of the case. With more mild cases , people tend to get better on their own in 10 to 14 days, Dr. Harry explains.
In severe cases, the virus may travel to the lungs and cause pneumonia, and the symptoms may last longer. These individuals are usually hospitalized and treated aggressively and symptomatically until symptoms resolve, Dr. Harry explains. In those cases, she says, doctors will run a CT scan of the lungs to see how the virus is affecting the lungs, and to determine whether or not its improving or getting worse.
How does being vaccinated affect the duration of a COVID infection?
Even when youre fully vaccinated against COVID-19, its still possible to develop whats known as a breakthrough infection. Meaning, you still get the virus, despite being vaccinated against it. No vaccine is 100 percent , points out William Schaffner, MD, an infectious disease specialist and professor at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. At their best, these vaccines are 95 percent effective.