How Long Does The Covid Vaccine Last
– August 06, 2021
As the number of COVID cases and concerns over the more contagious delta variant increase nationwide, vaccination has become a hot topic. Half of the U.S. population is fully vaccinated against COVID-19, and public health officials are urging the other half to follow suit.
Vaccination is the best way to protect you and your loved ones from the COVID-19 virus. Yes, vaccinated people can still contract the virus, especially the delta variant, but the symptoms will be milder, and infection is much less likely to require a trip to the hospital, said Dr. John Greene, chair of the Infectious Diseases Program at Moffitt Cancer Center.
Recent study data released by Pfizer and Moderna show their COVID vaccines are still effective, 84% and 93% respectively, six months after completing the two dose vaccination series. But what happens to your immunity after six months?
Greene says your immunity wont change much six months after vaccination. The phase 3 studies evaluating the vaccines in a large population of participants have only six months worth of data, which is why were hearing about those figures.
We do expect immunity will wane as people get further out from vaccination, but it will be a gradual reduction over six to 18 months, said Greene.
Many of the breakthrough COVID cases, meaning vaccinated people who have contracted the virus, are among those who received the vaccine many months ago.
Do I Need Another Dose Of The Covid
J& J/Janssen adenovirus vector vaccine
People who received the J& J/Janssen vaccine should get a second dose of vaccine separated by at least 8 weeks, regardless of their health status. They are not currently recommended to get a third dose of the J& J/Janssen vaccine.
Pfizer or Moderna mRNA vaccine
A third dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine may be recommended for one of two reasons:
- To address waning immunity, traditionally called a booster dose.
- To enhance the immune response of an individual who did not develop sufficient immunity following receipt of the recommended number of doses of COVID-19. In this case, the third dose can be considered as an additional primary dose.
How the third dose is implemented will be affected by which of these reasons are the cause for the additional dose.
In the case of COVID-19 vaccines, most people who received mRNA vaccines do not currently need an additional dose. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has either recommended, or is allowing, a third dose of mRNA vaccine for particular groups of people, including:
Those getting an additional primary dose should get the same type and dose of vaccine they received initially when possible.
Those getting a booster dose can get any type of vaccine. Importantly, booster doses of Moderna should be half the quantity of the primary dose. Pfizer booster doses are the same quantity as the primary dose .
People in this category include the following:
Are Side Effects More Likely After The First Or Second Dose
With the two-shot vaccines, people are more likely to report side effects after their second dose, experts have said.
According to the CDC, side effects after your second shot “may be more intense than the ones you experienced after your first shot.”
“These side effects are normal signs that your body is building protection and should go away within a few days,” the CDC states.
In trials of both the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, more people experienced side effects after the second dose.
But that doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t get your second shot if you get side effects after your first, experts say.
The CDC also noted that both shots are needed.
“The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine and Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine both need 2 shots in order to get the most protection,” the CDC states. “You should get the second shot even if you have side effects after the first shot, unless a vaccination provider or your doctor tells you not to get it.”
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What Are The Moderna Booster’s Possible Side Effects
Side effects for Moderna’s booster shot are similar to those from the two primary doses — pain or swelling at the injection site, as well as fatigue, muscle pain, headache, fever, chills and nausea. The drugmaker said there is “a remote chance” that its COVID19 vaccine could cause a severe allergic reaction.
The good news is, according to the CDC, those who got the Moderna booster dose reported far fewer reactions than they did after the second dose of the vaccine.
Covid Vaccine Immunity Is Waning How Much Does That Matter
For those vaccinated against COVID-19, antibody levels eventually wane, but this is not the whole story.Credit: Kateryna Kon/Science Photo Library
Six months ago, Miles Davenport and his colleagues made a bold prediction. On the basis of published results from vaccine trials and other data sources, they estimated that people immunized against COVID-19 would lose approximately half of their defensive antibodies every 108 days or so. As a result, vaccines that initially offered, say, 90% protection against mild cases of disease might only be 70% effective after 6 or 7 months.
It felt a little bit out on a limb at the time, says Davenport, a computational immunologist at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. But on the whole, his groups predictions have come true.
Immunological studies have documented a steady decline of antibody levels among vaccinated individuals. Long-term follow-up of vaccine trial participants has revealed a growing risk of breakthrough infection. And health-care records from countries such as Israel, the United Kingdom and elsewhere all show that COVID-19 vaccines are losing their strength, at least when it comes to keeping a lid on transmissible disease.
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If I Had Dermal Fillers Can I Get The Covid
The receipt of dermal fillers does not prevent someone from getting the COVID-19 vaccine. While a few people with dermal fillers have experienced swelling in the area of the fillers following receipt of the mRNA vaccine , these events have been extremely rare and have responded to treatment. Likewise, at least one case has also been identified following COVID-19 infection.
If I Am Taking Biologics Can I Get The Covid
Taking biologics, like Humira, is not a reason to forgo COVID-19 vaccination as per CDC guidelines. However, patients taking these types of medication may wish to consult with their doctor to discuss the potential risks and benefits of getting the COVID-19 vaccine, given that these types of medications are often prescribed for individuals with immune-compromising conditions. As a result, there may be other considerations related to the potential risks and benefits of vaccination.
Find out more in this Parents PACK article, “Medications and COVID-19 Vaccines: What You Should Know.”
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What This Means For You
More research needs to be done, but it’s become clear that COVID-19 vaccines will need to be given more than just once. It’s likely that boosters and annual vaccineswhether the existing shots, or other therapies yet to be developedwill be needed throughout your life.
Like most vaccines, the COVID-19 vaccines work in more than one way to prevent infection. The first involves the production of antibodies.
Your body uses antibodies to fight off infection, but not as easily when it has never seen a novel, or new, virus. Because COVID-19 was a new virus, human bodies had not developed an antibody defense for it. The vaccines help it to achieve that.
The second way the vaccines work is to help the body develop responses in what are called memory B cells and T cells. These are immune cells that store information for future reference.
However, immunity does wane. Your individual response and other factors contribute to this loss of protection. Like human memory, cellular memory is short. Booster shots help to “remind” it to respond to a virus or other pathogen. Here’s how each of the current vaccines work.
Who Is Eligible For A Covid
According to the CDC and FDA, the following groups of people are eligible for COVID-19 vaccine boosters or third doses:
- People with compromised immune systems ages 5 and older: The CDC recommends that people with moderately to severely compromised immune systems receive an additional dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine at least 28 days after a second dose. This is for the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines. Pfizer remains the only approved vaccine for ages 5-17. A fourth dose is also recommended for those who are immunocompromised. This dose would be given five months after the additional primary shot .
- People 12 years and older: Anyone in this age group who received the two-dose Pfizer can get a booster dose five months after their second dose .
- People 18 years and older: Those who got a Moderna vaccine can get a booster shot five months after their second dose.
- People who received a single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine: Anyone who got a Johnson & Johnson shot can get a booster dose two months after their first dose, according to the CDC.
Additionally, UC Davis Health is offering Pfizer boosters for children ages 5-12.
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Is It Safe For My Teen To Get The Covid
Cases of myocarditis, or inflammation of the heart, have been reported in a small number of teens after receipt of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. The condition is continuing to be investigated. Here is what we know to date:
The CDC will continue to monitor the situation related to myocarditis, but for now, there is not a reason to stop vaccinating kids. The American Heart Association has also released a statement encouraging continued vaccination.
Can I Get My Flu Vaccine At The Same Time As My Covid
Yes. The CDC has indicated that people can get influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine during the same visit, but in different locations, such as one in each arm or separated by at least one inch on the same arm. However, for those who are willing to come back to get one of the vaccines, it is prudent to wait two weeks between getting an influenza or COVID-19 vaccine. This way if there is a safety concern, it would be clear which vaccine might have caused the problem.
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Reports Of Very Rare Blood Clots
The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency is carrying out a detailed review of reports of a very rare blood clotting problem affecting a small number of people who have had the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine.
The problem can also happen in people who have not been vaccinated and it’s not yet clear why it affects some people.
The current reported rate of this condition in the UK is around 15 cases per million first doses given.
The coronavirus vaccine can help stop you from getting seriously ill or dying from coronavirus. For people aged 40 or over and those with underlying health conditions, the benefits of being vaccinated outweigh any risk of clotting problems.
For people under 40, it’s currently advised that it’s preferable to have either the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna coronavirus vaccine.
If you have already had a first dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine without suffering any serious side effects you should complete the course .
This includes people aged 18 to 39 years who are health and social care workers, unpaid carers and those who live with someone with a severely weakened immune system.
What Should I Do If I Had The J& j Vaccine
People who had a single dose of the J& J/Janssen vaccine are recommended to get a second dose at least 8 weeks after the first dose.
Related to side effects
If you had the J& J/Janssen vaccine within the last 3 weeks, although the risk is low, you should monitor yourself for unusual symptoms, including severe headache, severe abdominal pain, unexplained leg pain, or shortness of breath, which may result from TTS, or muscle weakness or paralysis, which may result from GBS. If you develop unusual symptoms, you should seek medical attention and be certain to tell the healthcare provider the date you received the J& J/Janssen vaccine. For TTS, the physician can very quickly determine whether your problem is related to the vaccine by performing a simple complete blood count. If the platelet count is extremely low, the symptoms might be related to the vaccine. We would also recommend registering for v-safe, the CDCs vaccine monitoring system if you have not done so already.
If you had the J& J/Janssen vaccine more than 3 weeks ago, you are extremely unlikely to experience either thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome or Guillain-Barré syndrome .
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How Will We Know If A Covid
In order to be declared safe and effective, a COVID-19 vaccine must pass certain tests and standards. Organizations such as the National Academy of Sciences, the National Institutes for Health, and the Food and Drug Administration use scientific data from research to help decide if and when new drugs and vaccines can become available to the public. It is important to note that you cannot get COVID-19 from a vaccine. The vaccines contain proteins or other biological substances to stimulate the immune response, but not the coronavirus itself.
Learn more about the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines.
Demographics of the COVID-19 Vaccine Trials
Why Do Kids Need The Covid
While children and teens may not be as likely to get severely ill from COVID-19, it can still happen and, in fact, the average age of hospitalizations decreased as the oldest members of our communities were vaccinated. With this in mind, parents and teens should consider the following:
- Conditions such as obesity, asthma, and developmental delay, as well as other pre-existing conditions, increase the chance for hospitalization.
- As of mid-October 2021, almost 700 children and teens up to 17 years of age have died from COVID-19.
- As of early October 2021, more than 5,200 cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children have been diagnosed and 50 deaths occurred. MIS-C typically occurs 2 to 6 weeks after having COVID-19, can occur following a mild infection, tends to be more severe in adolescents and teens, and causes about 6 or 7 of every 10 individuals to be placed in intensive care. MIS-C can also affect heart function.
- Finally, this age group can also transmit the infection to more vulnerable family and community members, such as those who are unable to get the vaccine.
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If I Get A Coronavirus Vaccination Do I Still Have To Wear A Mask Physical Distance
The CDC continues to monitor the spread of COVID-19 and makes recommendations for wearing face masks, both for those who are fully vaccinated as well as those who are not fully vaccinated.
The CDC also recommends that masks and physical distancing are required when going to the doctors office, hospitals or long-term care facilities, including all Johns Hopkins hospitals, care centers and offices.
Johns Hopkins Medicines current mask safety guidelines have not changed, and we still require all individuals to wear masks inside all of our facilities.
What Does 95% Effectiveness Mean
That is an extraordinarily high rate of effectiveness, and it means the COVID-19 vaccines work very well. By comparison, flu vaccines are about 40% effective, on average.
Heres where the number comes from: In the clinical trials, half the people got the coronavirus vaccine and half got the placebo. Researchers counted how many people got sick with COVID-19 after the vaccines reached their peak effectiveness. Among both groups in the Pfizer trial, 170 people total got COVID-19, but only eight of those received the vaccine. Thats about 5% of total cases. Thats where the 95% estimate comes from. Modernas numbers were similar.
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What Is ‘viral Persistence’ And How Does That Affect The Course Of The Disease
Sometimes the coronavirus sticks around longer than expectedand scientists are still trying to figure out why that happens in some patients, how it varies by individual, and exactly how long the virus stays alive inside the body. This is known as viral persistence, and it affects how long someone is contagious and therefore how long they should stay in isolation.
Will We Need Booster Shots Does This Mean Canada Will Have To Secure 30m Doses Every Six Months
The Immunity spectrum varies depending on the virus. A vaccine for measles offers protection for life whereas a vaccine for influenza is seasonal and lasts a few months.
While there are no booster shots available yet or even vaccines created for certain variants, development is underway and researchers will start trials once they are ready.
Valdez says Canada should secure booster shots given the circumstances, as more variants arise with no sign of herd immunity any time soon.
“If COVID-19 and its variants are still widely present, and vaccine protection wanes within the year, and population immunity has not yet been reached, then Canada should secure and distribute booster shots,” Valdez said.
Pfizer says based on their research and real world evidence, they have not seen changes to antibody levels that could reduce protection from their vaccine doses. But Canada is monitoring the progress of the other vaccine candidates under contract that are still at the development stage and planning to get booster shots.
“Canada is in discussions with vaccine developers regarding plans for early and secure access to booster and variant vaccines when they become available.” Maddison said.
If immunization runs out within the year, Canada may need to secure booster shots especially if more variants emerge, but as research is coming in and people are being vaccinated, we will know better with time.
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