Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am
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How Many Days After Second Covid Vaccine Are You Immune

How To Get Your Covid

When does COVID-19 vaccine immunity kick in?

If you’re aged 16 or over you can:

If you cannot book appointments online, you can call 119 free of charge. You can speak to a translator if you need to.

If you have difficulties communicating or hearing, or are a British Sign Language user, you can use textphone 18001 119 or the NHS 119 BSL interpreter service.

Who Is Eligible For A Covid

According to the CDC and FDA, the following groups of people are eligible for COVID-19 vaccine boosters or third doses:

  • People with compromised immune systems ages 5 and older: The CDC recommends that people with moderately to severely compromised immune systems receive an additional dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine at least 28 days after a second dose. This is for the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines. Pfizer remains the only approved vaccine for ages 5-17. A fourth dose is also recommended for those who are immunocompromised. This dose would be given five months after the additional primary shot .
  • People 12 years and older: Anyone in this age group who received the two-dose Pfizer can get a booster dose five months after their second dose .
  • People 18 years and older: Those who got a Moderna vaccine can get a booster shot five months after their second dose.
  • People who received a single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine: Anyone who got a Johnson & Johnson shot can get a booster dose two months after their first dose, according to the CDC.

Additionally, UC Davis Health is offering Pfizer boosters for children ages 5-12.

Does It Prevent Infection And Transmission

We do not know whether the vaccine will prevent infection and protect against onward transmission. Immunity persists for several months, but the full duration is not yet known. These important questions are being studied.

In the meantime, we must maintain public health measures that work: masking, physical distancing, handwashing, respiratory and cough hygiene, avoiding crowds, and ensuring good ventilation.

This article was revised on 29 January 2021 to include a section dedicated to pregnant women, but the recommendations remain the same.

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Shall I Get My Booster

Yes – it may be the only shot at a normal Christmas.

You may be feeling confused about why you need to get yet another vaccine dose, if scientists said the first two worked so well.

There is a new Covid variant that has prompted a huge booster campaign.

Early indications are that this variant, called Omicron, may reduce the effectiveness of the vaccines, which were designed against the first Covid strain from Wuhan.

It means that in order to get the best protection against it, immunity levels need to be high.

Speaking of the importance of boosters, Deborah Dunn-Walters, professor of Immunology, University of Surrey & Chair of the British Society for Immunology COVID-19 and Immunology taskforce, said: Until the answers to these questions are known it is sensible to increase protective measures where we can.

Since we know that immunity does wane to some extent, and that boosters can increase immunity, then accelerating the booster program will protect more people.”

Who Is Moderately Or Severely Immunocompromised


People are considered to be moderately or severely immunocompromised if they have:

  • Been receiving active cancer treatment for tumors or cancers of the blood
  • Received an organ transplant and are taking medicine to suppress the immune system
  • Received a stem cell transplant within the last 2 years or are taking medicine to suppress the immune system
  • Moderate or severe primary immunodeficiency
  • Advanced or untreated HIV infection
  • Active treatment with high-dose corticosteroids or other drugs that may suppress your immune response

People should talk to their healthcare provider about their medical condition, and whether getting an additional primary shot is appropriate for them.

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You Need Both Doses Of The Two

Scientific studies suggest that taking two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines is very important for achieving the antibody response to provide protection and create lasting immunity.

Dr. Marks says that while there appears to be some protection 14 days after a persons first dose, that initial protection may wane over time, which is why its so important to get the second shot. Theres been talk of using one dose of the mRNA vaccines, and Im not in favor of that, because I think that the protection provided by the first dose of these vaccines should be thought of as a bridge to the next dose, says Dr. Marks. You need that second dose to get the full immunity.

Dr. Marks says that the vaccines protection is generally achieved somewhere between seven to 14 days after the second dose.

Dr. Kristen Marks

First What About Immunity Following Covid

The presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 is used as an indicator of immunity, with higher levels indicating greater protection. Once antibody levels drop below a particular threshold, or vanish completely, the person is at risk of reinfection.

Initially, scientists observed peoples antibody levels rapidly decreased shortly after recovery from COVID-19.

However, more recently, weve seen positive signs of long-lasting immunity, with antibody-producing cells in the bone marrow identified seven to eight months following infection with COVID-19. In addition, scientists have observed evidence of memory T cells more than six months following infection.

A study of over 9,000recovered COVID-19 patients in the United States up to November 2020 showed a reinfection rate of only 0.7%. These findings closely align with a slightly more recent study suggesting reinfection after COVID-19 is very uncommon, at least in the short term.

Read more:5 ways our immune responses to COVID vaccines are unique

While it seems likely theres some level of lasting protection following COVID-19 infection, if youve had COVID, getting vaccinated is still worthwhile.

Theres some evidence vaccination after recovery leads to a stronger level of immunity compared to natural immunity from infection, or immunity from vaccination alone. People with so-called hybrid immunity appear to exhibit a more diverse range of antibodies.

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What This Means For You

More research needs to be done, but it’s become clear that COVID-19 vaccines will need to be given more than just once. It’s likely that boosters and annual vaccineswhether the existing shots, or other therapies yet to be developedwill be needed throughout your life.

Like most vaccines, the COVID-19 vaccines work in more than one way to prevent infection. The first involves the production of antibodies.

Your body uses antibodies to fight off infection, but not as easily when it has never seen a novel, or new, virus. Because COVID-19 was a new virus, human bodies had not developed an antibody defense for it. The vaccines help it to achieve that.

The second way the vaccines work is to help the body develop responses in what are called memory B cells and T cells. These are immune cells that store information for future reference.

However, immunity does wane. Your individual response and other factors contribute to this loss of protection. Like human memory, cellular memory is short. Booster shots help to “remind” it to respond to a virus or other pathogen. Here’s how each of the current vaccines work.

Why You Should Consider Getting Your Vaccine Or Booster

How long is the COVID-19 vaccine good for?
  • To protect yourself: Getting the vaccine and booster dose is the best way to protect yourself from severe illness or death from COVID-19. While some breakthrough cases are being reported, those who have been vaccinated generally have milder cases or dont have any symptoms. Over time, protection from the COVID-19 vaccine decreases. A booster dose helps provide continuing protection from getting infected with COVID-19 and experiencing severe symptoms.
  • To protect those around you: If you get sick, you could spread the virus to others. Getting the vaccine while continuing to wear a mask and practice social distancing will help keep your friends and family safe, especially those who may be at risk for a severe case of COVID-19.
  • To protect your community: For the vaccine to be effective against COVID-19, we need enough people to get vaccinated. We know that every person who gets vaccinated is a small step in the right direction.

At the end of the day, were confident that this vaccine is the most important public health strategy for slowing the spread of COVID-19, and we strongly encourage you to consider getting it.

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How Long Will Immunity Last

According to Pfizer, initial results based on Phase 3 clinical trials in adults found the vaccine was:

  • 100% effective in preventing severe disease
  • 95% effective in preventing severe disease
  • 91% effective in providing immunity against COVID-19 for six months

A November 2021 update focused on how effective the vaccine was in people ages 12 to 15. These results showed the vaccine was 100% effective against COVID-19.

Further research on the Pfizer vaccine, also known as Comirnaty, supports its effectiveness. A November 2021 research review of studies on nine different COVID-19 vaccines developed around the world found that overall, the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines performed better than alternatives in preventing symptomatic disease.

How Are We Monitoring The Coronavirus Vaccines

Pfizer and Moderna have been monitoring immunity in people who were given their vaccines in the initial clinical trialsboth companies had reported strong overall efficacy at the six-month mark.

One thing researchers are monitoring in vaccine recipients is levels of antibodies, which are proteins produced by the bodys immune system when it detects harmful substances, and that are easily measured from blood samples. Antibodies are a really good marker for protection against infection, so we will be monitoring those levels for as long as we can measure them, says Akiko Iwasaki, PhD, a professor of immunobiology at Yale School of Medicine.

I tell my family, ‘It’s great that youre vaccinated… But even the vaccines dont have 100% guarantees, so… you want to keep weighing the risks,'” says Yale Medicine infectious diseases expert Jaimie Meyer, MD, MS

A report in The New England Journal of Medicine in April showed that 33 participants who had received the Moderna vaccine during the Phase I trial had a gradual decline in antibody protectionand, based on the slope, Iwasaki says, that is hopeful news. If antibodies are going down very quickly, you would expect that to last for a short time. The slow decline raises hopes that the mRNA vaccines will be protective for at least a year, if not longer, she says.

This is a reason why the CDC recommends vaccinations for people who have had a COVID-19 infection as well as for those who have not.

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What Do The Side Effects Mean

If you get side effects, they are a good sign they indicate that the vaccine is working by triggering the immune system.

When you get vaccinated, your immune system recognizes something as being foreign. The immune system automatically launches a small-scale attack against it. This process teaches your immune cells to recognize and respond to an invader. Thats why you might experience some side effects. Think of it this way: The bodys response to the vaccine is like a training mission for the real fight.

Once youre fully vaccinated, if you were infected by the virus causing COVID-19, your immune system would be ready to launch an even larger and more powerful attack to protect you.

If you dont experience any side effects, that doesnt mean that the vaccine didnt work. In the vaccine clinical trials, more than half of people didnt experience any side effects but we still know that the vaccine was effective in those people.

Answers To More Questions About:


CDC does not keep vaccination records or determine how vaccination records are used. To update your records with vaccines you received while outside of the United States, you may:

  • Contact the immunization information system in your state. You can find state IIS information on the CDC website.
  • Contact your healthcare provider or your local or state immunization program through your states health department.

The CDC-labeled white COVID-19 Vaccination Record Cards are only issued to people vaccinated in the United States. CDC recommends you keep your documentation of being vaccinated in the other country as proof of vaccination. CDC also recommends checking with your primary care provider or state health department for options to document your vaccination status domestically.

If you have received all recommended doses of a COVID-19 vaccine that has been authorized or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or is listed for emergency use by the World Health Organization , then you are considered to be fully vaccinated. This currently includes the following vaccines:

Visit the clinical considerations webpage for more information.

While COVID-19 vaccines were developed rapidly, all steps were taken to make sure they are safe and effective:

Learn more about developing COVID-19 vaccines.

Yes, you should be vaccinated regardless of whether you already had COVID-19 because:

Related pages:

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What Happens After You Get The Covid

An immunologist explains how the vaccine trains your immune system to fight the coronavirus.

This article was updated on May 10, 2021.

The Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines currently being rolled out to the public are considered an incredible scientific achievement. But, many might wonder, what exactly do they do?

Here to clear up that mystery, Beth Moore, Ph.D., the Interim Chair and Professor of Microbiology & Immunology at Michigan Medicine, breaks down what happens after the shot goes into your arm.

1 minute after COVID vaccination

Pick an arm and roll up your sleeve. After answering a few screening questions, the shot goes in.

Along with salt, sugar and a fat coating, the most important ingredient in the vaccine is the mRNA, a tiny instruction manual for your cells to use to make the infamous SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Scientists figured out that the coronavirus uses its spike protein to attach to molecules called ACE2 receptors on the outside of your cells to get inside.

Once inside the cell, the mRNA from the vaccine is taken up by your ribosomes and translated into many copies of the spike protein, says Moore. Then, the mRNA is broken down and the newly-formed spike protein is released from the cell.

15 minutes after

12 hours to 10 days later

Your arm might be a little sore or maybe youll feel some fatigue after the first shot. Whats happening?

3 to 4 weeks later

6 weeks later

Experts Dont Yet Know How Long Immunity Will Last

While scientists have seen that the vaccines will protect most people for the first few months after getting their second dose, they dont have data on the long-term immunity these vaccines may provide. Since Phase 3 trials have not even completed a year of follow up, We really dont know whether youre still immune a year after vaccination, says Dr. Marks.. Some of the clinical trials will study adding a booster in a year and comparing whether thats better or if the immunity is just as good for two years with the two shots. That remains to be determined.

The ongoing studies will follow participants for two years to answer these questions.

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Can I Treat The Side Effects

If you have pain or discomfort after receiving your vaccination, talk to your doctor about taking an over-the-counter medicine, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen .

To reduce pain and discomfort on your arm:

  • Apply a clean, cool, wet washcloth over the area.
  • Use or exercise your arm.

In most cases, discomfort from fever or pain is normal. Contact your doctor or healthcare provider:

  • If the redness or tenderness where you got the shot increases after 24 hours.
  • If your side effects are worrying you or do not seem to be going away after a few days.

Which Vaccine Will I Get

5 things NOT TO DO after getting the COVID-19 vaccine

You cannot usually choose which vaccine you have. When you book, you’ll only be offered appointments for vaccines that are suitable for you.

Most people can have any of the COVID-19 vaccines, but some people are only offered certain vaccines.

For example:

  • if you’re pregnant or under 40 you’ll usually be offered appointments for the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna vaccines
  • if you’re under 18, you’ll only be offered the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine

You should have the same vaccine for both doses, unless you had serious side effects after your 1st dose.

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How Long The Pfizer Vaccine Takes To Fully Protect You From Covid

If you receive the Pfizer vaccine, youâll be given two shots, around 21 days or three weeks apart. âIndividuals are usually considered fully vaccinated two weeks after the second dose of the Pfizer vaccine,â Dr. Robert Quigley, M.D., global medical director of medical and security risk mitigation company International SOS, tells Bustle. Pfizer and Modernaâs vaccines are up to 90% protective against COVID after the first shot in real-life conditions, according to a study of U.S. essential workers published by the CDC on March 29, but to receive their full benefits, you need to wait for a fortnight after your second dose. This is because your body is taking two weeks to build up multiple levels of effective immunity in your cells.

Additional Primary Shot And Booster Shot For Some Immunocompromised People

After completing the primary series, some moderately or severely immunocompromised people should get an additional primary shot.

Everyone 12 years and older, including immunocompromised people, should get a booster shot. If you are eligible for an additional primary shot, you should get this dose first before you get a booster shot.

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