How The Data In This Bulletin Can Be Used
The data can be used for:
- estimating the number of positive cases among the population living in private households, including cases where people do not report having any symptoms
- identifying differences in numbers of positive cases between UK countries and different regions in England
- estimating the number of new cases and change over time in positive cases
The data cannot be used for:
- measuring the number of cases and infections in care homes, hospitals and/or other communal establishments
- providing information about recovery time of those infected
How Is The Vaccine And Booster Rollout Going
So far, more than 51 million people have had a first vaccine dose – some 90% of over-12s. More than 47 million – 82% of over-12s – have had both doses.
While uptake of first and second doses has dropped off, there has been a steep rise in people having boosters.
About 32 million booster doses have been administered across the UK, with a daily average of almost 890,000 jabs.
Vaccination rates have now levelled off in every age group in England apart from the youngest bands, as the chart below shows.
The highest rates of vaccination can be seen in the oldest age groups – among the first to be vaccinated.
The Cdcs Vaccination Guidance Should Acknowledge That Past Infection Provides Significant Protection Against The Coronavirus
Omicrons spread is slowing in the United States, but more than 200,000 people a day are still getting infected by the coronavirus. Two factors help to shape both the likelihood of infection and the severity of the disease: whether someone has been vaccinated, and whether they have been previously infected.
Public policy, however, has largely neglected the second factor. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, for example, recommends a three-shot regimen for all Americans 12 and older, regardless of whether they have had a previous infection. But requiring people who have been infected to get three shots is overkill at best a waste of valuable doses and an unnecessary risk at worst .
Many companies now demand that their workers show proof that theyve had two shots and a booster regardless of previous infection status. Allowing workers to submit documentation of a previous infection, plus one additional shot, would not only align mandates with the best research it might also reduce resistance to vaccination. After all, its easier to persuade people to get one shot than three.
In fact, the research shows that hybrid immunity, meaning immunity achieved by a combination of vaccination and infection, is stronger than immunity from vaccination alone, regardless of whether infection or vaccination came first.
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Omicron Appears To Live More In The Upper Airway And Less In The Lungs Than Delta And Other Earlier Variants
Unlike delta, omicron is more likely to populate the upper respiratory system. This is a shift from earlier variants that replicated in the lower respiratory tract, in the lungs, Dr. Galiatsatos says.
This may be due to omicrons many mutations, he suggests. This variant has approximately 50 mutations, around 30 of which have been identified on the spike protein the part that attaches to human cells.
Omicrons prevalence in the upper airways may explain why it is more likely than earlier variants to cause a scratchy or sore throat. There were some upper respiratory symptoms in delta and the other earlier variants, but not like were seeing with omicron, Galiatsatos says.
The new location is part of what makes omicron so contagious, he adds. If the virus is hanging out in the upper respiratory system, its probably easier for infected people to breathe it out, and easier to spread from person to person, Galiatsatos says.
What Does A Covid
Immunity is defined as your bodys ability to protect you from getting sick when youre exposed to bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi immunity can help protect you from getting infected in the first place, and if you do get infected, it can prevent you from feeling ill or protect you from severe symptoms. Depending on the type of infection, this kind of protection can last for months, years, or even a lifetime. For instance, once people recover from measles, theyre immune for life and wont catch it again. But most illnesses arent one and done. Immunity to Covid-19 can last for months, but it gets weakerover time and the exact duration is still being studied.
Everyones body and immune system react differently to the viruses they encounter. Unlike vaccines, which deliver a standard size and formula to large populations, having a Covid infection is a very unstandardized thing, says Theodore Bailey, the chief of the division of infectious diseases at the Greater Baltimore Medical Center.
If you tested positive for Covid-19, its difficult to know how much virus you were exposed to, how much it managed to reproduce in your body, and how engaged your immune system became to fight it off. So its hard to know how protected you will be, too. One persons infection is not someone elses infection, Bailey says.
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Why Most People Who Now Die With Covid In England Have Had A Vaccination
Dont think of this as a bad sign, its exactly whats expected from an effective but imperfect jab
AMailOnline headline on 13June read: Study shows 29% of the 42 people who have died after catching the new strain had BOTH vaccinations. In Public Health Englands technical briefing on 25 June, that figure had risen to 43% , with the majority having received at least one dose.
It could sound worrying that the majority of people dying in England with the now-dominant Delta variant have been vaccinated. Does this mean the vaccines are ineffective? Far from it, its what we would expect from an effective but imperfect vaccine, a risk profile that varies hugely by age and the way the vaccines have been rolled out.
Consider the hypothetical world where absolutely everyone had received a less than perfect vaccine. Although the death rate would be low, everyone who died would have been fully vaccinated.
The vaccines are not perfect. PHE estimates two-dose effectiveness against hospital admission with the Delta infections at around 94%. We can perhaps assume there is at least 95% protection against Covid-19 death, which means the lethal risk is reduced to less than a twentieth of its usual value.
Coverage and effectiveness are important numbers for assessing vaccination programmes. It is better to look at cool analysis by analysts, rather than hot takes on social and other media.
What Is A Reinfection
Reinfection figures tend to refer to the detection of a second, or subsequent, Covid infection, regardless of the variant involved. The risk of reinfection is likely to depend on a range of factors: for example, data suggests it is higher in unvaccinated people and potentially in those whose previous infection was more mild with a lower immune response.
It also depends on the variant: one expert said the risk of reinfection with Omicron soon after a first Omicron infection would be lower than Delta followed by Omicron, and how long ago someone was vaccinated. Experts say the dose to which someone is exposed may also be important.
The UK Health Security Agency uses the definition of a possible reinfection as a case 90 days or more after a previous confirmed Covid infection, in part because it excludes those who simply shed the virus for longer after infection.
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Do Omicron Reinfections Happen In A Shorter Space Of Time
Potentially, yes. UKHSA data shows that for cases with a specimen date between 1 November and 29 December 2021 there were 2,855 probable reinfections 29 to 89 days after a previous infection although some of these may reflect ongoing detection from an initial infection.
While the UKHSA notes it is difficult to directly compare the situation between variants as there are many important changing factors at play, including overall levels of immunity in the population Omicrons immunity-dodging powers are likely to play a role in these reinfections.
It is not yet clear how well immune responses to Omicron protect against a second Omicron infection, or infections with new variants. I would expect the risk of a second Omicron infection is a lot lower than the risk of Omicron following Delta after all you have developed antibodies to the actual Omicron spike protein, said Paul Hunter, a professor in medicine at the University of East Anglia.
The Tables And Graphs Refresh Automatically Live As Cbc News Updates With The Latest Information
CBC News is tracking the data so you can follow the progress as vaccines are rolled out across the country. CBC’s vaccine data comes from provincial and territorial websites, news briefings and releases and the Public Health Agency of Canada.
Health Canada has announced that the eligible age for COVID-19 vaccines has been lowered from 12 to five. Vaccination rates for the eligible population have been updated with new population numbers.
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Vaccinations Uptake To 90% By Dhb 12+
These three tables use a person view, and only include people aged 12 or over
Vaccine uptake per rate ratio Mori and Pacific compared with Non-Mori non-Pacific 5+
In the Chart above, rate ratios tell us the rate Mori or Pacific People per population are being vaccinated compared with non-Mori non-Pacific. This comparison can be split by age group.
- A rate of one means the groups being compared are being vaccinated at the same rate.
- A rate over one means Mori are being vaccinated at a higher rate than non-Mori non-Pacific.
- A rate under one means Mori are being vaccinated at a lower rate than non-Mori non-Pacific.
This table shows the rate of people vaccinated to Mori or Pacific Peoples, relative to the rate of doses for Non-Mori and Non-Pacific groups. Less than one means the group is receiving a lower proportion of doses than would be expected if equity is being achieved. More than one means they are receiving a higher proportion of doses than would be expected if equity is being achieved. Exactly one means people vaccinated are in line with their proportion of population.
At all ages the size of the age groups becomes a major contributing factor to comparative ratios, which is why the all ages figure may not appear to be in line with the age splits.
Vaccine uptake percentage by age band
Vaccine uptake percentage by DHB of residence 12+
*Note, this figure does not include 5-11 year olds
Problems Cdc Is Solving Now
There are several examples of how modernization and innovation during the pandemic have allowed CDC to use data to solve problems in ways we could not before. Many of these innovations will serve CDC well into the future as we face both known and unforeseen public health challenges. Because of improvements made, CDC can now:
- The CDC COVID Data Tracker was developed in April 2020 to integrate data from multiple core surveillance systems with the goal of creating a one-stop shop for COVID data that is viewable and available to everyone. The COVID Data Tracker averages about 3-4 million views a week.
- Respond more flexibly in any crisis: Moving public health into the cloud not only makes data more accessible but allows us to scale up rapidly for emergencies without changing systems.
- Open up more data to the public: Using new privacy technologies has allowed CDC to release COVID-19 public use data sets that increase transparency and let the world help us figure out the big problems facing public health.
- Apply new tools for public health: CDC is standing up a new center to advance the use of forecasting and outbreak analytics in public health decision-making, with the goal of supporting more efficient and effective outbreak responses.
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A Scratchy Throat Can Be An Early Sign Of Omicron
Some healthcare providers noticed that sore throat was a common symptom early in the omicron COVID-19 wave, says Scott Weisenberg, MD, an infectious-diseases specialist and a clinical associate professor of medicine at NYU Langone Health in New York City.
A study released January 14 by the UK Health Security Agency looked at the prevalence of different symptoms reported by people who took PCR tests to detect COVID-19. This analysis found that loss of taste and smell was less common with omicron than with delta, while sore throat was more common.
In fact, sore throat was the most prevalent symptom among those who tested positive for the omicron variant, at nearly a two-to-one pace compared with the delta variant.
According to the report, sore throat was listed as a symptom in 53 percent of omicron cases, whereas just 34 percent of people with delta had sore throat.
Its a predominant early symptom, says Dr. Weisenberg, but not every patient with omicron follows the same symptom pattern.
How Many Cases Vaccinations And Deaths In My Area
Enter a full UK postcode or council name to find out
A booster campaign, originally targeted at people over 40 or belonging to a number of other vulnerable groups, has been extended to all over-18s.
The government says every eligible adult will be offered a booster jab by the end of the year.
The minimum gap between the second jab and booster dose has also been reduced from six to three months, to speed up the process.
So far, the UK has approved four vaccines for use: Pfizer-BioNTech, Oxford-AstraZeneca, Moderna and Janssen three of which require two doses for maximum protection.
All those aged under 40 are being offered an alternative to the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine due to evidence linking it to rare blood clots.
The vaccine currently being used for under-18s in the UK is Pfizer-BioNTech, but the Moderna vaccine has also been authorised for use in children.
Those eligible for boosters will receive one dose of Pfizer or half a dose of Moderna.
There is no vaccine currently approved for use in the under-12s.
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What Share Of The Population Has Been Partly Or Fully Vaccinated Against Covid
The following charts show the breakdown of vaccinations by those that have been partly or fully vaccinated. A person is considered partly vaccinated if they have received only one dose of a 2-dose vaccine protocol. A person is considered fully vaccinated if they have received a single-dose vaccine or both doses of a two-dose vaccine.
This data is only available for countries which report the breakdown of doses administered by first and second doses.
What To Read Watch And Listen To About Coronavirus
New Scientist Weekly features updates and analysis on the latest developments in the covid-19 pandemic. Our podcast sees expert journalists from the magazine discuss the biggest science stories to hit the headlines each week from technology and space, to health and the environment.
The Jump is a BBC Radio 4 series exploring how viruses can cross from animals into humans to cause pandemics. The first episode examines the origins of the covid-19 pandemic.
Why Is Covid Killing People of Colour? is a BBC documentary, which investigates what the high covid-19 death rates in ethnic minority patients reveal about health inequality in the UK.
Panorama: The Race for a Vaccine is a BBC documentary about the inside story of the development of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine against covid-19.
Race Against the Virus: Hunt for a Vaccine is a Channel 4 documentary which tells the story of the coronavirus pandemic through the eyes of the scientists on the frontline.
The New York Times is assessing the progress in development of potential drug treatments for covid-19, and ranking them for effectiveness and safety.
Humans of COVID-19 is a project highlighting the experiences of key workers on the frontline in the fight against coronavirus in the UK, through social media.
Coronavirus, Explained on Netflix is a short documentary series examining the coronavirus pandemic, the efforts to fight it and ways to manage its mental health toll.
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Has The Rollout Been Even Across All Areas
Across the country, there continues to be some variation in the vaccine programme.
Scotland has vaccinated 92% of those aged 12 and over with at least one dose, while Wales and England have reached 90% and Northern Ireland 87%.
Second doses are also being rolled out, with all nations reaching more than 80% of over-12s so far.
Across the English regions, the South West has vaccinated 86% of the same age group with at least one dose, while London has reached 68%.
When looking at boosters, the South West has reached 57% of people aged 12 and over, while for London the figure is 36%.
Another way of measuring booster uptake is to look at the people who were double jabbed before October, as you must wait at least three months to get a booster after your second jab.
Among the nations, Scotland leads the way, with about 73% of those who were double jabbed by early October receiving a booster as of 22 December. England wasn’t far behind, with 71% coverage.
Data for Wales was slightly behind other nations, but as of 19 December it had 59% uptake.
The figures may differ from those for booster uptake in the population, which include some people not yet eligible for a booster jab.
There have also been disparities between ethnic groups and poorer and wealthier areas.
Analysis of NHS records by the OpenSAFELY group – a collaboration between Oxford University and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine – shows that black people were the least likely to have received a vaccine.