Could Taking Two Different Vaccines Boost The Effectiveness
Currently, COVID-19 vaccines are not interchangeable. However, if a person gets one of the mRNA vaccines and the supply does not allow for them to get the second dose of the same brand, they can get the other mRNA vaccine, with the second dose at least 28 days after the first one. This should only be done in extenuating circumstances.
Additional studies are required because three scenarios can occur if a person gets vaccinated with two versions of vaccines against the same disease, particularly close in time:
- They get a stronger immune response. An example of this was when children got inactivated polio vaccine and later got oral polio vaccine.
- The second vaccine causes immunity that would be similar to receiving a second dose of the original vaccine. Using a different brand of hepatitis B vaccine for one or more doses would be an example of this.
- The immune response generated by the first vaccine interferes with components of the response to the second vaccine, in some cases causing lower immunity. For example, when people got a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine followed by a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine with a harmless helper protein attached to it, called pneumococcal conjugate vaccine , they had lower antibody responses to one part of the PCV vaccine than people who got the two vaccines in the opposite order .
Frequently Asked Questions About Covid
NOTICE: FDA has granted full approvalfor Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices is meeting on Monday, August 30, 2021, to discuss its updated recommendation for this vaccine.
- Below are answers to commonly asked questions about COVID-19 vaccination.
- Bust myths and learn the facts about COVID-19 vaccines
If you have lost your vaccination card or dont have a copy, contact your vaccination provider site where you received your vaccine to access your vaccination record. Learn more about how you can locate your vaccination provider.
Yes, you should be vaccinated regardless of whether you already had COVID-19 because:
- Research has not yet shown how long you are protected from getting COVID-19 again after you recover from COVID-19.
- Vaccination helps protect you even if youve already had COVID-19.
Evidence is emerging that people get better protection by being fully vaccinated compared with having had COVID-19. One study showed that unvaccinated people who already had COVID-19 are more than 2 times as likely than fully vaccinated people to get COVID-19 again.
If you were treated for COVID-19 with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma, you should wait 90 days before getting a COVID-19 vaccine. Talk to your doctor if you are unsure what treatments you received or if you have more questions about getting a COVID-19 vaccine.
‘how Often Will We Need Booster Shots’: Your Covid
Third booster doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine are currently available for immunocompromised Americans, and will soon be available to people 65 and older and those at high risk of severe disease.
All three COVID-19 vaccines available to Americans have been shown to virtually eliminate the risk of severe illness or death due from COVID-19, but reports of vaccinated people contracting and spreading the virus â while still uncommon â have federal health officials calling for some Americans to roll up their sleeves again.
What You Need To Know
- Third booster doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine are currently available for immunocompromised Americans, and will soon be available to people 65 and older and those at high risk of severe disease
- All three COVID-19 vaccines available to Americans â the two-dose mRNA vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, and the single-shot Johnson & Johnson vaccine â have been shown to virtually eliminate the risk of severe illness or death from COVID-19
- Experts say the vaccines offer strong protection â even against the highly contagious delta variant, which has driven a recent surge in COVID cases â but recent studies have found that protection may wane over time
- As booster shots become increasingly available, we sought answers to some frequently asked questions from two leading vaccine researchers
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What Do You Know About The Halt On The J& j Vaccine
Federal health officials recommended a pause on the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine after six women developed blood clots in their brain up to 3 weeks after their vaccine. The blood clots in the brain are called cerebral venous sinus thrombosis . While a few of these women had an underlying health condition, no pattern of pre-existing conditions emerged. These cases are similar to those caused in European countries by the AstraZeneca vaccine, which is not currently used in the United States. The J& J and AZ vaccines are similar in that both use an adenovirus vector to induce immunity to the SARS-C0V-2 surface protein, but they use different adenovirus vectors. The J& J vaccine uses a human adenovirus, and the AZ version uses a chimp adenovirus.
The pause was recommended for three reasons:
- First, the FDA and CDC needed time to review these cases and collect as much information as they could to figure out what was happening.
- Second, they needed to update healthcare providers across the country on what to watch for in their patients. In this way, physicians can properly diagnose and treat the condition. This condition is very rare and treating it with blood thinners could make this situation worse.
- Third, the pause allowed for the public to quickly become aware of the potential side effect, so that people who got the vaccine and those around them would be more likely to recognize the need to seek medical attention if they experience symptoms.
The Pfizer Ceo Says This Is How Often You’ll Need A Covid Vaccine
Right now, most Americans are still awaiting their first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Mounting research has shown that both existing vaccines from Moderna and Pfizerand one from Johnson & Johnson awaiting approvalare highly effective at protecting against the disease. But receiving a COVID vaccine this year may not offer the kind of protection needed in one go, according to Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla, who says the shots may need to become an annual event. Read on to see what the executive had to say about the future of fighting the coronavirus, and for more on what other immunizations might already be doing for you, check out This Other Vaccine Could Already Be Protecting You From COVID, Study Says.
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Pfizer’s Ceo Just Said How Often You’ll Need A Covid Vaccine
Now that half of the adults in the U.S. have gotten at least their first dose of the COVID vaccine, many people are looking ahead at how often they’ll have to get additional shots. With variants swirling and the fact that immunity can wane over time, medical experts have often noted that the COVID vaccine is unlikely to be a one-and-done experience. Recently, Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla shared his thoughts on how often you’ll need to get vaccinated against COVID. Keep reading to find out what Bourla had to say, and to see if your shot worked, check out This Is the Only Way to Tell If Your COVID Vaccine Worked, Doctors Say.
I Got My 1st Dose But Cant Get My Second Dose On Time What Should I Do
Get your second dose/shot as close as possible to the recommended timeframe. For Pfizer, get your second shot 21 days after your first dose. For Moderna, get your second shot 28 days after your first shot. The CDC advises its OK if the second dose of vaccine needs to be delayed past the recommended timeframe. There is no maximum interval between the first and second doses for either vaccine.
It is best to get the second dose as close to on time as possible, but it is OK if it is delayed. CDC recommends getting the second dose within 6 weeks after the first dose.
If 2nd dose is given beyond 42 days, there is no need to restart the series.
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Is It Safe For My Teen To Get The Covid
Cases of myocarditis, or inflammation of the heart, have been reported in teens after receipt of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. The condition is continuing to be investigated. Here is what we know to date:
The CDC will continue to monitor the situation related to myocarditis, but for now, there is not a reason to stop vaccinating kids. The American Heart Association has also released a statement encouraging continued vaccination.
Was The Genome Of The Virus Subject To Peer Review Or Fda/cdc Oversight
The viral genome is not a product it represents scientific knowledge, so organizations like the FDA or CDC would not have oversight over the information. However, this question gets at the heart of how science is done. Scientists by their nature are skeptics, and the scientific process is designed to challenge rather than accept results. In this manner, several points offer reassurance that the genomic sequence was vetted for accuracy:
In this manner, the pillars of scientific integrity peer review and reproducibility can offer everyone reassurance that the genomic sequence was accurate not to mention the fact that vaccines based on the information have been effective at preventing infection.
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What’s The Evidence That Vaccinated People Need A Booster
Federal health officials are seeing a trend. “The data consistently demonstrate a reduction of vaccine effectiveness against infection over time,” the CDC’s director, Dr. Rochelle Walensky, said at the White House briefing.
The evidence presented at the briefing consists of several recent studies from health systems that have been collecting data on breakthrough infections. These include the New York state health department, the Mayo Clinic and the CDC’s reporting system for nursing homes in the U.S., plus Israel’s ministry of health abroad.
“We know that even highly effective vaccines become less effective over time,” U.S. Surgeon General Vivek Murthy said at the briefing. “It is now our clinical judgment that the time to lay out a plan for COVID-19 boosters is now.”
Importantly, the studies do not show any major increases in severe COVID-19 disease, hospitalization or death among fully vaccinated people. However, Walensky noted that data from Israel suggests “increased risk of severe disease amongst those vaccinated early.”
Dr. Anthony Fauci, Biden’s chief medical adviser, also presented recent evidence showing that a third shot of either mRNA vaccine greatly increased antibodies against the virus that causes COVID-19.
How Long Do I Have To Wait Between The First And Second Dose Of The Covid
Your second shot is recommended at 21 days for Pfizer and 28 days for Moderna. However, if you get the second shot at any time after the recommended date, you are still considered fully vaccinated. You should not get the second dose earlier than 21 days for Pfizer or 28 days for Moderna. The Janssen vaccine is only one dose.
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Economic Disruption From The Pandemic Is Helping Drive An Increase In Strikes In The Us
Buoyed by shortages in labor and supplies that leave employers more vulnerable, and frustrated by what they see as unfair treatment during the pandemic, many American workers are standing up for a better deal.
Data collected by the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University shows that the number of workers on strike across the country increased in October to more than 25,000, compared with an average of around 10,000 over the previous three months.
Labor market leverage and the fact that workers have been through incredibly difficult working conditions over the past year and a half with the pandemic are combining to explain a lot of this labor activism now, said Johnnie Kallas, a Ph.D. student and the project director of Cornells Labor Action Tracker.
Large companies continue to have considerable power, and it is not clear whether the recent job actions point to a new era of widespread strikes.
Still, the fitful economic recovery from the pandemic has eroded managements advantages. Many employers are having unusual difficulty in filling jobs this summer, the Labor Department recorded the highest number of job openings since it began keeping such data in 2000. And for some companies, supply-chain disruptions have taken a toll on the bottom line.
Many workers also contend that their employers have failed to share enormous pandemic-era profits with them, even though the workers sometimes risked their lives to make those earnings possible.
Can My Second Dose Of The Covid
The CDC has recommended that people get the same version because that is what the data in the clinical trials were based on. However, they have indicated that in exceptional circumstances if the same version is not available, a person can, for example, get the Pfizer vaccine first and the Moderna vaccine second. The two doses should be separated by at least 28 days if different brands are used. However, people who got the first dose of an mRNA vaccine should not switch to the adenovirus version . The best-case scenario would be that most people will be able to get the second dose from the same vaccine maker as their first dose.
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Covid Vaccine Boosters: The Most Important Questions
To boost or not to boost? That is the question facing countries fortunate enough to have vaccinated much of their adult population. In the face of soaring infection numbers caused by the highly contagious Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, and hints that immunity triggered by COVID-19 vaccines might fade over time, some countries are considering whether to give further doses to those who have been fully vaccinated. Germany and Israel have announced plans for booster-shot programmes, and a growing list of countries including the United Arab Emirates, China and Russia have already started administering extra doses.
But scientists say that the case for COVID-19 vaccine boosters at this point is weak. They might not be necessary for most people, and could divert much-needed doses away from others. On 4 August, the World Health Organization called for a moratorium on boosters until at least the end of September. Wasting resources on boosters for those who are already protected against severe disease does not really make too much sense, says Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad, an infectious-disease epidemiologist at Weill Cornell MedicineQatar in Doha. Down the line, probably, we would need to think of it. But really, we dont have strong arguments for it right now.
Here, Nature looks at what scientists know and what they wish they knew about COVID-19 vaccine boosters.
Is It Ok To Get The Covid
While there have been reports of severe allergic-type reactions in a very small number of patients, the CDC says that people with allergies to certain foods, drugs, insects, latex and other common allergens can still get the COVID-19 vaccine.
If you have had a severe allergic reaction to injectables or other vaccines, be sure to discuss the COVID-19 vaccination with your doctor, who can evaluate you and assess your risk. The vaccine provider should observe you for 30 minutes rather than the routine 15 minutes after vaccination, and if you have an allergic reaction to the first shot, you may not receive the second.
The CDC says that at this time, anyone who has a severe allergy to any of the vaccine ingredients should not get that vaccine.
How Do We Know a COVID-19 Vaccine Will Be Safe and Effective?
Myocarditis And The Covid
Since April 2021, there have been more than a thousand reports of cases of myocarditis and pericarditis happening after receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna coronavirus vaccines in the United States, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
Considering the hundreds of millions of COVID-19 vaccine doses that have been administered, these reports are very rare. The problem occurs more often in adolescents and young adults, and in males. The myocarditis or pericarditis in most cases is mild and resolves quickly.
Seek medical attention right away if, within a few days of receiving the second injection of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccination , you or your child experiences chest pain, shortness of breath, or feelings of having a fast-beating, fluttering, or pounding heartbeat.
Effectiveness Against New Strains
In December 2020, the news that scientists had discovered a newand possibly more contagiousstrain of COVID-19 cast a shadow over the vaccines rollout. First identified in southeastern England in September, the new strain B.1.1.7 has since spread to multiple countries, including the United States.
But McBride says the original and the mutant are similar enough that the vaccines should immunize against both.
Although new coronavirus strains emerge, the variation is not as large as that seen with seasonal influenza strains, and whether it affects vaccine efficacy is dependent on where the mutation occurs,” he says. “In this case, the vaccine will likely protect against the variant as well.”
Overall, studies suggest that antibodies generated from the three authorized vaccines offer protection from these variants, but research is ongoing to try to understand if protection is lowered or if booster shots may be needed.
Lab studies of the Moderna vaccine suggest protection against variants, including B.1.1.7 first found in the United Kingdom, yet the protection may not be as robust against B.1.429 first found in California and particularly B.1.351 first found in South Africa.
On April 1, 2021, Pfizer announced that the updated analysis of its Phase 3 trial showed that the vaccine offered immunity in South Africa where the B.1.351 variant is prevalent.
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