Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
All countries
Updated on September 25, 2022 4:40 pm
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How Protected Are You With Covid Vaccine

What Percentage Efficacy Means

How protected are you after the 1st dose of COVID-19 vaccine?

Percentage efficacy for vaccines refers to the proportion of people that get full protection after a vaccine. With 80% efficacy, 80% of people have full protection, and 20% don’t.

For those who get full protection the first time around, the second shot improves the quality of the immune response and its durability.

For the people who don’t get full protection with the first shot, some will get full protection after the second dose. Some people won’t ever get full protection from a vaccine because their immune system doesn’t respond at all.

Vaccine Breakthroughs And Variants

CDC continues to actively monitor vaccine safety and effectiveness against new and emerging variants for all FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccines. Research shows that the FDA-authorized vaccines offer protection against severe disease, hospitalization, and death against currently circulating variants in the United States. However, some people who are fully vaccinated will get COVID-19.

The Delta variant is more contagious than previous variants of the virus that causes COVID-19. However, studies indicate that the vaccines used in the United States work well against the Delta variant, particularly in preventing severe disease and hospitalization. Overall, if there are more infections with SARS-CoV-2 there will be more vaccine breakthrough infections. However, the risk of infection, hospitalization, and death are all much lower in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated people. Therefore, everyone aged 12 years and older should get vaccinated to protect themselves from severe disease and death.

The Possibility Of Covid

  • COVID-19 vaccines protect people from getting infected and severely ill, and significantly reduce the likelihood of hospitalization and death.
  • The best way to slow the spread of COVID-19 and to prevent infection by Delta or other variants is to get vaccinated.
  • For people who are vaccinated and still get infected , there is a risk of transmission to others.
  • That is why, if you are vaccinated or unvaccinated and live or work in an area with substantial or high transmission of COVID-19, you as well as your family and community will be better protected if you wear a mask when you are in indoor public places.
  • People who are immunocompromised may not always build adequate levels of protection after an initial 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccine series. They should continue to take all precautions recommended for unvaccinated people, until advised otherwise by their healthcare provider. Further, CDC recommends that moderately to severely immunocompromised people receive an additional dose.

COVID-19 vaccines are effective at preventing infection, serious illness, and death. Most people who get COVID-19 are unvaccinated. However, since vaccines are not 100% effective at preventing infection, some people who are fully vaccinated will still get COVID-19. An infection of a fully vaccinated person is referred to as a breakthrough infection.

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Are Antibodies Different After Infection Compared To Vaccination

Yes. And researchers donât yet understand what these differences mean.

It seems to come down to a question of quality versus quantity. Vaccines seem to produce higher peak antibody levels than natural infections do. But these antibodies are highly specialized, able to recognize only the parts of the virus they were designed to target.

âThe mRNA vaccine directs all the immune responses to the single spike protein,â says Alice Cho, PhD, who is studying the differences in vaccine and infection-created immunity at The Rockefeller University in New York. âThereâs a lot more to respond to with a virus than there is in a vaccine.â

During an infection, the immune system learns to recognize and grab onto many parts of the virus, not just its spike.

The job of remembering the various pieces and parts of a foreign invader, so that it can be quickly recognized and disarmed should it ever return, falls to immune cells called memory B cells.

Memory B cells, in turn, make plasma cells that then crank out antibodies that are custom tailored to attach to their targets.

Antibody levels gradually fall over a few monthsâ time as the plasma cells that make them die off. But memory B cells live for extended periods. One study that was attempting to measure the lifespan of individual memory B cells in mice, found that these cells probably live as long as the mouse itself. Memory B cells induced by smallpox vaccination may live at least 60 years — virtually an entire lifetime.

Why Get A Booster

The COVID Vaccine May Not Protect You From This One Thing ...

When you get your first dose of COVID vaccine, your body produces an immune response against a part of the virus called the spike protein. If youre exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, your immune system can recognise and fight the virus quickly.

The immune response to a single dose of COVID vaccine is generally short-lived. So a second dose is needed to have a stronger and longer-lasting response.

Over time, the amount of antibodies in your body decreases this is referred to as waning immunity.

If the immune response wanes below the level needed for protection against COVID the protective threshold your immune system may not be able to prevent infection when exposed to the virus.

Vaccine doses given some time after the initial course help boost the level of antibodies above the protective threshold.

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When Is It Time To Get A Covid

If you got Moderna or Pfizer, six months after the date of your second shot listed on your vaccination card is when you’re eligible to receive your booster dose. The CDC and other health authorities are now urging you to get your booster as soon as you’re eligible, to keep your immune response against omicron, delta and other coronavirus variants as strong as possible. Two months after the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is the time for a booster .

On Dec. 2, Biden also outlined a plan for Medicare to contact the 64 million people it serves and for AARP to reach out to its 38 million senior members. Pharmacies like Walgreens, CVS and RiteAid should also contact people who got a vaccine at their retail stores when it’s time to schedule another dose.

Q: How Is Additional Safety Monitoring Being Conducted For The Pfizer

A: The company has submitted a pharmacovigilance plan to the FDA to monitor the safety of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine as it is used under EUA. The pharmacovigilance plan includes a plan to complete longer-term safety follow-up for participants enrolled in ongoing clinical trials. The pharmacovigilance plan also includes other activities aimed at monitoring the safety of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and ensuring that any safety concerns are identified and evaluated in a timely manner.

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How Long Will Immunity Last

It is very likely that for COVID-19 vaccine, given that the length of immunity the vaccine generates is limited, we may have to be vaccinated annually, Chunhuei Chi, ScD, MPH, director of the Center for Global Health at Oregon State Universitys College of Public Health and Human Sciences, tells Verywell.

In this regard, the COVID-19 vaccines currently available are not unusual. Most vaccines, Chi says, have their specific duration of immunity that can range from a few months to decades. The flu vaccine, which immunizes against seasonal influenza for several months, represents one end of the spectrum the measles vaccine, which immunizes against measles for life, represents the other. The magnitude of variation, Chi says, is the result of the unique combination of characteristics of viruses and vaccines.

The hope, Jere McBride, PhD, director of the experimental pathology graduate program at the University of Texas Medical Branch, tells Verywell, is that the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines will confer immunity for two to three years. In reality, however, the duration could be longer or shorter and will only be determined by conducting studies of people who have received the vaccine.

On April 1, 2021, Pfizer announced that an updated analysis of its Phase 3 trial showed that the vaccine was 91% percent effective overall and 100% effective in preventing severe disease for up to six months.

Q: Must Vaccine Providers Give A Hard Copy Of The Authorized Vaccine Information Fact Sheet For Recipients And Caregivers To The Individual When They Get Each Dose Of Their Vaccine

How long are you protected by the COVID-19 vaccine?

A: The EUA requires vaccination providers, prior to the individual receiving the vaccine, to communicate to the recipient or their caregiver information consistent with the Vaccine Information Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers, and either to provide a copy of the Vaccine Information Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers or to direct the individual to the CDC’s website to obtain the fact sheet.

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Myth: Now That We Have A Vaccine For Covid

FACT: The thousands of viruses that cause various diseases are very different. Many change year by year, making it difficult to develop one vaccine that works for a long period of time.

Developing vaccines for some disease-causing viruses is tough. For example, the virus that causes HIV can hide and make itself undetectable by the human immune system, which makes creating a vaccine for it extremely difficult.

The common cold can be caused by any one of hundreds of different viruses, so a vaccine for just one of them would not be very effective.


Coronavirus Faq: I’m Vaccinated Can I Give A Hug Or A Handshake Without Risk

What a booster means, they say, is that you’ve got your best layer of protection your vaccine back in prime condition. Recent research has shown that vaccines wane after time , but that boosters work well at increasing your antibody protection.

But even after that, Baker and Karan urge you to keep your stash of masks. And definitely do not stop washing your hands! With cold and flu season ramping up, wearing a mask when you’re out and about can protect you from a variety of germs. In fact, after your booster, you may be more at risk of catching a cold or flu than COVID-19.

“It’s still the same precautions, but the fact is that you have just improved your immunity,” Baker says. “So if you’re somebody who is not really high risk, you can feel a little bit better about your chances of contracting COVID.”

More good news: There’s no reason to stay in lockdown mode, Baker says. If you’re booster-protected and healthy enough that the flu wouldn’t present a grave risk and raring to go out, go for it.

“If you’re thinking, ‘OK, I kinda wanna start to get back out there in the world a little bit.’ I don’t see a problem with that,” Baker says.

You can take similar precautions at gyms and movie theaters going at off-peak times can make an especially big difference in the number of people and the level of risk.

That also means staying on top of local data, she and Karan point out.

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Yes You Should Get A Covid

On Nov. 19, Dr. Rochelle Walensky, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , supported an advisory committees advice and expanded the group of people who can now get COVID-19 booster doses to include all adults over age 18.

On Nov. 29, as reports of the Omicron variant started to mount around the world, the CDC strengthened that recommendation from giving people to option to get boosted to say that all adults should get a booster shot.

The advice comes as the first case of Omicron was reported in the U.S., in a woman in California who recently traveled from South Africa, where the first cases of the new variant were reported. The woman is isolating and recovering at home, and her close contacts have tested negative.

And for people wondering about whether they should wait to get a booster because they might need an Omicron specific dose soon, health experts say dont wait. Although vaccine makers are developing a vaccine directed against the Omicron variant, and predict it will be ready for testing in about six weeks, the vaccine would still need to be tested for safety and efficacy and that will take another few months. So at the earliest, an Omicron vaccine wont be available until spring.

Getting a booster is your choice, but its one that could affect family and friends around you. Many people think the booster is a luxury, as opposed to something they need to get, says Wen. That messaging needs to change urgently.

Vaccine Protection And Transmission

Mild Side Effects from the COVID

COVID-19 vaccines are crucial tools in the pandemic response and protect against severe disease and death. Vaccines provide at least some protection from infection and transmission, but not as much as the protection they provide against serious illness and death. More evidence is needed to determine exactly how well they stop infection and transmission.

After being vaccinated, individuals should continue taking simple precautions, such as physical distancing, wearing a mask, keeping rooms well ventilated, avoiding crowds, cleaning hands, and coughing into a bent elbow or tissue. Get tested if you are sick, even if youve been vaccinated. Check local advice where you live and work. Do it all!

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If The Gap Between Your Appointments Is Less Than 6 Weeks

If you have already booked and the gap between your appointments is less than 6 weeks, you can keep the second appointment or choose to change it.

The important thing is to get 2 doses of the vaccine to be fully vaccinated.

To cancel or modify your booking you can:

  • call the COVID Vaccination Healthline on .

Does It Prevent Infection And Transmission

We do not know whether the vaccine will prevent infection and protect against onward transmission. Immunity persists for several months, but the full duration is not yet known. These important questions are being studied.

In the meantime, we must maintain public health measures that work: masking, physical distancing, handwashing, respiratory and cough hygiene, avoiding crowds, and ensuring good ventilation.

This article was revised on 29 January 2021 to include a section dedicated to pregnant women, but the recommendations remain the same.

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How Will We Know If A Covid

In order to be declared safe and effective, a COVID-19 vaccine must pass certain tests and standards. Organizations such as the National Academy of Sciences, the National Institutes for Health, and the Food and Drug Administration use scientific data from research to help decide if and when new drugs and vaccines can become available to the public. It is important to note that you cannot get COVID-19 from a vaccine. The vaccines contain proteins or other biological substances to stimulate the immune response, but not the coronavirus itself.

Learn more about the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines.

Demographics of the COVID-19 Vaccine Trials

This Story Is Part Of A Group Of Stories Called

You ask, we answer: How protected are you after one shot of the COVID-19 vaccine?

Evidence-based explanations of the coronavirus crisis, from how it started to how it might end to how to protect yourself and others.

Theres a public health challenge that has been lurking and largely ignored in the US, and that could become a major issue if the omicron variant of Covid-19 becomes dominant: the one-dose problem.

There appear to be millions of Americans walking around who have received a single dose of a Covid-19 vaccine, who may think they are protected against whatever the virus can throw at them and who could be sorely wrong.

Im not sure we should regard them as equivalent to unvaccinated people, Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, told me. But they are at higher risk than fully vaccinated and boosted people.

That was the early consensus among the experts I consulted, and the preliminary data shows, as expected, low effectiveness against omicron after one dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. The effectiveness against omicron also declines over time after two doses but is restored to high levels after a third dose. This was a fairly small study out of the UK, and more data will be forthcoming, but it gives an initial picture of how the vaccines are holding up against the new variant.

But theres at least one enormous obstacle in the way of the United States fixing this one-dose problem: We dont know who these people are, or even how many of them are out there.

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Q: After The Fda Granted The Emergency Use Authorization Of The Pfizer Biontech Covid

A: Yes. After issuance of the EUA, clinical trial participants were unblinded in a phased manner over a period of months to offer the authorized Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine to placebo participants. These participants were followed for safety outcomes. Overall, in blinded and unblinded follow-up, approximately 12,000 Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine recipients have been followed for at least 6 months.

Efficacy Across Different Groups

A consistently high efficacy was observed in the clinical trials across age groups, sex, race, ethnicity and people with underlying medical conditions.

This means after getting two doses of the Pfizer vaccine, more than 9 out of 10 people are protected against COVID-19 regardless of their age, health status or ethnic group.

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Who Should Not Take The Vaccine

Individuals with a history of severe allergic reaction to any component of the vaccine should not take this or any other mRNA vaccine.

While vaccination is recommended for older persons due to the high risk of severe COVID-19 and death, very frail older persons with an anticipated life expectancy of less than 3 months should be individually assessed.

The vaccine should not be administered to persons younger than 18 years of age pending the results of further studies.

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