Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 9, 2022 11:50 pm
All countries
Updated on August 9, 2022 11:50 pm
All countries
Updated on August 9, 2022 11:50 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 9, 2022 11:50 pm
All countries
Updated on August 9, 2022 11:50 pm
All countries
Updated on August 9, 2022 11:50 pm
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How Soon Does Covid Vaccine Work

If I Have Been Allergic To Other Vaccines Because Of Egg Allergens Or Preservatives Can I Take The New Covid Vaccines

The Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca vaccines don’t contain egg or any preservatives found in common vaccines. The vial stoppers are not made with natural rubber latex, so the vaccines are safe for people with latex allergy, according to the Allergy & Asthma Network. If you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, check with your doctor, but in most cases, you’ll still be encouraged to get the vaccine. As new Covid-19 vaccines come on the market, you should double check ingredient lists if you have had allergic reactions in the past. The Allergy & Asthma Network has published a chart showing all the ingredients in the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines.

What About The Billions Of People Who Live Outside The United States How Will The Rest Of The Planet Get Vaccinated

Vaccination efforts against Covid-19 have revealed an extraordinary gap in access to the vaccines around the world. Rich nations like the United States and Britain have cut deals with multiple drug manufacturers and secured enough doses of vaccines likely to come on the market this year to immunize their citizens multiple times over. China and Russia have developed their own vaccines and begun mass immunization programs. In stark contrast, most poor nations rely on a complex global vaccine-sharing initiative called Covax, and are likely to receive only enough doses to vaccinate at most 25 percent of their populations this year. Run by the World Health Organization and two global nonprofits, Covax relies on financial assistance and other support from wealthy nations. It wasn’t until this month that the U.S. agreed to participate and provide funding.

Some less wealthy nations have their own local vaccine-manufacturing capacity and have leveraged it. India is on track to produce more doses of Covid-19 vaccines next year than any other country. The Serum Institute of India, which has contracts for large quantities of the AstraZeneca and Novavax vaccines, has promised the Indian government half of its output. And the billionaire Carlos Slim has helped fund a deal for 150 million doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine in Latin America, drawing on manufacturing capacities in Argentina and his native Mexico.

Ive Been Hearing That The Side Effects After The Second Shot Are Far Worse Than The First Shot Is That True

Short-lived side effects like fatigue, headache, muscle aches and fever are more common after the second dose of both the Pfizer-BioNTech and the Moderna vaccines, which each require two shots. Patients who experience unpleasant side effects after the second dose often describe feeling as if they have a bad flu and use phrases like “it flattened me” or “I was useless for two days.” During vaccine studies, patients were advised to schedule a few days off work after the second dose just in case they needed to spend a day or two in bed.

Data collected from v-safe, the smartphone-based tool everyone is encouraged to use to track side effects after vaccination, also show an increase in reported side effects after the second dose. For instance, about 29 percent of people reported fatigue after the first Pfizer-BioNTech shot, but that jumped to 50 percent after the second dose. Muscle pain rose from 17 percent after the first shot to 42 percent after the second. While only about 7 percent of people got chills and fever after the first dose, that increased to about 26 percent after the second dose.—Tara Parker-Pope

If Im Vaccinated And All My Friends And Family Are Vaccinated Can We Hang Out Together Without Masks

Yes. Federal health officials now say that vaccinated people can gather indoors in private homes in small groups with other fully vaccinated people, without masks or distancing.

They can gather with unvaccinated people in a private home without masks or distancing so long as the unvaccinated occupy a single household and all members are at low risk for developing severe disease should they contract the virus. For example, vaccinated grandparents may visit unvaccinated healthy adult children and healthy grandchildren without masks or physical distancing.

In public areas and in places like restaurants or gyms, vaccinated people should continue to wear masks, maintain social distance and take other precautions, such as avoiding poorly ventilated spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, and often washing their hands, C.D.C. officials said.—Tara Parker-Pope

Were Cancer Patients Studied In The Vaccine Trials How Does A Cancer Patient Safely Get The Vaccine


Many cancer patients are struggling to navigate the bumpy rollout of the Covid-19 vaccination campaign. The bottom line is that patients in active treatment should consult with their medical team about how and when to get the vaccine. Some patients may be advised to time the vaccine, if possible, between rounds of chemo — when their white blood cell counts are highest — to optimize their immune response. Ideally, cancer patients in active treatment should receive vaccinations under the care of a doctor, or in a cancer center, where they can be closely monitored and are likely to encounter fewer people than they would at a mass distribution site. The state-by-state nature of vaccination rules can complicate vaccination for cancer patients. For instance, if you live in one state and get cancer treatment in another, your cancer center may not be allowed to give the vaccine to an out-of-state patient.

If I Got The Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Can I Also Get Pfizer Or Moderna To Increase Protection

Mixing COVID-19 vaccine doses from different manufacturers is not recommended. There is very little data on safety and immune responses with mixed vaccines.

More than 13 million Americans have received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. Johnson & Johnson has reported that its vaccine is effective against Delta. One recent study, which has not been peer-reviewed or published in a scientific journal, suggests that its vaccine is less effective against the Delta variant than other vaccines. This has prompted discussion over whether Johnson & Johnson recipients might also need a booster. But the first study to assess the vaccine against the Delta variant in the real world reported an efficacy of up to 71% against hospitalization and up to 95% against death.

What Is The Difference Between Emergency Use Authorization Vs Normal Approval Of A Vaccine

An emergency use authorization, like the one given to the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, is surprisingly similar to a standard approval. It includes the same basic steps — preclinical testing, Phase 1 safety trials, Phase 2 expanded trials and Phase 3 efficacy trials — that would be required in the traditional approval process. The main difference is that, in an emergency, the Food and Drug Administration gives the application priority and speeds up its own review of the research. One way to do that is to solve logistical concerns early, while waiting for clinical trials to finish. For instance, the F.D.A. worked with the vaccine companies to solve manufacturing and distribution issues before the firms had completed their clinical trials or submitted applications for emergency use. In an interview with Scientific American magazine, the former F.D.A. commissioner Dr. Stephen Hahn said that in an emergency, the agency can prioritize an application over other demands to reduce the four-to-six-month review process to just several weeks.

Once vaccine makers win an emergency use authorization, they are expected to continue collecting information on the safety and efficacy of the vaccine and apply for a license, which is the final step in the approval process. Additional data will be collected on special patient populations like children, pregnant women and immune-compromised patients who weren’t studied in the first round of research.—Tara Parker-Pope and Carl Zimmer

How Does The Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Work Compared To The Pfizer And Moderna Vaccines

Like the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, the Johnson & Johnson vaccine gives the body a set of instructions to build a spike protein that can train the immune system to ward off a coronavirus infection. While the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines use a genetic molecule called mRNA to provide the instructions, the Johnson & Johnson vaccine uses DNA to give the message, and the DNA is carried by a so-called viral vector, Adenovirus 26. Adenoviruses are common viruses that typically cause colds or flu-like symptoms. The Johnson & Johnson team used a modified adenovirus that can enter cells to deliver the instructions, but can’t replicate inside them or cause illness.

Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine comes out of decades of research on adenovirus-based vaccines. In July, the first one was approved for general use — a vaccine for Ebola, also made by Johnson & Johnson. The company is also running trials on adenovirus-based vaccines for other diseases, including H.I.V. and Zika. Some other coronavirus vaccines are also based on adenoviruses, such as the one developed by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca, using a chimpanzee adenovirus.

What Type Of Problems Should Be Reported As An Adverse Event After Ive Been Vaccinated

Any serious health event that requires medical treatment or hospitalization in the days or weeks following vaccination should be reported. But even less serious problems should be reported, too. If you experience a health concern that isn’t considered a typical side effect, or something unusual or weird happens that you haven’t experienced before, or you have a health concern and you simply wonder if it might be related to the vaccine, just report it.

“I think people should report everything that they think might be related to the vaccine, no matter how bizarre or biologically implausible,” said Dr. Paul Offit, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania and a member of the F.D.A.’s vaccine advisory panel. “If enough people report something similar, then it would be worth investigating.”

Do I Need To Quarantine If I’m Vaccinated But Have Been Exposed To Someone With Covid

If you’ve been exposed to someone with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, you are not required to quarantine if all of the following are true, according to the CDC:

  • You are fully vaccinated for COVID-19 and it’s been at least 2 weeks since your last dose .
  • It’s been less than 3 months since your final dose in the series.
  • You’ve remained asymptomatic since your current COVID-19 exposure.

What Do We Know About How The Vaccines Work In People With Compromised Immune Systems

It’s unclear how many immunocompromised people won’t respond to coronavirus vaccines. But the list of people who are at risk seems at least to include survivors of blood cancers, organ transplant recipients, and anyone who takes the widely used drug Rituxan, or the cancer drugs Gazyva or Imbruvica — all of which kill or block B cells, the immune cells that churn out antibodies — or Remicade, a popular drug for treating inflammatory bowel disease. It may also include some people over age 80 whose immune responses have faltered with age.

Several studies are assessing the response to coronavirus vaccines in people with cancer, autoimmune conditions like lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, or who take drugs that mute the immune response. In one such study, British researchers followed nearly 7,000 people with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis from 90 hospitals in the country. They found that less than half of patients who took Remicade mounted an immune response following coronavirus infection. In a follow-up, the scientists found that 34 percent of people taking the drug were protected after a single dose of the Pfizer vaccine and only 27 percent after a single dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine.

Has The First Wave Of Health Care Workers And Nursing Home Residents Been Vaccinated

Not yet. Getting health workers vaccinated has gone slower than hoped. A number of states are reporting vaccine hesitancy among some frontline workers and staff members at long-term care facilities. Gov. Mike DeWine of Ohio said about 60 percent of nursing home workers in his state have declined the vaccine. At one Houston hospital, about half the nurses turned it down, NPR reported . A survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that 29 percent of health care workers were reluctant to get the vaccine.

The process for vaccinating frontline medical workers and nursing home residents and employees is different from the one for the general population. Hospitals and medical groups will contact health workers to schedule appointments. The pharmacy chains CVS and Walgreens have contracts with the federal government to send teams of pharmacists and support staff into thousands of long-term care facilities in the coming weeks to vaccinate all willing residents and employees.—Abby Goodnough and Tara Parker-Pope

If I Get A Coronavirus Vaccination Do I Still Have To Wear A Mask Physical Distance

Quebec is making COVID

The CDC continues to monitor the spread of COVID-19 and makes recommendations for wearing face masks, both for those who are fully vaccinated as well as those who are not fully vaccinated.

The CDC also recommends that masks and physical distancing are required when going to the doctor’s office, hospitals or long-term care facilities, including all Johns Hopkins hospitals, care centers and offices.

Johns Hopkins Medicine’s current mask safety guidelines have not changed, and we still require all individuals to wear masks inside all of our facilities.

Will The Vaccines Work Against The New Variants That Have Emerged Around The World

While the rise of more infectious variants has caused cases of Covid-19 to surge around the world, the risk is primarily to the unvaccinated, for whom there is great concern. But for the vaccinated, the outlook is much more hopeful. While it’s true that the vaccines have different success rates against different variants, the perception that they don’t work against variants at all is incorrect. In fact, the available vaccines have worked remarkably well so far, not just at preventing infection but, most important, at preventing serious illness and hospitalization, even as new variants circulate around the globe.

The variants are “all the more reason to get vaccinated,” said Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease specialist. “The bottom line is the vaccines we are using very well protect against the most dominant variant we have right now, and to varying degrees protect against serious disease among several of the other variants.”—Tara Parker-Pope

Ive Heard Rumors And Jokes About Microchips In The New Vaccines What Is That About

The false conspiracy theory about microchips emerged after Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft, made a comment about “digital certificates” that might one day be used to show a person had been tested or vaccinated for Covid-19. The reference prompted conspiracy theories to circulate online speculating that a tracking microchip would be planted by the government to surveil the movements of Americans. For months, widely shared videos and viral posts on social media have baselessly claimed that such technologies could find their way into syringes delivering shots. None of the rumors are true.

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines have one active ingredient: a molecule called messenger RNA, or mRNA, which contains genetic instructions for a coronavirus protein called spike. Once injected, the mRNA will instruct human cells to manufacture spike, exposing the immune system to a highly recognizable feature of the virus. The remaining ingredients are lipids, including cholesterol, that form a fatty bubble around the fragile mRNA molecule, as well as sucrose and various salts.—Katherine J. Wu and Tara Parker-Pope

How Long Will The Vaccine Last Will I Need A Booster Shot Or An Annual Vaccination

Vaccine makers already are working on developing booster shots that will target the variants, but it’s not clear how soon they might be needed. “In time, you’re going to see a recommendation for a booster,” said Dr. Peter J. Hotez, dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. “That booster will elevate everybody’s antibodies and increase durability. The booster will probably be configured to target the South African and Brazil variants.”

It’s possible that Covid-19 vaccinations will become an annual event, just like the flu shot. Or it may be that the benefits of the vaccine last longer than a year. We have to wait to see how durable the protection from the vaccines is. To determine this, researchers are going to be tracking vaccinated people to look for “breakthrough cases” — those people who get sick with Covid-19 despite vaccination. That is a sign of weakening protection and will give researchers clues about how long the vaccine lasts. They will also be monitoring levels of antibodies and T cells in the blood of vaccinated people to determine whether and when a booster shot might be needed. It’s conceivable that people may need boosters every few months, once a year or only every few years. It’s just a matter of waiting for the data.—Carl Zimmer and Tara Parker-Pope

Is It Safe To Get A Vaccine That Only Has An Emergency Approval Not Full Approval

Every expert Science talked to had the same message: The data amassed so far show the vaccines given an EUA in the United States are very safe and very effective. “It was really incredible to see how well these vaccines worked in the clinical trials,” Gandhi says.

“The vaccines are such a gift,” says Cody Meissner, a pediatrician at Tufts Children’s Hospital specializing in infectious diseases and a member of FDA’s vaccine advisory committee. “Every adult should get this vaccine.”

*Correction, 22 July, 3:20 p.m.: This story has been corrected to show that Monica Gandhi is at the University of California, San Francisco, not the University of California, San Diego.

Is It True That Cosmetic Injections Can Cause An Allergic Reaction To The Vaccine

A rare side effect of the vaccine has been seen in a few people who have previously been injected with dermal fillers, also called “wrinkle fillers,” which are gel-like substances used to smooth wrinkles and facial lines around the nose and mouth, plump lips and restore volume to sunken cheeks.

In a few cases, people have developed swelling in the parts of the face that had been treated with the fillers. One to two days after getting the vaccine during the Moderna clinical trials, three women developed swelling where they had previously been injected with cosmetic fillers. A 29-year-old woman developed swelling in her lips two days after the vaccine, and reported she had previously had a similar reaction to the flu shot.

The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery said the side effect also has been seen after viral and bacterial illnesses, other vaccinations and dental procedures. The group said people with dermal fillers should not delay or avoid the Covid vaccine. The side effect is rare, temporary and responds to treatments such as oral corticosteroids and an enzyme called hyaluronidase. The swelling also can resolve without treatment. The side effect has not been seen with wrinkle-relaxing injections like Botox or Dysport. If you’re concerned or not sure what type of injection you’ve gotten in the past, check with the doctor who gave you the cosmetic treatment.—Tara Parker-Pope

Is There A Risk My State Will Run Out Of The Vaccine Before I Get My Second Dose

Two of the three approved vaccines — those from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna — require a second dose. Health officials appear confident that everyone who needs a second dose will get it. Early demand and supply bottlenecks appear to have been resolved so it’s unlikley your second dose will be delayed. If a delay occurs, don’t fret. Although ideally you should get your second dose within three to four weeks of the first dose , the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now says patients may extend the interval between doses to six weeks if getting the second dose sooner is “not feasible.”

Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the president’s special adviser for the coronavirus, has said patients should try to schedule their second dose on time, but local conditions may warrant a delay. “What the C.D.C. is saying, sometimes, the situation is stressed where it’s very difficult to be exactly on time,” Dr. Fauci said. “So we’re saying, you can probably do it six weeks later, namely, two additional weeks. Quite frankly, immunologically, I don’t think that’s going to make a big difference.”

A third vaccine from Johnson & Johnson requires only a single dose.—Sheryl Gay Stolberg

What Will Happen If Serious Side Effects Crop Up After The Vaccine Is Rolled Out

Once a vaccine starts to reach large numbers of people, it’s possible for a small number of severe “adverse events” to occur. Many existing vaccines, including the flu shot, also can cause rare complications, including Guillain–Barré syndrome, seizures and sudden unexplained death. While this sounds frightening, the risk is minuscule when considered over the millions of people who are safely vaccinated each year, and some of these complications can be triggered by the virus itself. Health officials will investigate each event to see if it’s simply coincidence — or if it could have been caused by the vaccine. While everyone should be prepared to hear about these reports, they should not be a cause for worry or prompt you to delay getting the vaccine. Your risk of severe complications from Covid-19 is far higher than your risk of complications from the vaccine.—Donald G. McNeil Jr.

I Havent Had Any Side Effects After The Vaccine Does That Mean Its Not Working

Covid vaccine: When will Americans be vaccinated?

Just as some people experience side effects from medications and some don’t, people have varied reactions to vaccines. While we tend to hear only about the unpleasant reactions after the vaccine, a lot of people experience only mild discomfort or no symptoms at all after getting the shot.

In the Pfizer trial, for instance, about half the participants developed fatigue. Other side effects occurred in at least 25 to 33 percent of patients, including headaches, chills and muscle pain. That means that half or more of the participants did not have those side effects, and yet the overall efficacy of the vaccine was 95 percent, suggesting that a lack of side effects does not mean a vaccine isn’t working. We also know that older people tended to report fewer side effects than younger people, probably because aging immune systems aren’t as strong. As people age, bodily defenses against pathogens weaken, and the response to vaccines also falters. But in the Pfizer and Covid vaccine trials, older people still produced adequate levels of antibodies, indicating a strong immune response after the vaccine. If you don’t have side effects after your shot, be glad you are one of the lucky ones and don’t worry.—Tara Parker-Pope

Guns Trucks And Trips: West Virginia Expands Prizes For Vaccinated Residents

Goepfert says it’ll be a good thing if all these vaccines make it to consumers. But that alone isn’t going to solve the problem of getting people vaccinated.

Why? “Because the vaccines that we have now are just beyond our wildest dreams kind of effective,” he says. “And I’m living in a state right now where it just frustrates me how slow our vaccine uptake is.”

Goepfert lives in Alabama. According to the latest numbers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only Mississippi has a lower per capita rate of vaccination.

Six Months Of Covid Vaccines: What 17 Billion Doses Have Taught Scientists


Over the past six months, hundreds of millions of people around the world have rushed to follow in the footsteps of a 90-year-old British woman named Margaret Keenan.

At 6:30 a.m. on 8 December 2020, Keenan became the first person to receive a COVID-19 vaccine as part of a mass vaccination effort. Her shot was the culmination of a frenzied effort to develop vaccines safely and in record time. Now, more than 1.7 billion doses later , researchers are sifting through the data to address lingering questions about how well the vaccines work — and how they might shape the course of the coronavirus pandemic that has already taken more than 3.5 million lives.

“It’s absolutely astonishing that this has happened in such a short time — to me, it’s equivalent to putting a person on the Moon,” says paediatric infectious-disease specialist Cody Meissner at Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts Children’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. “This is going to change vaccinology forever.”

Nature looks at what lessons have emerged during the first six months of COVID-19 vaccinations, as well as what questions still linger. Overall, the vaccine results have been extremely promising — even better than many had hoped — but researchers have concerns about emerging variants and the potential for immune responses to wane.

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