Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am
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How Soon Does The Covid Vaccine Work

Coronavirus Disease : Vaccines

How does Moderna’s Coronavirus vaccine work?

There are several COVID-19 vaccines validated for use by WHO . The first mass vaccination programme started in early December 2020 and the number of vaccination doses administered is updated on a daily basis on the COVID-19 dashboard.

The WHO Emergency Use Listing process determines whether a product can be recommended for use based on all the available data on safety and efficacy and on its suitability in low- and middle-income countries. Vaccines are assessed to ensure they meet acceptable standards of quality, safety and efficacy using clinical trial data, manufacturing and quality control processes. The assessment weighs the threat posed by the emergency as well as the benefit that would accrue from the use of the product against any potential risks.

In line with their national regulations and legislation, countries have the autonomy to issue emergency use authorizations for any health product. Domestic emergency use authorizations are issued at the discretion of countries and not subject to WHO approval.

As of 26 November 2021, the following vaccines have obtained EUL:

If you live in a country where vaccines are available to more people beyond these priority groups, get vaccinated as soon as it is your turn.

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Can I Have The Vaccine If Im Pregnant

The Joint Committee for Vaccinations and Immunisations has advised that pregnant women should be offered COVID-19 vaccines at the same time as people of the same age or risk group. They have said it is preferable for pregnant women to have the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna vaccine where available because theyve been more widely used during pregnancy in other countries and no safety concerns have been identified. There is no evidence to suggest that other vaccines are unsafe for pregnant women but more research is needed.

You should speak to a healthcare professional before you have the vaccination to discuss the benefits and risks with you. You should also read the COVID-19 leaflet for childbearing, pregnant or breastfeeding women

How Long Do I Have To Wait Before I Can Book A Covid Booster Vaccine After Testing Positive For Covid

If you have tested positive for Covid-19 and are eligible for a Covid booster vaccine, youll need to wait the following times before you can get a Covid booster vaccine:

  • 4 weeks after testing positive, if you’re over 18,
  • 4 weeks after testing positive, if you’re 12-17 and considered high risk
  • 12 weeks after testing positive if you’re under 18, and not considered high risk.

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How Do I Get A ‘fit To Fly Certificate’ Or ‘covid

Some countries may be requesting documented evidence of previous COVID-19 infection as an alternative to a negative COVID-19 test as an entry requirement. If this is requested, you must ensure what type of documentation and evidence is acceptable to the country you are entering and also the airline you are travelling with.

  • Be aware that certificates proving you have been recently infected with COVID-19 are not available via your NHS GP or via the NHS.
  • Some private companies offer to issue COVID-19 recovery certificates for a fee, if you can provide evidence of a recent positive COVID-19 test you must liaise with the private company directly to find out more about this option, ensuring their certificate is accepted by your airline and also the country you are travelling to.

In addition, if you live in:

  • Scotland: the NHS COVID status app shows details of any positive PCR test results conducted by the NHS. Youll need to check if this would be accepted by your airline and destination country as evidence of previous infection.
  • England or Wales: the NHS COVID pass app shows details of your NHS COVID-19 test results in addition to your vaccination records within the QR code. You’ll need to check if this type of documentation would be accepted as evidence of previous infection by your airline and destination country.
  • Northern Ireland: see the guidance on COVID recovery certificates

Factors That Can Affect Immunity

About the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID

There are different factors that can affect your immune response to a vaccine. Some examples include:

  • Age: Very young children and older adults may have a decreased response to vaccines.

  • Genetics: Your genes may influence how you respond to certain vaccines.

  • Vaccine type: Some vaccines dont provide as much immunity as others, so booster shots may be needed.

  • Health conditions: Certain conditions, like celiac disease and diabetes, may lower your response to vaccines.

  • Being immunocompromised: People with a weakened or suppressed immune system may not develop strong immunity after vaccination.

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What The Nhs Covid Pass Letter Tells You: Translated Versions And Alternative Formats

If you request an NHS COVID Pass letter, the letter you receive will be in English.

You can get information about what the letter tells you in other languages and alternative formats.

However, youll still need to show the original English letter to demonstrate your COVID-19 status, for example when travelling abroad. You do not need your letter in a language to match the country youre planning to travel to.

Answers To More Questions About:

CDC does not keep vaccination records or determine how vaccination records are used. To update your records with vaccines you received while outside of the United States, you may:

  • Contact the immunization information system in your state. You can find state IIS information on the CDC website.
  • Contact your healthcare provider or your local or state immunization program through your states health department.

The CDC-labeled white COVID-19 Vaccination Record Cards are only issued to people vaccinated in the United States. CDC recommends you keep your documentation of being vaccinated in the other country as proof of vaccination. CDC also recommends checking with your primary care provider or state health department for options to document your vaccination status domestically.

If you have received all recommended doses of a COVID-19 vaccine that has been authorized or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or is listed for emergency use by the World Health Organization , then you are considered to be fully vaccinated. This currently includes the following vaccines:

Visit the clinical considerations webpage for more information.

While COVID-19 vaccines were developed rapidly, all steps were taken to make sure they are safe and effective:

Learn more about developing COVID-19 vaccines.

Yes, you should be vaccinated regardless of whether you already had COVID-19 because:

Related pages:

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Mounting Evidence Suggests Covid Vaccines Do Reduce Transmission How Does This Work

Vaccination is likely to substantially reduce virus transmission by reducing the pool of people who become infected, and reducing virus levels in people who get infected.

11 May 2021 by Jennifer Juno and Immunity and Adam Wheatley

Since COVID-19 vaccines began rolling out across the world, many scientists have been hesitant to say they can reduce transmission of the virus.

Their primary purpose is to prevent you from getting really sick with the virus, and it quickly became clear the vaccines are highly efficient at doing this. Efficacy against symptoms of the disease in clinical trials has ranged from 50% to 95% , and similar effectiveness has been reported in the real world.

However, even the best vaccines we have are not perfect, which means some vaccinated people still end up catching the virus. We call these cases breakthrough infections. Indeed, between April 10 and May 1, six people in hotel quarantine in New South Wales tested positive for COVID-19, despite being fully vaccinated.

But how likely are vaccinated people to actually pass the virus on, if they do get infected? Evidence is increasing that, not only do COVID-19 vaccines either stop you getting sick or substantially reduce the severity of your symptoms, theyre also likely to substantially reduce the chance of transmitting the virus to others.

But how does this work, and what does it mean for the pandemic?

Guidance On Oxford Astrazeneca Vaccine For People Under 40 Years

How does the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine work?

The Joint Committee for Vaccinations and Immunisations has updated its guidance for the use of the Oxford AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine. It has recommended that people under 40 are offered an alternative vaccination where available and where this will not cause delays to people having the vaccine.

This follows ongoing reviews by the independent regulator, the MHRA, of a very small number of people in the UK who have developed a rare blood-clotting condition since having the Oxford AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine. Both the JCVI and MHRA have emphasised that the risk is extremely small just over 10 people in every million have developed this condition and that the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the risks for the vast majority of people.

More information is available in this leaflet about COVID-19 vaccination and blood clotting.

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Immunity After First Dose Vs Second Dose Of Pfizer And Moderna Vaccines

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are similar in that they both use a new technology called mRNA to stimulate your immune system and they both require two shots. Their levels of immunity during clinical trials were also somewhat similar.

  • Immunity starts to develop about 14 days after the first shot .

  • Full immunity is reached about 14 days after the second shot .

As more studies are being done, well learn more about how effective these vaccines are after each of the doses.

How Long Does It Take For The Covid

If you or a loved one has gotten a COVID-19 vaccine already, congratulations! This is an important step in protecting individuals and the public from the spread of this deadly virus.

But let me guessyou still have some questions, right?

Many of us doeven the experts who study infectious diseases for a living. Here, Ill lay out what we know about how quickly and effectively the vaccine works and what we still dont know about the transmission of COVID-19.

And yes, Ill explain why you still have to wear a mask.

Lets start with a common question.

How long does it take for the COVID-19 vaccine to work?

Regardless of which vaccine you get, you wont reach full protection until two weeks after your second or final dose. Thats about how long it takes your immune system to mount an antibody response to the vaccine.

All vaccines work this way. Think of it in terms of when you have a coldit takes your body a good amount of time to rid itself of whats making you sick. A vaccine is essentially faking out your immune system and triggering a similar response. After the shot, your body has some work to do.

Am I protected from COVID-19 after the first shot?

The first of a two-dose COVID-19 vaccine does offer some protection, but not nearly as much as youll get from both doses.

What happens if I dont get my second COVID-19 shot in time?

Can I stop wearing a mask after my COVID-19 vaccine?

Plus, remember that no vaccine is 100% perfect. You could still be vulnerable yourself.

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Should People Who Have Already Hadcovid Or Are Suffering From Long Covidget Vaccinated

Yes. Getting vaccinated is just as important for those who have already had COVID-19 as it is for those who havent, including people who have mild residual symptoms. Where people are suffering significant ongoing complications from Covid they should discuss whether or not to have a vaccine now with a clinician.

I Need To Have A Negative Covid


Firstly, you should check what the exact requirements are to enter the country you plan to visit. Some countries might accept proof of previous COVID-19 infection. If this is accepted, you must ensure that you provide this proof in a way that is acceptable to the country you are visiting.

If the country you are entering stipulates that you need to have a negative COVID-19 test, you should check whether this must be a PCR or lateral flow device test.

  • A LFD test is less likely to return a false positive result from a recent COVID-19 infection.
  • You must make sure that the LFD test you use meets the minimum standards required for the country you are entering.

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People Who Are Over 18 And Had Their Second Jab More Than Three Months Ago Can Get The Top

Millions of adults in England have queued up to get their booster jab this week as the Government strives to vaccinate everyone eligible by 31 December.

People who are over 18 and had their second jab more than three months ago can get the top-up dose of the Covid-19 vaccine, the latest line of defence against the rapidly spreading Omicron variant.

As the UK hits the highest infection rate on record, heres what you need to know about how the booster works, and when it will take effect.

Who Is Eligible For The Covid

According to the CDC, recommendations for getting a booster dose if you are fully vaccinated are as follows:

  • Primary immunization with 2 doses of Pfizer
  • All individuals ages 12 and older are eligible for a booster dose
  • Teenagers between ages 12-17 should only be administered the Pfizer mRNA vaccine for their booster shot
  • Booster should be given 5 months following the initial dose
  • Primary immunization with 2 doses of Moderna
  • Adults ages 18 and older are eligible for a booster dose
  • Booster should be given 5 months following the initial dose
  • Primary immunization with a single dose of Johnson and Johnson
  • Adults ages 18 and older are eligible for a booster dose
  • Booster should be given 2 months following the initial dose
  • While mRNA vaccines are preferred for a booster dose following Johnson and Johnson COVID-19 vaccination, the Johnson and Johnson vaccine may be administered as a booster if there is a shortage of mRNA vaccines or if the mRNA vaccine caused a severe allergic reaction
  • Immunocompromised: Individuals ages 5 and older who are moderately or severely immunocompromised are eligible for a third dose 28 days after their second Pfizer or Moderna vaccine shot. Immunocompromised conditions include:
  • Undergoing treatment for a solid tumor or blood cancer
  • Has had a solid-organ transplant and is on immunosuppressive drugs
  • Received a stem cell transplant in the last 2 years
  • Currently being treated with immunosuppressive medications, such as high-dose corticosteroids.
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    How Long Does It Take To Build Immunity After Getting A Covid

    Immunity takes a while to build up. If you had your first Covid-19 vaccine dose yesterday, then you are not protected yet. Your body needs to spend time responding to the vaccination before it can produce an effective immune response.

    It seems that some protection starts to appear about 2 weeks after the first dose, and then this increases over time. But after a longer time we arent yet sure how long this protection is likely to start to fade again. So you will need a second booster dose to make sure your immune system can consolidate this protection for the long term. The benefits of the second dose start to appear after about 1 to 2 weeks.

    And there are different degrees of protection: against death, against needing to go to hospital, against getting ill, and against getting infected at all. A round-up of evidence from around the world, by Public Health England, finds that one dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines is fairly good at preventing infection and illness, and better at preventing hospitalisation or death. After a second dose, protection increases further, although at the moment theres more evidence on second doses of Pfizer-BioNTech than Oxford-AstraZeneca.

    Im Worried That I May Have Had The Covishield Vaccine So Not Be Able To Travel To Europe

    How do mRNA COVID-19 vaccines work?

    The government has confirmed that no Covishield vaccines have been administered in the UK. All AstraZeneca vaccines given in the UK are the same product and appear on the NHS COVID Pass as Vaxzevria. The European Medicines Agency has authorised this brand of the vaccine and it is therefore recognised by the European Union.

    The confusion arose because the AstraZeneca vaccine is manufactured under different commercial names and licences. Although this is the same vaccine, each licence has to be approved separately by the relevant authority in each country. The Covishield licence has not yet been authorised by the UK regulator, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency , or the European Medicines Agency so this is why it is not used in the UK or accepted for travel to the EU.

    Some batch numbers of the Vaxiveria vaccines were mistakenly listed as being Covishield by the Maltese authorities, which led to some people being refused entry to Malta. The government has confirmed that Malta has now amended their travel advice and that the NHS Covid Pass will be accepted as valid evidence for entry. This is set out on the Maltese governments website at

    Information on how to get an online or paper version of the NHS COVID Pass is available on the NHS website.

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    If You Cannot Get An Nhs Covid Pass Letter: Translated Versions And Alternative Formats

    The letter you receive in the post will be in English. You can check your vaccination record and follow instructions in various translations of the letter, not including your personal information, in different languages. These are to help people who read those languages.

    You can also access the information in a range of alternative formats.

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