Vaccine Protection And Variants
When cases increase and transmission accelerates, its more likely that new dangerous and more transmissible variants emerge, which can spread more easily or cause more severe illness.
Based on what we know so far, vaccines are proving effective against existing variants, especially at preventing severe disease, hospitalization and death. However, some variants are having a slight impact on the ability of vaccines to guard against mild disease and infection.
Vaccines are likely staying effective against variants because of the broad immune response they cause, which means that virus changes or mutations are unlikely to make vaccines completely ineffective.
WHO continues to constantly review the evidence and will update its guidance as we find out more. For the latest updates on what we know about the COVID-19 variants, read our latest weekly epidemiological updates and our explainer on the effects of virus variants on COVID-19 vaccines.
One of the best ways of guarding against new variants is to continue applying tried-and-tested public health measures and rolling out vaccines. All COVID-19 vaccines approved for emergency use listing by WHO have been thoroughly tested and proven to provide a high degree of protection against serious illness and death. As stronger virus variants emerge, its important to take your vaccine when its your turn.
Myth: The Ingredients In Covid
FACT: Nearly all the ingredients in COVID-19 vaccines are also ingredients in many foods fats, sugars, and salts.
Exact vaccine ingredients vary by manufacturer. Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines also contain messenger RNA and the Johnson & Johnson/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine contains a harmless version of a virus unrelated to the virus that causes COVID-19. These give instructions to cells in your body to create an immune response. This response helps protect you from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future. After the body produces an immune response, it discards all the vaccine ingredients just as it would discard any information that cells no longer need. This process is a part of normal body functioning.
COVID-19 vaccines do NOT contain ingredients like preservatives, tissues , antibiotics, food proteins, medicines, latex, or metals.
‘is My Health Being Sacrificed’
While Linda and Ken are in an age group that is more vulnerable to COVID, they are lucky to have no health problems that would put them at additional risk.
Yet for Sue, 63, age and several complex health problems including diabetes, a heart condition and asthma have left her feeling so vulnerable she has cancelled Christmas.
Sue is also a member of Generation AZ. She began her vaccination series early and has just had a booster dose of Pfizer.
Yet even this isn’t enough to allay her concerns and, with an abundance of caution, she has decided to isolate for two weeks while she waits for her immune system to reach maximum effectiveness following the booster dose. The timing means she will be isolating over Christmas and New Year.
“I usually have friends that I get together with for meals and coffees and things. And so I won’t be doing that this year,” Sue says. “A close friend of mine is in the same situation and she’s going to have a later Christmas.”
Sue who lives near Hobart says Tasmanians are only now coming to grips with the reality of open borders and COVID likely to spread through their communities.
“A lot of people are adjusting around here,” she says. “It is normally a social time of the year and this year for many of us that will be at arm’s length.”
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Myth: Receiving A Covid
FACT: Receiving a COVID-19 vaccine will not make you magnetic, including at the site of vaccination which is usually your arm.
COVID-19 vaccines do not contain ingredients that can produce an electromagnetic field at the site of your injection. All COVID-19 vaccines are free from metals.
Learn more about the ingredients in the COVID-19 vaccinations authorized for use in the United States.
Q: How Is Additional Safety Monitoring Being Conducted For Janssen Covid
A: Janssen Biotech, Inc. has a pharmacovigilance plan that was assessed by the FDA to monitor the safety of Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine. The pharmacovigilance plan includes a plan to complete longer-term safety follow-up for participants enrolled in ongoing clinical trials. The pharmacovigilance plan also includes other activities aimed at monitoring the safety of the vaccine and ensuring that any safety concerns are identified and evaluated in a timely manner.
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Q: What Data Did The Fda Evaluate To Support Emergency Use Authorization Of Janssen Covid
A: Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine is authorized to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in individuals 18 years of age and older. Primary vaccination with the Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine consists of a single dose.
For the February 2021 emergency use authorization, the FDA evaluated and analyzed the safety and effectiveness data from clinical trials conducted in over 40,000 study participants and manufacturing information submitted by Janssen Biotech, Inc. The FDA determined the totality of available data provides clear evidence that Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine may be effective in preventing COVID-19. Based on the scientific evidence available, the FDA concluded the known and potential benefits of Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine outweigh the known and potential risks for people 18 years of age and older.
Risk Of Getting Covid
After the first vaccination, you may still get COVID-19 because your immunity to the virus is not yet fully developed. After the second vaccination, there is a much lower risk of becoming ill because you are better protected. That is why it is important to get both vaccinations. Since the protective effect of the first series of vaccines decreases over time, as of autumn 2021 people can get a booster vaccine. Booster vaccinations will be scheduled old to young. This booster vaccination is intended to boost and improve the effectiveness of the initial series of vaccination.
Information on how effective the vaccines are is provided on the page about COVID-19 vaccines. All vaccines prevent people from becoming ill due to the coronavirus. However, the vaccines work in different ways. See also the information provided on Government.nl.
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What Impacts The Booster’s Effectiveness
It’s important to keep in mind that a few things can interfere with how effective a booster is, and how much protection a vaccine offers at all. For example, Dr. Adalja says elderly people usually respond less effectively to vaccines, and people on certain immune-suppressing medications may not get the full benefit. “But that’s true of any vaccine,” he says.
There’s one other factor that can impact the effectiveness of a booster: time between doses. According to Penaloza-MacMaster, the longer the interval between your original vaccine series and the booster dose, the better antibodies your memory cells can create. If you happen to have waited a few extra months before getting your booster, now’s the perfect time to get it. That said, Penaloza-MacMaster does not recommend waiting to get a booster in hopes of getting better protection. Now is the best time to get your booster shot if you qualify. “In the middle of a pandemic, we want to get the higher amount of protection right now rather than waiting,” he says.
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Efficacy In Young People
Following Medsafe Provisional Approval, the decision to vaccinate young people aged 1215 years has been approved by Vaccine Ministers, Health Officials and Cabinet.
Pfizers study in 12- to 15-year-olds looked for signs of a strong immune response to the vaccine. Pfizer reported 100 percent efficacy in this age group .
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It Takes A Couple Of Weeks
Clinical trials show COVID vaccine protection is optimal from about two weeks after your second dose. This means they:
nearly completely protect against severe disease and death in healthy people
dramatically reduce the likelihood of symptoms with COVID-19
reduce the likelihood of infection with the virus
if you do get infected, they reduce the amount of virus you make. Emerging evidence suggests this reduces the likelihood you will pass the virus to other people.
Each dose of a vaccine essentially shifts the odds in your favour. One dose gives you a lower chance of reaping some of these benefits, while two doses gives you a much higher likelihood of these benefits.
Though even with two doses, you could still be unlucky and get infected, develop disease or pass on the virus.
What If I Can’t Find My Covid Vaccination Card
If you’ve misplaced your COVID vaccination card or didn’t receive one, contact the clinic, pharmacy, or other place where you received your vaccine to find out how to get a replacement. They can print you out a new card from your records.
If you received your shots with a registered Walgreens pharmacy account you can access your vaccine records online or through their mobile app. You can also access your records online if you received your shots from CVS, Walmart or Sam’s Club.
If you can’t contact your provider or you received your vaccination from a FEMA clinic, contact the Florida Health Department’s immunization information system at or by calling 1-877-888-7468. All vaccination providers must report COVID-19 vaccinations to their IIS.
State health departments will either email or mail a copy of your vaccination card, although it may take one to two weeks.
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What You Need To Know
- The benefits of COVID-19 vaccination outweigh the known and potential risks, which are rare.
- As with other routine vaccines, side effects may occur after vaccination. These are normal and should go away within a few days.
- People who are fully vaccinated can resume many activities they did before the pandemic. However, people should wear a mask indoors in public if they are in an area of substantial or high transmission.
- If you received a Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccine primary series and have a moderately or severely compromised immune system, you should receive an additional primary dose of the same mRNA COVID-19 vaccine at least 28 days after the second dose.
- Everyone ages 16 years and older can get a booster shot.
- Unlike many medications, COVID-19 vaccine dosage does not vary by patient weight but by age on the day of vaccination.
- People can get a COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines, including flu vaccine, at the same time.
Q: What Data Did The Fda Evaluate To Support The Authorization For Emergency Use Of Administration Of A Single Vaccine Booster Dose
A: The authorization for emergency use of a single booster dose of the Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine is based on the FDAs evaluation of immune response data in 39 participants from a clinical trial including 24 participants who were 18 through 55 years of age and 15 participants who were 65 years of age and older. The study participants received a booster dose approximately 2 months after their first dose, and the results demonstrated a booster response.
Overall, approximately 9,000 clinical trial participants have received 2 doses of Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine administered at least 2 months apart, and approximately 2,700 participants have had at least 2 months of safety follow-up after the booster dose. Janssens analyses of data from these studies have not identified new safety concerns.
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Vaccine Efficacy Effectiveness And Protection
This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines from how they work and how theyre made to ensuring safety and equitable access in WHOs Vaccines Explained series.
COVID-19 vaccines have proven to be safe, effective and life-saving. Like all vaccines, they do not fully protect everyone who is vaccinated, and we do not yet know how well they can prevent people from transmitting the virus to others. So as well as getting vaccinated, we must also continue with other measures to fight the pandemic.
Q: Does The Fda Foresee Any Instance In Which A Vaccine Might Receive An Eua And Not Meet The Criteria For A Biologics License Application If A Product Doesnt Meet The Bla Standard Does The Eua Get Revoked
A: If safety or effectiveness concerns arise with a vaccine under EUA, the FDA has the authority to revoke the EUA. However, it is expected the data supporting the EUA, together with those that will be collected during use of vaccine under EUA, and additional data collected from ongoing trials will be used to support licensure of a vaccine authorized under EUA.
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Should People Who Are Pregnant Get A Booster Shot
The COVID-19 booster recommendations apply to all people 18 years and older, including those who are pregnant. The CDC urges pregnant people to get a COVID-19 vaccine, a booster is half a full vaccine dose.
“People who are pregnant or recently pregnant are more likely to get severely ill with COVID-19 compared with people who are not pregnant,” the CDC says on its website.
While there is no evidence that getting vaccinated decreases fertility in women or men, a recent study also linked COVID-19 infection in pregnant people to a higher risk of stillbirth.
Do Covid Vaccines Work Against The Omicron Variant
Yes, but not as well, according to early studies. A study from Discovery Health, South Africa’s largest private health insurer, shows that two shots of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, which provided over 90% protection against infection with the original version of the virus, is only 33% protective against any omicron infection.
Keep in mind, that’s protection against catching it at all. Full vaccination still provides 70% protection against severe disease or death, the study showed, although it declined somewhat in people over 60 and more so for people over 70. It’s still too soon to say for sure.
COVID-19 vaccine developers Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson have all pledged to reformulate their shots to protect against omicron, which may include an omicron-specific booster.
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Will We Need An Annual Covid Booster Shot
With vaccines appearing to offer waning protection and a continuing evolution of COVID variants, Hoge said we will most likely need seasonal boosters, much like we do with the flu, at least to protect those at high risk of infection. The new research from UKHSA strongly indicates reduced protection from vaccine boosters after 10 weeks.
The CDC updated its guidance to indicate that, starting in 2022, some immunocompromised people will be able to get a fourth COVID-19 booster shot.
Preclinical Trials Would Have Shown That They Didn’t Think There Was Enough Immunity After One Shot So They’ve Gone For Both Deborah Dunn
However, this early protection comes with some important caveats. First, the protection doesn’t kick in until at least day 12 until then, there was no difference between the two groups. Secondly, one dose is still significantly less protective than two. The latter is 95% effective at preventing the disease after a week.
But there is also another figure that has been circulating on the internet, and anecdotally, being fed to patients by certain doctors the suggestion that the first dose is around 90% effective. And this is where it gets a little more complicated.
The second estimate comes from the UK’s Vaccine Committee, the JCVI, who decided to calculate the efficacy of the vaccine differently. Instead of using all the data on the number of infections, including from days when the first dose hadn’t yet started to work, they only looked at days 15-21. Using this method, the efficacy of the vaccine jumps up to 89%, because it’s not being diluted by the relatively high number of infections before the vaccine begins to have an effect. Taking things even further and only looking at the first seven days after the second dose because the second dose might not have kicked in yet by then it’s 92%.
However, these calculations are controversial.
A vaccine developed to fight Ebola is the only one that uses the same technology as the Russian and Oxford-AstraZeneca Covid-19 jabs
Can you skip the second vaccine dose?
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Ial Vaccination Can Be Risky
While a single dose of either vaccine provides some benefits, relying on partial vaccination for people who are vulnerable or working in high-risk roles is problematic. Its critical we fully vaccinate frontline health-care workers, quarantine workers and people who work and live in aged and disability care as soon as possible.
Another challenge is that all current COVID vaccines are based on the original virus strain but variants now make up the majority of infections in many countries. Some variants are targeted less effectively by vaccines, particularly after only one dose.
Preliminary data suggests that while two doses of the Pfizer vaccine are 88% protective against symptomatic infection with the B.1.617.2 variant, a single dose is only 33% effective.
A similar variant, called B.1.617.1, is behind the current outbreak in Victoria and may respond similarly. This makes it even more important to ensure frontline workers receive both vaccine doses as quickly as possible.
In a pooled analysis of Pfizer and AstraZeneca, older people had lower rates of protection than younger people after a single dose, although older people were protected just as well as younger people after two doses.