Global Statistics

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Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
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Is Covid Viral Or Bacterial

Fact: The Prolonged Use Of Medical Masks* When Properly Worn Does Not Cause Co2 Intoxication Nor Oxygen Deficiency

VERIFY: Is coronavirus caused by a bacterial infection?

The prolonged use of medical masks can be uncomfortable. However, it does not lead to CO2 intoxication nor oxygen deficiency. While wearing a medical mask, make sure it fits properly and that it is tight enough to allow you to breathe normally. Do not re-use a disposable mask and always change it as soon as it gets damp.

* Medical masks are flat or pleated they are affixed to the head with straps or have ear loops.

Your Event Planners In Your Organisation Need To Be Upskilled

Jenna-Leigh Schnell – MD of Magnette Academy and Magnette Event Management

Jenna currently heads up Magnette Event Management, one of SAs leading, strategic Event Management agencies. They recently announced the launch of Magnette Academy and their new 12 week, online multimedia based Event management course. Magnette Academy has created a comprehensive online program, taught by industry experts and global business leaders to guarantee eventing success in the digital age. The future forward course is the first of its kind to be launched in the world and aims to assist event managers adjust and thrive in the new normal brought about by the global pandemic.

Bacterial Superinfection In Adults With Covid

  • Juan Carlos Cataño-Correa ,

    Contributed equally to this work with: Juan Carlos Cataño-Correa, Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias

    Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing

    Affiliation Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

  • Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias ,

    Contributed equally to this work with: Juan Carlos Cataño-Correa, Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias

    Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Software, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing

  • Roles Data curation, Investigation, Validation, Visualization, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing

    ¶ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

    Affiliation Clínica CES, Medellín, Colombia

  • Roles Data curation, Investigation, Validation, Visualization, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing

    ¶ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

    Affiliation Clínica Las Vega Medellín, Medellín, Colombia

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Treatment Of Bacterial And Viral Infections

The discovery of antibiotics for bacterial infections is considered one of the most important breakthroughs in medical history. Unfortunately, bacteria are very adaptable, and the overuse of antibiotics has made many of them resistant to antibiotics. This has created serious problems, especially in hospital settings.

Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, and many leading organizations now recommend against using antibiotics unless there is clear evidence of a bacterial infection.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, vaccines have been developed. Vaccines have drastically reduced the number of new cases of viral diseases such as polio, measles, and chickenpox. In addition, vaccines can prevent such infections such as the flu, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus , and others.

But the treatment of viral infections has proved more challenging, primarily because viruses are relatively tiny and reproduce inside cells. For some viral diseases, such as herpes simplex virus infections, HIV/AIDS, and influenza, antiviral medications have become available. But the use of antiviral medications has been associated with the development of drug-resistant microbes.

Fact: Studies Show Hydroxychloroquine Does Not Have Clinical Benefits In Treating Covid

Smoking and COVID

Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, a treatment for malaria, lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, has been under study as a possible treatment for COVID-19. Current data shows that this drug does not reduce deaths among hospitalised COVID-19 patients, nor help people with moderate disease.* The use of hydoxychloroquine and chloroquine is accepted as generally safe for patients with malaria and autoimmune diseases, but its use where not indicated and without medical supervision can cause serious side effects and should be avoided.

* More decisive research is needed to assess its value in patients with mild disease or as pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis in patients exposed to COVID-19.

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Demographic And Clinical Characteristics Of Patients Co

Characteristics of COVID-19 patients with and without M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infections are shown in the Table. Patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria did not differ significantly in age and gender from those without atypical pathogens. The median age of COVID-19 patients with M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection was 50 years , and 14 were male. Most patients in M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group had at least one comorbid condition, mainly hypertension , diabetes mellitus , and renal disease . Two patients had a malignancy history, and five had neurological complications. Of these, only neurological complications were significantly more common in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae than those with only SARS-CoV-2 .

Most common signs in patients with SARS CoV-2 and M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae were fever , cough , dyspnea , confusion , and headache . It was observed that confusion and headache were significantly higher in M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infected group than in only SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Radiological findings were available only for 11/17 patients. Bilateral infiltrates were reported more frequently in M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group . A higher proportion of patients in the M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group were reported as having severe COVID-19 pneumonia , although the difference was not statistically significant.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

How Are Infections Diagnosed

Sometimes your doctor may be able to diagnose your condition based on your medical history and your symptoms.

For example, conditions like measles or chickenpox have very characteristic symptoms that can be diagnosed with a simple physical examination.

Additionally, if theres a current epidemic of a particular disease, your doctor will factor that into their diagnosis. An example is influenza, which causes seasonal epidemics in the cold months of every year.

If your doctor wants to know what type of organism may be causing your condition, they may take a sample to culture. Samples that can be used for culture vary by the suspected condition, but they can include:

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Transmission And Prevention Research

Modelling research has been conducted with several objectives, including predictions of the dynamics of transmission, diagnosis and prognosis of infection, estimation of the impact of interventions, or allocation of resources. Modelling studies are mostly based on epidemiological models, estimating the number of infected people over time under given conditions. Several other types of models have been developed and used during the COVID-19 including computational fluid dynamics models to study the flow physics of COVID-19, retrofits of crowd movement models to study occupant exposure, mobility-data based models to investigate transmission, or the use of macroeconomic models to assess the economic impact of the pandemic. Further, conceptual frameworks from crisis management research have been applied to better understand the effects of COVID-19 on organizations worldwide.

Which Infections Are Treated With Antibiotics

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by a virus, NOT by bacteria

Antibiotics are medications used to treat bacterial infections.

There are many types of antibiotics, but they all work to keep bacteria from effectively growing and dividing. Theyre not effective against viral infections.

Despite the fact that you should only take antibiotics for a bacterial infection, antibiotics are often requested for viral infections. This is dangerous because over-prescribing antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance.

Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria adapt to be able to resist certain antibiotics. It can make many bacterial infections more difficult to treat.

If youre prescribed antibiotics for a bacterial infection, take your entire course of antibiotics even if you begin to feel better after a couple of days. Skipping doses can prevent killing all of the pathogenic bacteria.

Theres no specific treatment for many viral infections. Treatment is typically focused on relieving symptoms, while your body works to clear the infection. This can include things like:

  • drinking fluids to prevent dehydration
  • getting plenty of rest
  • using OTC pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve aches, pains, and fever
  • taking OTC decongestants to help with a runny or stuffy nose
  • sucking on a throat lozenge to help ease a sore throat

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Viral Vs Bacterial Pneumonia: Understanding The Difference

Having pneumonia can be frightening because this illness directly impacts one vital function our breathing. For those who are at high risk of getting pneumonia and the complications that may accompany it, it is very important to make an accurate diagnosis.

According to the World Health Organizations most current statistical data, pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in children responsible for 18% of all deaths in children under age five. Many of these outcomes can be prevented with global measures that increase access to immunizations, adequate pre and post-natal care for mother and baby, sufficient nutrition, and clean water.1

The two most common causes of pneumonia are from viral pathogens or bacterial pathogens. Some types of bacterial pneumonia can be prevented with vaccines, such as the aggressive bacteria Strep. Pneumoniae, prevented with the pneumococcal vaccine. Despite increasing vaccine availability globally, the persistence of Strep pneumonia infections remains. At the same time, vaccine utilization remains stagnant.

In the most recent 2020 textbook update from Biomedical Science, scientists state, Diagnosis still remains challenging for medical providers. Because bacterial pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics, it is important to be able to differentiate between viral and bacterial pneumonia.2

Have Italy And The Who Weighed In On This

The novel coronavirus was identified by Chinese authorities on Jan. 7.

Since then, the Italian Ministry of Health has not announced a discovery of a cure or changed its stance on what causes COVID-19. It continues to describe COVID-19 as a viral disease and explains that antibiotics are an ineffective treatment because the virus is not bacterial.

The WHO has not prohibited autopsies of COVID-19 patients nor does it have the power to create and enforce laws.

The WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released guidelines for health care workers to safely conduct autopsies of confirmed and suspected COVID-19 patients.

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What Is Covid Pneumonia

Dr. Lee: Pneumonia occurs when a bacterial or viral infection causes significant damage and inflammation in the lungs. The resulting fluid and debris build-up makes it hard for a person to breathe sometimes to such an extent that oxygen therapy or ventilator support is required. Regardless of the bacteria or virus causing it, pneumonia can become very serious, even life-threatening.

In the case of COVID pneumonia, the damage to the lungs is caused by the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

When COVID pneumonia develops, it causes additional symptoms, such as:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Increased heart rate
  • Low blood pressure

What’s more is that COVID pneumonia often occurs in both lungs, rather than just one lung or the other. Additionally, the widespread inflammation that occurs in some people with COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome a severe type of lung failure.

Like other respiratory infections that cause pneumonia, COVID-19 can cause short-term lung damage. In more severe cases, the damage can last a long time. In fact, early data is showing that up to a third of COVID pneumonia patients have evidence of scarring on X-rays or lung testing a year after the infection.

What To Do For Chronic Sinusitis

UND microbiologist: Coronavirus solution will take time ...

If youre suffering from chronic sinusitis or you are getting frequent sinus infections you should see your doctor, says Dr. Sindwani.

Your doctor will swab your nose to collect mucus. Culturing it in a laboratory will reveal which type of bacteria is causing the infection so the right antibiotic can be prescribed.

Treat early sinus infection symptoms with rest, hydration and over-the-counter sprays and decongestants. But dont look for an antibiotic unless your illness extends beyond a week, he says. Then check in with your doctor for a prescription and let him or her know if your condition worsens.

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Feature Article: Is It A Virus Or Bacteria New Tech Rapidly Tests For Covid

Tools that can quickly detect the presence or absence of previously unknown pathogens are critical in an effective defense against future pandemics.

As a first step towards using such tools, the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate is investing in a new technology that can discriminate between bacterial and viral infections using only a single drop of blood per patient.

The hope is that by the time another major biological eventbe it intentional, accidental or naturalcomes knocking on our door, the United States will be able to quickly triage people for their next step of medical care. With this technology, front line medical personnel could use it to quickly determine the presence of either viral or bacterial infections in people and thereby best protect themselves, triage patients, and clear mass transport passengers for travel.

To make this a reality, S& T is working with the Cross-Border Threat Screening and Supply Chain Defense Center of Excellence and two leading biotechnology companies to develop a virus-versus-bacteria detection/diagnostic platform called the Host Response Test System . It comprises a ruggedized portable device that can differentiate between bacterial and viral infections within an hour, even in pre-symptomatic patients. S& Ts main interests in funding the HRTS effort are to help accelerate the development of pathogen-agnostic detection technology and to support interagency partners that have medical authority.

Coronavirus Hijacks Human Cells To Create Millions Of More Versions Of Itself

The harmful after effects found inside the body of COVID-19 patients are similar to those caused by a viral infection and not a bacterial infection.

Generally, when a virus enters a human body, it invades some of the healthy cells in the body, taking over the cell machinery and redirecting it to produce more versions of itself. And the same is true for the coronavirus infection.

Based on the above-mentioned points, medical experts have concluded that the deadly coronavirus disease which has killed more than 3.5 lakh people worldwide and has infected over 5.5 million people across the globe so far is a viral infection.

Note – If you have any symptoms above, do not get confused between a viral or bacterial infection. Instead, immediately seek an appointment with a doctor or contact government authorities for medical help. Also, keep practicing social distancing and keep yourself and your surroundings clean and disinfected from the coronavirus.

Also Read

Disclaimer: This article is issued in the general public interest and meant for general information purposes only. Readers are advised not to rely on the contents of the article as conclusive in nature and should research further or consult an expert in this regard.

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Specimen Collection And Laboratory Testing

A total of 194 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were also tested for Legionella spp., M. pneumoniae, and C. pneumoniae. We collected a combined oropharyngeal/nasal swab urine, and blood from each patient and transported them to the laboratory, where all the following microbiological investigations were performed: Respiratory PCR for Legionella spp. and M. pneumoniae, immunoglobulin M Serology for M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae, urinary antigen test for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 .

Fact: 5g Mobile Networks Do Not Spread Covid

As a virus ravages the world, antibiotic makers are in disarray

Viruses cannot travel on radio waves/mobile networks. COVID-19 is spreading in many countries that do not have 5G mobile networks.

COVID-19 is spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes or speaks. People can also be infected by touching a contaminated surface and then their eyes, mouth or nose.

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Diagnosis Of Bacterial And Viral Infections

You should consult your doctor if you think you have a bacterial or viral infection. Exceptions include the common cold, which is usually not life-threatening.

In some cases, it’s difficult to determine whether an illness is viral or bacterial because many ailments — including pneumonia, meningitis, and diarrhea — can be caused by either. But your doctor may be able to determine the cause by listening to your medical history and doing a physical exam.

If necessary, they also can order a blood or urine test to help confirm a diagnosis, or a “culture test” of tissue to identify bacteria or viruses. Occasionally, a biopsy of affected tissue may be required.

If Virtual Is The Best Option For Your Event Objectives And Company Policy Make Sure You:

  • Provide sufficient budget for high-quality content production
  • Curate a virtual event attendee experience journey which maps out the attendee experience from invitation to post-event
  • Select an easy to use and engaging event application to host your event on
  • Create a range of pre-recorded and professionally edited, dynamic event content and plan plenty of rehearsal time for your speakers
  • Secure the right partners to help you manage the event design, content production, and technical support to produce a seamless event

Issued byMagnette Academy 19 Aug 2021

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Fact: Being Able To Hold Your Breath For 10 Seconds Or More Without Coughing Or Feeling Discomfort Does Not Mean You Are Free From Covid

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are dry cough, tiredness and fever. Some people may develop more severe forms of the disease, such as pneumonia. The best way to confirm if you have the virus producing COVID-19 disease is with a laboratory test. You cannot confirm it with this breathing exercise, which can even be dangerous.

Infections In Primary Care


If COVID-19 is suspected in primary care, routine antibiotic use should be strongly discouraged. Antibiotics should be reserved for those where there are specific clinical features indicating another bacterial infection . Respiratory tract bacterial co-infection is unusual, so antibiotics should be restricted to those with purulent sputum in the context of an infective exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , or if there is strong suspicion of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia . In contrast to pre-pandemic advice, in primary care, CRP should not be used as a guide to initiate antibiotics in the context of COVID-19, although its utility will likely return as COVID-19 infection becomes less prevalent. Amoxicillin or doxycycline are preferred for IECOPD and local guidelines for CAP should be followed. Duration of treatment should be limited to five days .

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