Global Statistics

All countries
547,145,332
Confirmed
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
519,394,584
Recovered
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
6,346,678
Deaths
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
547,145,332
Confirmed
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
519,394,584
Recovered
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
All countries
6,346,678
Deaths
Updated on June 23, 2022 9:27 pm
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Is Covid Worse The Second Time

Is It More Likely That Someone Could Catch Covid A Second Time From A Different Variant

Utah Nurse Experiencing Worse Symptoms During Second Battle With COVID-19

If you didnt have a good immune response, you could get infected again by exactly the same virus, says Deborah Dunn-Walters, a professor of immunology at the University of Surrey and the chair of the British Society for Immunologys Covid-19 and immunology taskforce.

If that immune response was good, the chances of being reinfected by the same variant will be lower, but reinfection might still occur by other variants.

However, the situation is not black and white as this depends on the mutations a new variant contains, and how they affect the ability of the virus to infect the cell and its interactions with the bodys antibodies and T-cell responses generated by the immune system as a result of the previous infection.

The possibility for a new variant to fuel reinfections has been highlighted by researchers in Brazil: despite about three-quarters of the population of Manaus thought from antibody tests to have been infected with Covid by October, there was a sharp uptick in hospital admissions for Covid in January this year. One explanation, they say, is the emergence of new variants of the coronavirus that may evade immunity gained from earlier infection.

Why The Us Is Underestimating Covid Reinfection

Many U.S. states arent rigorously tracking or investigating suspected cases of reinfection

Kaitlyn Romoser first caught covid-19 in March, likely on a trip to Denmark and Sweden, just as the scope of the pandemic was becoming clear. Romoser, who is 23 and a laboratory researcher in College Station, Texas, tested positive and had a few days of mild, coldlike symptoms.

In the weeks that followed, she bounced back to what felt like a full recovery. She even got another test, which was negative, in order to join a study as one of the earliest donors of convalescent blood plasma in a bid to help others.

Six months later, in September, Romoser got sick again, after a trip to Florida with her dad. This second bout was much worse. She lost her sense of taste and smell and suffered lingering headaches and fatigue. She tested positive for covid once more along with her cat.

Romoser believes it was a clear case of reinfection, rather than some mysterious reemergence of the original infection gone dormant. Because the coronavirus, like other viruses, regularly mutates as it multiplies and spreads through a community, a new infection would bear a different genetic fingerprint. But because neither lab had saved her testing samples for genetic sequencing, there was no way to confirm her suspicion.

In Minnesota, officials have investigated more than 150 cases of suspected reinfection, but they lack the genetic material to confirm a diagnosis, a spokesperson said.

Why Does The Coronavirus Change

Variants of viruses occur when there is a change or mutation to the viruss genes. Ray says it is the nature of RNA viruses such as the coronavirus to evolve and change gradually. Geographic separation tends to result in genetically distinct variants, he says.

Mutations in viruses including the coronavirus causing the COVID-19 pandemic are neither new nor unexpected. Bollinger explains: All RNA viruses mutate over time, some more than others. For example, flu viruses change often, which is why doctors recommend that you get a new flu vaccine every year.”

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Unvaccinated People Are At High Risk For Getting Covid

Think you dont need to get vaccinated because youve already had COVID-19? Think again.

This virus can overcome a persons host immunity and cause a second infection, Dr. Esper says. Reports indicate that vaccination provides longer protection than natural infection.

Hes referencing a study that shows that unvaccinated people are 2.34 times more likely to be reinfected with COVID-19 than those who are fully vaccinated which drives home the importance of being vaccinated, even if youve already had the virus.

Almost all the cases that were seeing right now are people who have not been vaccinated, he says.

Are Coronavirus Variants More Dangerous

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Bollinger says that some of these mutations may enable the coronavirus to spread faster from person to person, and more infections can result in more people getting very sick or dying. In addition, there is preliminary evidence from Britain that some variants could be associated with more severe disease.

Therefore, it is very important for us to expand the number of genetic sequencing studies to keep track of these variants, he says.

Bollinger explains that it may be more advantageous for a respiratory virus to evolve so that it spreads more easily. On the other hand, mutations that make a virus more deadly may not give the virus an opportunity to spread efficiently. If we get too sick or die quickly from a particular virus, the virus has less opportunity to infect others. However, more infections from a faster-spreading variant will lead to more deaths, he notes.

How Will New Variants Change the Nature of the Pandemic?

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What Is Herd Immunity From The Coronavirus

Herd immunity is a public health term that refers to the fact that, when enough people in a community have immunity from a disease, the community is protected from outbreaks of that disease.

Infectious disease experts at The Johns Hopkins University explain that about 70% of the population needs to be immune to this coronavirus before herd immunity can work. People might be immune from the coronavirus, at least for a while, if they have already had it, but we dont know this yet. A widely available, safe and effective vaccine may not be available for months.

Without a vaccine, most doctors and scientists agree that a herd immunity approach of letting the virus take its course is not acceptable. Letting the coronavirus circulate freely among the public would result in hundreds of thousands of deaths and millions more people left with lasting lung, heart, brain or kidney damage.

Researchers are currently trying to determine if, and for how long, people are immune from the coronavirus after recovering from COVID-19. If it turns out that immunity only lasts for a while, people could get COVID-19 again, resulting in even more death and disability.

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Cdc Director Attempts To Clarify Controversial Covid

Are people who have Covid-19 a second time infectious?

As discussed, immune memory can prevent reinfection. If it cant, it might stave off serious illness. But theres a third aspect of this, too.

The most important question for reinfection, with the most serious implications for controlling the pandemic, is whether reinfected people can transmit the virus to others, Columbia University virologist Angela Rasmussen wrote in Slate this week.

Unfortunately, neither the Hong Kong nor the Reno studies looked at this question. But if most people who get reinfected dont spread the virus, thats obviously good news.

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Will There Be More New Coronavirus Variants

Yes. As long as the coronavirus spreads through the population, mutations will continue to happen.

New variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are detected every week, Ray says. Most come and go some persist but dont become more common some increase in the population for a while, and then fizzle out. When a change in the infection pattern first pops up, it can be very hard to tell whats driving the trend changes to the virus, or changes in human behavior. It is worrisome that similar changes to the spike protein are arising independently on multiple continents.

Are The Spikes In Coronavirus Cases Due To More Coronavirus Testing

Reports: 2 people reinfected with COVID-19 had more severe symptoms the second time

No. During a surge, the actual number of people getting sick with the coronavirus is increasing. We know this because in addition to positive COVID-19 tests, the number of symptomatic people, hospitalizations and later, deaths, follows the same pattern.

COVID-19: Why are surges occurring across the U.S.?

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Cdc Study Suggests Some Patients Could Face More Severe Covid

It’s important to note, however, that while the study indicated coronavirus antibodies protect against reinfection to a significant extent, it also suggested that reinfection can occur.

A CDCMorbidity and Mortality Weekly Report published Friday had similar findings, and further suggested that some patients could develop more severe cases of Covid-19 upon reinfection than they experienced the first time were infected with the novel coronavirus.

For the report, researchers looked at two separate outbreaks that occurred three months apart at a skilled nursing facility in Kentucky. The first outbreak at the facility occurred in July 2020, with a total of 20 of the facilities’ 115 residents and five of the facilities’ 143 health care providers testing positive for the coronavirus. In total, eight of the residents were hospitalized for Covid-19 and five died. None of the health care providers were hospitalized or died as a result of the outbreak.

According to the researchers, the facility continued to conduct regularly testing of its providers and residents over the next three months. From Sept. 1 to Oct. 29 of last year, the facility conducted 928 diagnostic tests for its providers and residents, and all of those tests came back negative.

According to the researchers, among 12 of the residents who tested positive during the first outbreak and were still living at the facility in October, fiveranging in age from 67 to 99tested positive again during the second outbreak.

Are Variants To Blame For Reinfections

Not necessarily. Dr. Esper says the coronavirus doesnt mutate nearly as much as the flu, which changes nearly everything about its appearance from one year to the next. Rather, its COVID-19s infectiousness that makes it so, well, infectious.

This variants infectiousness including its ability to evade immune systems and prevent long-lasting immunity for those people who are infected with it is one of the reasons why its been able to persist and come back, he explains.

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How Common Is Reinfection

Reports of possible reinfections have circulated for months, but the recent findings are the first to seemingly rule out the possibility that a second infection was merely a continuation of a first.

To establish that the two infections in each person were separate events, the Hong Kong and Nevada teams each sequenced, the viral genomes from the first and second infections. Both found enough differences to convince them that separate variants of the virus were at work.

But, with only two examples, it is still unclear how frequently reinfections occur. And with 26 million known coronavirus infections worldwide so far, a few reinfections might not be cause to worry yet, says virologist Thomas Geisbert of the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. We need a lot more information on how prevalent this is, he says.

That information might be on the horizon: timing and resources are converging to make it possible to identify more instances of reinfection. Enough time has passed since the initial waves of infection in many countries. Some regions are experiencing fresh outbreaks, providing an opportunity for people to be re-exposed to the virus. Testing has also become faster and more available. The Hong Kong mans second infection, for example, occurred after he had travelled to Spain and was screened for SARS-CoV-2 at the airport on his return to Hong Kong.

A Resurgence Of Symptoms Doesnt Prove Reinfection

How coronavirus benefits were allowed to expire

For every confirmed case of reinfection, there are dozens of anecdotal reports of infected people who were sick and seemingly recovered but then became ill again weeks to months later.

Usually there are crucial data missing in those cases, like a confirmed lab diagnosis, or a virus sample that can be sequenced.

What to Know About Covid-19 Booster Shots

The F.D.A. has authorized booster shots for millions of recipients of the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines. Pfizer and Moderna recipients who are eligible for a booster include people 65 and older, and younger adults at high risk of severe Covid-19 because of medical conditions or where they work. Eligible Pfizer and Moderna recipients can get a booster at least six months after their second dose. All Johnson & Johnson recipients will be eligible for a second shot at least two months after the first.

Yes. The F.D.A. has updated its authorizations to allow medical providers to boost people with a different vaccine than the one they initially received, a strategy known as mix and match. Whether you received Moderna, Johnson & Johnson or Pfizer-BioNTech, you may receive a booster of any other vaccine. Regulators have not recommended any one vaccine over another as a booster. They have also remained silent on whether it is preferable to stick with the same vaccine when possible.

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Cheap Fast Test For Zika And Dengue Could Cost Just $1

This paper, what it does, it shows for the first time the narrow range of antibody concentrations that actually produces enhancement of disease in vivo, said Vasilakis, who was not involved in the study. I have bias against ADE in general, but this is a very good study.

The work was published in the journal Science.

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It comes as one of the UK’s leading Ear, Nose and Throat consultants told Sky News there are new signs for detecting coronavirus in patients.

The British Association of Otorhinolaryngology say asymptomatic patients – ones who do not have a fever or a cough – could show a loss of smell or taste as symptoms after contracting the deadly disease.

They have asked that people experiencing a loss of smell and taste self-isolate to reduce the spread of the virus.

A new study from Wuhan, the epicentre of the coronavirus outbreak, outlines how Covid-19 progresses – with fever, fatigue and shortness of breath all developing at different times.

The analysis includes adults with Covid-19 admitted to Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital after December 29, 2019, who had been discharged or died by January 31, 2020.

Here, with the help of this study, we take you through the coronavirus symptoms timeline and when to expect signs of the killer bug to strike…

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Immunocompromised People Are At Risk Of Reinfection Too

People with immune problems are at a higher risk for COVID-19 reinfection than the general public, which is why the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has authorized booster shots of Pfizer-BioNTechs and Modernas COVID-19 vaccines for immunocompromised individuals.

We always knew that people with immune problems were more likely to have less of a response to the vaccine and more likely to get a second infection after they got the vaccine, Dr. Esper says. Booster shots are designed to help reduce that likelihood.

Protection Against New Variants

Idaho woman in the hospital after getting COVID-19 for second time

This amplification not only makes the immune response more effective, but also helps it last longer.

“Let’s say you need an antibody level of 100 to fight this off. We are, with some of these vaccines, inducing antibody levels of 3,000 and 4,000. So we really are developing just a huge antibody response,” Poland said.

“That accounts for some of these off-target effects, but there’s also a positive to that,” he continued. “Antibody wanes over time, so the higher you start out, the longer you have a protective level of antibody present.”

“As you get to that level of antibody, you get a greater breadth of response. By breadth of response, we mean it covers not only the wild-type and currently circulating virus, but also the variants that we see circulating,” Fauci said during a Monday media briefing of the White House COVID-19 Response Team. “It’s not just a matter of potency. It’s a matter of the breadth of what you can cover.”

One interesting fact to keep in mind, Poland said, is that — because people’s immune response tends to wind down as they age — younger and middle-aged folks will be more likely to have a severe second-shot response than seniors.

“Generally speaking, the older you are, the tendency toward being so immunologically reactive goes down,” Poland said.

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Covid Reinfection Worse The Second Time Around Making Vaccination Even More Essential

As medical experts continue to urge Americans to get the COVID-19 vaccine, some new information suggests the critical importance of vaccination in long-term care. Not only can it protect against initial COVID infections, but it may also prevent reinfections, serious illness, and even deaths.

In one Kentucky nursing home, for example, five residents tested positive twice for the coronavirus in two separate outbreaks three months apart. These outbreaks happened last year, before COVID vaccines were available. Nonetheless, all of these residents had received at least four negative test results between outbreaks, suggesting they were reinfected. Vaccination likely would have prevented these reinfections.

This is particularly significant as the second round of COVID, at least in this situation, appears to cause more severe illness and put people at greater risk of death. Three of the five residents in Kentucky were asymptomatic during the first outbreak, and the other two had mild symptoms. The second time around, however, all residents had more severe illness and one of them died.

Click here to read more about the CDC report and here for the NIH study.

Why People Are Getting Covid

Were seeing more reinfections now than during the first year of the pandemic, which is not necessarily surprising, Dr. Esper says.

The CDC says cases of COVID-19 reinfection remain rare but possible. And with statistics and recommendations changing so quickly and so frequently, that rare status could always change, as well.

Dr. Esper breaks down the reasons behind reinfection.

  • The pandemic has been happening for a while: As we near year two of pandemic life, several hundred million people have now been infected with and recovered from coronavirus. At this point, many of those infections happened months or even a year ago, Dr. Esper says, and the immunity from those initial infections begins to wane over time.
  • Vaccine immunity diminishes with time, too: For Americans who got vaccinated as early as last winter, immunity may be starting to wane as the one-year mark approaches.
  • Weve stopped being as careful: As travel and large events make a comeback, gone are the days of mass vigilance around safety precautions such as masking, handwashing and social distancing all the things that initially kept the virus at bay.
  • New variants are extra-contagious: COVID-19 variants are much more infectious than the first wave of coronavirus. These variants are able to overcome some of the existing immunity people had developed via vaccination or a previous infection, Dr. Esper explains.
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