Production On Home Soil
The global mRNA technology transfer hub was established in South Africa last year to support low and middle-income countries in manufacturing their own mRNA vaccines with the required operating procedures and know-how to meet international standards.
Primarily set up to address the COVID-19 emergency, the hub has the potential to expand its capacity for other manufacturing as well, putting countries in the drivers seat when it comes to the kinds of vaccines needed to address their health priorities.
Depending on the countrys infrastructure, workforce and regulatory capacity, WHO and partners will work with them to develop a roadmap, organize training and provide support to begin producing the highly effective vaccines at home, as soon as possible.
This is an initiative that will allow us to make our own vaccines and thatmeans mutual respectinvestment in our economiesand, in many ways, giving back to the continent, said South Africa President Cyril Ramaphosa.
Mrna Approach To Vaccines
mRNA vaccines take advantage of the process that cells use to make proteins to trigger an immune response and build immunity to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
In contrast, most vaccines use weakened or inactivated versions or components of the disease-causing pathogen to stimulate the bodys immune response to create antibodies.
How Have Mrna Vaccines Been Produced So Rapidly
One of the most exciting aspects of mRNA technology is how rapidly it can be developed to target a particular virus. While traditional vaccines can take years, creating an mRNA-based vaccine that targets a newly discovered virus can be accomplished in a short period of time and primarily requires knowledge of the viral genetic code. This greatly speeds up vaccine development. mRNA vaccines are built on decades of scientific research. For example, NHGRI has long supported research into the development of nucleotide synthesis technologies that allowed for the creation of synthetic RNA and DNA. With the viral sequence in hand, these technologies have been used to make mRNA vaccines a rapid reality.
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Etiology And Pathophysiology Of Covid
COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is an enveloped virus with a positive-strand and single-stranded RNA genome that belongs to the -coronavirus subfamily . The RNA genome of SARS-CoV-2, approximately 30 kb, encodes 14 open reading frames. The 5′-proximal end of the genome encodes two polypeptides, pp1a and pp1b, by a programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift . Two polypeptides are cleaved into 16 non-structural proteins , which mediate the delivery of the viral replication complexes to subcellular domains and viral replication, transcription, and post-transcriptional processes . A surface envelope glycoprotein, Spike , encoded by the 3,822-bp S gene, mediates the viral entry into host cells via binding to its functional receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 , expressed highly in lung alveolar epithelial cells and epithelial cells of many other organs including the heart, kidney, bladder, and ileum , . Therefore, these organs are considered more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 . The primary symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, muscle ache, dizziness, headache, sore throat, rhinorrhea, chest pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting . When the viral load is high or when the infection happens in patients with other severe diseases, the patients often develop acute respiratory syndrome and sepsis in a short time .
/6what Is An Mrna Vaccine
Just like all other COVID-19 vaccines, the mRNA vaccine also aims to trigger an immune response by activating cells to fight the deadly pathogens. Traditional vaccines use inactivated or weakened viruses to activate the immune system, while making sure the virus does not replicate.
In case of Messenger Ribonucleic Acid or mRNA based vaccines, the cells are instructed to make a protein or a piece of coronavirus spike protein that produces an immune response in the body. Active immune cells identify this spike protein and in turn create antibodies needed to battle the deadly SARs-COV-2 virus.
That said, an mRNA technology uses a piece of the DNA to convert into an RNA for a cell to be able to produce the spike protein.
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Dangers Of Mrna Gene Therapy
Ive written many articles detailing the potential and expected side effects of these gene therapy vaccines.
In the lecture above, Dr. Simone Gold founder of Americas Frontline Doctors, which has been trying to counter the false narrative surrounding hydroxychloroquine reviews the dangers discovered during previous coronavirus vaccine trials, and the hazards of current mRNA gene therapies, including antibody-dependent immune enhancement.
Antibody-dependent immune enhancement results in more severe disease when youre exposed to the wild virus, and increases your risk of death. The synthetic RNA and the nanolipid its encased in may also have other, more direct side effects. As explained by Mikovits in our recent interview:
Normally, messenger RNA is not free in your body because its a danger signal. The central dogma of molecular biology is that our genetic code, DNA, is transcribed, written, into the messenger RNA. That messenger RNA is translated into protein, or used in a regulatory capacity to regulate gene expression in cells.
So, taking a synthetic messenger RNA and making it thermostable making it not break down . We have lots of enzymes that degrade free RNA and DNA because, again, those are danger signals to your immune system. They literally drive inflammatory diseases.
Concerns Over Mrna Vaccine
According to Dr. Kenyon, misinformation surrounding mRNA vaccines stems from a concern that the vaccine infects people with the virus.
Nobody is getting infected with a COVID-19 vaccine. It is only the surface protein that would be replicated because we have given you the messenger RNA. It is not the entire virus, he explained.
One misconception is that an mRNA vaccine would not be useful when the virus mutates.
A July 2020 study that appears in Frontiers in Microbiology confirms that the virus mutates. After analyzing 48,635 samples of SARS-CoV-2, the researchers identified an average of 7.23 mutations per sample.
While mutations are a certainty, Dr. Sun said that this should not be a cause for alarm.
There has been an estimated 250,000 variants or strains of SARS-CoV-2 sequenced in the lab. For the most part, the virus has a low mutation rate compared to the mutation rate of the influenza virus , Dr. Sun explained. The spike protein is important for the ability of the virus to infect humans cells. I think it would not mutate enough for the vaccines to be ineffective.
Another concern is whether natural immunity would be more effective than a vaccine. However, a CDC study from November 2021 found that COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are about five times more effective in preventing hospitalization than a previous infection.
Dr. Kenyon said that before any clinical trial can start, a data monitoring and safety board must approve a study protocol.
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Propaganda And Vaccine Rollout Run By Same Company
So, the same company in charge of manipulating the media to propagate government propaganda and censor counterviews is the same company in charge of the rollout of vaccines that are being unlawfully promoted.
Listen,Martin says.This is a pretty straight-forward situation. Youre being lied to. Your own government is violating its own laws They have thrown this book on more people than we can count.
They have shut down practitioners around the country, time and time again, for violating what are called deceptive practices in medical claims Guess what? Theyre doing exactly that thing.
Defense contractors are violating FTC law, and gene therapy companies not vaccine manufacturers are conducting experimental trials under deceptive medical practices. Theyre making claims of being vaccines without clinical proof, and must be held accountable for their deceptive marketing and medical practices.
How Is The New Guidance Different
According to the CDC, people older than 12 and young men who wait as long as eight weeks before getting their second COVID-19 vaccine dose can reduce the small risk of developing myocarditis.
Intervals longer than four weeks can also increase antibody response and vaccine effectiveness.
Lee Wetzler, MD, professor of medicine at Boston University School of Medicine, told Verywell while the new guidance does not apply to or change anything for people who are fully vaccinated, there is evidence that spreading out vaccine doses for longer can enhance immunitya consideration for those who are not vaccinated yet or are waiting to get their second dose.
Waiting six or eight weeks is not as big of a deal as it used to be when we were seeing so many people infected and getting sick, he said. In the midst of the pandemic, we were trying to raise immunity as quickly as possible. Even though theres still disease around now, it appears we have a little more leeway and if we increase the interval, overall immunity seems to be enhanced.
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Masking And Isolating Reduced Omicrons Spread In Homes The Cdc Finds
The Omicron variant of the coronavirus has been so contagious that it may have seemed a foregone conclusion that if one person in a household became ill, other people living there would catch the virus, too.
But that turns out to be less certain: A small study of households by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released on Friday found that when the first person infected wore a mask and stayed in a separate room at least part of the time, the risk of other household members contracting the virus became markedly lower.
Vaccinated people who became infected were also considerably less likely than unvaccinated people to spread the virus to other members of their households.
Still, the study highlighted just how aggressively the Omicron variant had spread within a home, especially among people living with children under 5 who tested positive. Those children, who are not yet eligible for vaccines and often need to be in closer contact with their parents or relatives, spread the virus to 72 percent of household contacts identified in the study the highest rate of any age group, the C.D.C. said.
These findings further highlight young childrens potential contribution to household transmission, C.D.C. scientists wrote in the report.
Federal regulators are waiting for data on how well three doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine work in children under 5 before deciding whether to authorize the vaccine for that age group.
/6how Covishield Differs From Gennovas Mrna Vaccine
Unlike mRNA vaccines, Serum Institutes Covishield uses the viral vector platform. It uses a chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1 a type of common cold virus, which attaches itself to cells and injects DNA that tells the cells to make coronavirus spike protein. Following the production of spike protein, the immune system detects these invaders and creates antibodies. However, clearing all the myths around this type of vaccine, the US-based Center for Disease Control clarifies by saying, “The genetic material delivered by the viral vector does not integrate into a persons DNA.”
Russia-made Sputnik V vaccine, much like Oxford-Astrazeneca , uses a weakened version of the common cold adenovirus strain, that seems like coronavirus but doesn’t cause illness.
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/6covaxin Is An Inactivated Viral Vaccine
Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin is India’s first indigenous vaccine against COVID-19. It is developed with Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell-derived technology, which uses a dead virus, incapable of infecting the host cell or replicating, but still able to command the immune system to mount a defensive reaction against an infection.
In the mRNA technology, the cells in the body are instructed to make a protein or a piece of coronavirus spike protein that produces an immune response.
South Africa Working On Its Own Mrna Vaccines
This isn’t true, Afrigen director Petro Terblanche told DW. Terblanche has led the Hub to replicate the Moderna vaccine and met with Keller in August.
“They are not co-located with the mRNA hub,” Terblanche said. “I am not aware of any other hubs in Africa. They are also not collaborating with the mRNA hub at the moment. I still hope that they will.”
WHO officials, when asked by DW why BioNTech wasn’t co-locating with the South African hub, and why Poetting said the company was co-locating with the hub when hub officials say it is not, said: “Please ask BioNTech that.”
Neither BioNTech nor the Kenup Foundation responded to multiple requests for comment from DW.
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Mrna Vaccines Are Newly Available To The Public But Have Been Studied For Decades
Researchers have been studying and working with mRNA vaccines for decades. Interest has grown in these vaccines because they can be developed in a laboratory using readily available materials. This means vaccines can be developed and produced in large quantities faster than with other methods for making vaccines.
mRNA vaccines have been studied before for flu, Zika, rabies, and cytomegalovirus . As soon as the necessary information about the virus that causes COVID-19 was available, scientists began designing the mRNA instructions for cells to build the unique spike protein into an mRNA vaccine.
Future mRNA vaccine technology may allow for one vaccine to provide protection against multiple diseases, thus decreasing the number of shots needed for protection against common vaccine-preventable diseases.
Beyond vaccines, cancer research has used mRNA to trigger the immune system to target specific cancer cells.
Preclinical And Clinical Results Of Covid
Several experimental approaches are often considered to determine the efficacy of any vaccine. Induction of immune response, concentration of antigen-binding IgG, and antigen-neutralizing titres were determined in many preclinical studies for the seven mRNA vaccines. As summarized in Table , several mRNA vaccines with their experimental data publicized have demonstrated strong immunogenic activity by inducing both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Besides, the dose-dependent geometric mean of the antigen-neutralizing titre was observed on various animal models.
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Who Reveals Countries To Produce First Covid
Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Tunisia will be the first countries on the African continent to receive the technology needed to produce game-changing mRNA vaccines, which have proved crucial to the fight against COVID-19, the head of the UN health agency said on Friday.
The announcement was made at a ceremony hosted by the World Health Organization , the European Council, France and South Africa and with the respective Presidents of each in attendance.
No other event like the COVID-19 pandemic has shown that reliance on a few companies to supply global public goods is limiting, and dangerous, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said.
LIVE: Media briefing on mRNA technology transfer hub “spokes” recipient countries in Africa with . #VaccinEquity
World Health Organization
The revolutionary mRNA technology teaches the bodys own cells how to make a protein that triggers an immune response, without using any viral material. In the case of COVID-19, it produces a harmless piece of the spike protein, alerting the body to defend itself from the virus.
The Beginnings Of Mrna
Malones experiments didnt come out of the blue. As far back as 1978, scientists had used fatty membrane structures called liposomes to transport mRNA into mouse and human cells to induce protein expression. The liposomes packaged and protected the mRNA and then fused with cell membranes to deliver the genetic material into cells. These experiments themselves built on years of work with liposomes and with mRNA both were discovered in the 1960s .
Nik Spencer/Nature Adapted from U. ahin et al. Nature Rev. Drug Discov.13, 759780 and X. Hou et al. Nature Rev. Mater. .
Back then, however, few researchers were thinking about mRNA as a medical product not least because there was not yet a way to manufacture the genetic material in a laboratory. Instead, they hoped to use it to interrogate basic molecular processes. Most scientists repurposed mRNA from rabbit blood, cultured mouse cells or some other animal source.
That changed in 1984, when Krieg and other members of a team led by developmental biologist Douglas Melton and molecular biologists Tom Maniatis and Michael Green at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, used an RNA-synthesis enzyme and other tools to produce biologically active mRNA in the lab a method that, at its core, remains in use today. Krieg then injected the lab-made mRNA into frog eggs, and showed that it worked just like the real thing.
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War Strains Economies In North Africa Already Weakened By The Pandemic
CAIRO On the way to the bakery, Mona Mohammed realized Russias war on Ukraine might have something to do with her.
Ms. Mohammed, 43, said she rarely pays attention to the news, but as she walked through her working-class Cairo neighborhood of Sayyida Zeinab on Friday morning, she overheard a few people fretting about the fact that Egypt imports most of its wheat from Russia and Ukraine.
War meant less wheat war meant more expensive wheat. War meant that Egyptians whose budgets were already crimped from months of rising prices might soon have to pay more for the round loaves of aish baladi, or country bread, that contribute more calories and protein to the Egyptian diet than anything else.
How much more expensive can things get? Ms. Mohammed said as she waited to collect her government-subsidized loaves from the bakery.
Russias invasion of Ukraine this past week threatens to further strain economies across the Middle East already burdened by the pandemic, drought and conflict. As usual, the poorest have had it the worst, reckoning with inflated food costs and scarcer jobs a state of affairs that recalled the lead-up to 2011, when soaring bread prices helped propel anti-government protesters into the streets in what came to be known as the Arab Spring.
In a region where bread keeps hundreds of millions of people from hunger, anxiety at the bakeries spells trouble.