Cases Per Day: Many Or Few
Why bother with an incidence of one case in 10,000 per day? It sounds low. Well, it is high . Just check: in a population like Canadas of 38 million, it comes to 26,600 new cases per week 10 times higher than what Canada experienced at the beginning of July 2021. Last summer, in 2020, in placebo cohorts of RCT vaccine studies the incidence was almost two or roughly four in 10,000 per day.
What We Know About How Well Covid
COVID-19 vaccination reduces the risk of COVID-19 and its potentially severe complications. All COVID-19 vaccines currently authorized for use in the United States helped protect people against COVID-19, including severe illness, in clinical trial settings. So far, that have looked at how COVID-19 vaccines work in real-world conditions have shown that these vaccines are working well.
Most vaccine effectiveness data now available are related to mRNA vaccines because these vaccines have been available longer. CDC and other experts continue to study the effectiveness of both mRNA vaccines and the Johnson & Johnsons Janssen COVID-19 vaccine in real-world conditions.
Do I Still Have To Wear A Mask And Continue Covid
The CDC continues to monitor the spread of COVID-19 and makes recommendations for wearing face masks, both for those who are fully vaccinated as well as those who are not fully vaccinated.
The CDC also recommends that masks and physical distancing are required when going to the doctors office, hospitals or long-term care facilities, including all Johns Hopkins hospitals, care centers and offices.
Johns Hopkins Medicines current mask safety guidelines have not changed, and we still require all individuals to wear masks inside all of our facilities.
Irish Politicians Concerned About Social Distancing At Hurling Final
Irish politicians have expressed concern about the lack of social distancing during the All-Ireland hurling final on Sunday.
Commissioner Drew Harris said gardai had learned some lessons from the match, which saw thousands of people gathered around the stadium.
Everybody was very concerned about the scenes and its hard for people sometimes, Minister for Justice Heather Humphries told reporters on Wednesday.
Ms Humphries was attending the Scott Medal ceremony, awarded to gardai for acts of bravery, at Dublin Castle.
Theyre jubilant about their team winning and you can understand that sometimes people just forget, and that is understandable too, but there is a strong onus on every single one of us to try and take responsibility for what were doing and try and keep our distance, she said.
She said the Cabinet would meet next week to consider all advice and recommendations from the National Public Health Emergency Team meeting on Wednesday.
Which Vaccines Has The Fda Approved And Authorized For Covid
In August 2021, the FDA granted full approval to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech. This vaccine had received emergency use authorization in December 2020. The mRNA COVID-19 vaccine developed by Moderna also received EUA in December 2020. The Johnson & Johnson adenovirus vaccine was granted EUA by the FDA in late February 2021. Use of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine resumed on April 23, 2021, after a temporary pause.
What Are The Differences Between The Two
These two COVID-19 vaccines are very similar. The main differences come in to play in relation to transporting and handling the vaccines. The Pfizer vaccine must be stored at -94° Fahrenheit. The Moderna vaccine needs to be stored at -4° Fahrenheit.
Both teach your immune system to destroy the coronavirus. Both use messenger RNA to instruct your body to build the spike proteins that are on the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Then your immune system kills it and remembers the protein so your body is ready if you’re infected with COVID-19.
Both are very safe and very effective. The Pfizer vaccine is 95% effective against COVID-19, and Modernas vaccine is 94.1% effective. They have similar temporary side effects, and those reactions are stronger after the second shot for both.
There are two differences that impact the public:
- Pfizers vaccine is authorized for people ages 12 and older. Modernas is authorized for people ages 18 and older.
- The two Pfizer doses are given 21 days apart. The two Moderna doses are given 28 days apart.
Finally: What About 50% Vaccine Efficacy
Still, even a vaccine 50 per cent effective is very worthy: it can cut the risk of infections or hospitalizations in half. Actually, the same vaccine could present different efficacies, depending on the event: for severe cases and hospitalizations, Astra Zeneca reported 100 per cent efficacy.
There are more complex analyses in ongoing field studies that involve the related concept of vaccine effectiveness. We touch upon these issues in a recent manuscript not yet published, but this is another chapter in the vaccine story.
Will Booster Doses Of Covid
It is currently too early to say if booster doses will be needed.
There is not yet enough data to understand how long protection from COVID-19 vaccines lasts, so the need for additional doses of the vaccines is not known.
In addition, the impact of the spread of virus variants needs to be considered.
EMA, together with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and national immunisation technical advisory groups in the EU Member States, is reviewing all the data that are becoming available. These include data from clinical trials investigating booster doses and data on the effectiveness of the vaccines from Europe and other parts of the world.
EMA is also engaging with vaccine developers to coordinate the submission of data that relate to booster doses for their vaccines. This aims to ensure that the regulatory steps to enable the use of booster doses, if needed, can be completed rapidly.
Vaccinated People Directly Exposed To Covid
We often hear about rare breakthrough infections in people who are fully immunized, but we rarely talk about all the times vaccinated people didnt get sick after they were directly exposed to someone infected with COVID.
Vaccines were rolled out in the middle of an ongoing pandemic, when infections were actively spreading. Thats never been done before. Because of that dynamic, a good portion of vaccinated people have likely been exposed to COVID-19.
Just look at the : Of the over 123 million people whove been vaccinated, there have only been about 1,600 serious breakthrough cases reported. Almost by definition, people were exposed, Gandhi said. COVID is still spreading, but the vaccines are preventing tons of infections from occurring.
How Long Will Protection From The Covid
Three studies released by the CDC in August 2021 suggest that the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines become less effective over time. The studies, all published in MMWR, show that vaccine protection against mild to moderate infection begins to drop beginning several months after the second dose. However, the vaccines continue to be highly protective against severe illness, hospitalization, and death.
The increase in mild and moderate breakthrough infections may not be entirely due to a decrease in the immunity provided by the vaccines. Its possible the vaccines are not as effective against the Delta variant as they were against previous variants. And safety precautions such as mask wearing and physical distancing have also decreased in the past several months. All these factors may play into increased breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated people.
The MMWR studies did not address the effectiveness of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine over time.
What Is The Connection Between The Johnson & Johnson Covid
In July 2021, the FDA warned that the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine may lead to a small but increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome . GBS is a disorder in which the body destroys its own nerve cells. It can lead to muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis, trouble breathing, or, rarely, death. The risk of developing GBS after receiving the J&J vaccine is very low, and benefits of vaccination still far outweigh the risks.
The FDAs warning was based on preliminary reports of about 100 cases of GBS that occurred in people who had received the J&J vaccine. To date, about 12.8 million people in the US have gotten the J&J vaccine. Most of the reported cases occurred in men ages 50 years and older, about two weeks after vaccination.
Almost all required hospitalization because GBS can affect the nerves to chest muscles and the diaphragm, making it difficult to breathe. Most people recover completely from GBS within a few months, but some never regain full strength.
Seek immediate medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms after receiving the J&J COVID-19 vaccine:
- weakness or tingling sensations, especially in the legs or arms, thats worsening and spreading to other parts of the body
- difficulty walking
- difficulty with facial movement, including speaking, chewing, or swallowing
- double vision or inability to move eyes
- difficulty with bladder control or bowel function.
Efficacy Across Different Groups
A consistently high efficacy was observed in the clinical trials across age groups, sex, race, ethnicity and people with underlying medical conditions.
This means after getting two doses of the Pfizer vaccine, more than 9 out of 10 people are protected against COVID-19 regardless of their age, health status or ethnic group.
How Well Do Covid Vaccines Protect You From Serious Disease
The most important finding from analysing these data is vaccines from AstraZeneca, Pfizer and Moderna appear equivalent in reducing your chance of serious illness from COVID-19. As we show in our recent review, they do this by more than 80%.
These results extend the findings of the randomised trials by showing all ages benefit from the vaccines, and people with underlying chronic diseases experience reduced, but still worthwhile, protection from serious illness.
Efficacy In Young People
Following Medsafe Provisional Approval, the decision to vaccinate young people aged 1215 years has been approved by Vaccine Ministers, Health Officials and Cabinet.
Pfizers study in 12- to 15-year-olds looked for signs of a strong immune response to the vaccine. Pfizer reported 100 percent efficacy in this age group .
Vaccine Protection And Transmission
COVID-19 vaccines are crucial tools in the pandemic response and protect against severe disease and death. Vaccines provide at least some protection from infection and transmission, but not as much as the protection they provide against serious illness and death. More evidence is needed to determine exactly how well they stop infection and transmission.
After being vaccinated, individuals should continue taking simple precautions, such as physical distancing, wearing a mask, keeping rooms well ventilated, avoiding crowds, cleaning hands, and coughing into a bent elbow or tissue. Get tested if you are sick, even if youve been vaccinated. Check local advice where you live and work. Do it all!
Vaccine Clinical Trial Process
Phase one: Checks the safety of a vaccine and determines whether it triggers an immune response in a small group of healthy humans.
Phase two: Widens the testing pool to include groups of people who may have the disease or be more likely to catch it, to gauge the vaccines effectiveness.
Phase three: Expands the pool up to the thousands to make sure the vaccine is safe and effective among a wider array of people, given that immune response can vary by age, ethnicity, or by underlying health conditions.
The COVID-19 candidates, like all vaccines, essentially aim to instruct the immune system to mount a defense, which is sometimes stronger than what would be provided through natural infection and with fewer health consequences.
To do so, traditional vaccines use the whole coronavirus, but in a killed or weakened state. Others use only part of the viruswhether a protein or a fragment. Some transfer the instructions for coronavirus proteins into an unrelated virus that is unlikely or even incapable of causing disease. Finally, cutting-edge vaccines under development rely on deploying pieces of the coronaviruss genetic material, enabling our cells to temporarily make coronavirus proteins needed to stimulate our immune systems.
Is It Good To Have More Than One Vaccine Available
Absolutely. In fact, its highly desirable, says William Schaffner, an infectious disease expert and professor at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, because that would mean there would be more vaccine manufacturers working to actually produce the vaccine, and so we could more expeditiously try to vaccinate the population in the United States and beyond.
Kathleen Neuzil, M.D., professor in vaccinology and director of the Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, echoes Schaffners sentiment and points to the flu vaccine for comparison: There are multiple formulations on the market, including the injectable high-dose vaccine and the nasal spray vaccine, for example, which are recommended for different populations.
We really need every person on Earth, theoretically, to be able to receive this vaccine. So, to me, is a positive, because we need so much, she adds.
Editors note: This article, originally published May 1, 2020, has been updated to reflect new information.
Also of Interest
When Will Children Be Able To Get The Covid
In May 2021, the FDA expanded its emergency use authorization for the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to include adolescents 12 to 15 years old. Previously, the Pfizer vaccine was authorized for use in children 16 years and older, while the Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are authorized for people 18 years and older. Moderna is also conducting age de-escalation studies, in which the vaccines are tested in groups of children of descending age. Johnson & Johnson plans to do the same.
The EUAs extended authorization was based on results from a Phase 3 trial testing its vaccine in children ages 12 to 15. The trial enrolled 2,260 adolescents; half received the Pfizer mRNA vaccine, the other received a saltwater placebo. The immune response in the vaccinated adolescent group was even stronger than that in vaccinated 16- to 25-year-olds enrolled in an earlier study. In addition, a total of 16 symptomatic cases of COVID-19 were reported during the trial, all in the placebo group. Vaccine-related side effects were mild and included pain at the injection site, tiredness, headache, chills, muscle pain, fever, and joint pain. Pfizer has also started testing the vaccine in children younger than 12 years.
The age de-escalation studies are done to confirm that the vaccines are safe and effective for each age group. They also identify the optimal dose, which must be effective, but with tolerable side effects.
How Long Does Protection Against Disease Last
Six months is not much time to collect data on how durable vaccine responses will be, but data could soon emerge from clinical-trial participants who had their first doses last July.
In the meantime, some researchers are looking to natural immunity as a guide. A study in more than 25,000 health-care workers in the United Kingdom found that a SARS-CoV-2 infection reduced the risk of catching the virus again by 84% for at least 7 months. And Abu-Raddad says an unpublished study in Qatar is finding about 90% protection against reinfection as much as a year after a bout of SARS-CoV-2. It seems to suggest that immunity is really strong against this virus, he says. Im optimistic that vaccine immunity is going to last more than a few months and longer than a year, hopefully.
What scientists know about new, fast-spreading coronavirus variants
How soon that booster is needed could depend in part on the rate at which antibody levels decline they could drop precipitously or plateau at a low level. One modelling study estimates that low levels of antibodies will be enough to offer significant protection against severe disease. But Pfizer chief executive Albert Bourla has said that he expects a booster to be needed in about 812 months after the second dose of the PfizerBioNTech vaccine.
What Are Mrna Vaccines And How Do They Work To Help Prevent Covid
mRNA, or messenger RNA, is genetic material that contains instructions for making proteins. mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 contain synthetic mRNA. Inside the body, the mRNA enters human cells and instructs them to produce the “spike” protein found on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The body recognizes the spike protein as an invader, and starts producing antibodies against it. Soon after, the cell breaks down the mRNA into harmless pieces If the antibodies later encounter the actual virus, they are ready to recognize and destroy it before it causes illness.
Two mRNA vaccines, one created by Pfizer and BioNTech and another developed by Moderna, were granted emergency use authorization by the FDA in December 2020. In August 2021, the FDA granted full approval to the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine for use in people ages 16 years and older. The transition from EUA status to full licensure was based on additional data and longer follow-up showing that the vaccine met certain safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing quality standards.
What Are The New Covid Variants
Many variants of COVID-19 have been discovered. There are currently four that the CDC classifies as variants of concerns.
- Alpha First identified in the United Kingdom in late 2020, this variant spread more easily than previous strains. Currently, there is early evidence that suggests this variant may be associated with increased risk of death.
- Gamma This variant, which has spread widely in Brazil and has been detected throughout the Americas, was first detected in January 2021. It contains more mutations than the Alpha strain that may affect its ability to be blocked by therapeutic antibodies or a vaccine.
- Beta This variant, which was first detected in October 2020, shares some mutations with the Brazil variant and is a similar threat in that the mutations affect its ability to be blocked by therapeutic antibodies or a vaccine.
- Delta Initially identified in India in late 2020, this variant is the most highly transmissible of the variants identified so far and may cause more severe illness than other variants. It is projected to become the dominant circulating strain in the United States summer 2021.
Are The Vaccines Safe
Safety is a key concern among health officials and experts. Participants in the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson trials experienced side effects after vaccination, including injection-site pain, fever, chills, headaches, muscle aches and joint pain. These symptoms are temporary and are in line with side effects some people experience from other vaccines, including the flu shot and the vaccine to prevent shingles.
More serious reactions are rarer, but they do occur. On April 13, the CDC and FDA recommended that U.S. vaccination sites pause their use of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine while the agencies review data involving six reported cases of a rare but serious type of blood clot, called cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, in individuals after they received the vaccine. One case was fatal and one patient was in critical condition.
All six cases occurred in women between the ages of 18 and 48, six to 13 days after vaccination. People who recently received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine and develop symptoms of severe headache, abdominal pain, leg pain or shortness of breath within three weeks after vaccination should contact their health care provider, officials say.
On April 23, CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended to the CDC director that the pause be lifted. A notice to women age 50 and under would be added to the fact sheets the government provides to people getting vaccinated.
The latest on how to get the vaccine.
How Effective Are Covid
All authorized vaccines are very good at preventing severe infection, hospitalization and death from COVID-19. The testing methods for the vaccines are not all alike, which makes it difficult to compare them. Johns Hopkins Medicine considers them to be equally effective.
Why is it Important that I Consider Getting the COVID-19 Vaccine?
The Johnson & Johnson Covid
Theres little data that shows how effective the Johnson & Johnson single-shot COVID-19 vaccine is at protecting against the Delta variant. The company is also reportedly researching whether a second shot would boost immunity against the variants.
A recent clinical trial suggested that the vaccine was 85 percent effective against severe disease and demonstrated strong, persistent protection against hospitalization and death.
It also showed that the J&J vaccine prompted neutralizing antibody activity, which stops the virus from infecting healthy cells, against the Delta variant at a higher level than it did for the beta variant.
The Pfizer-BioNTech and AstraZeneca vaccines had shown a decline in effectiveness against the latter in another study.
Interim results from a study involving 20 people have shown that the J&J vaccine neutralized the Delta variant within 29 days of the first shot, and protection improved over time.
Current data for the eight months studied so far show that the single-shot Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine generates a strong neutralizing antibody response that does not wane; rather, we observe an improvement over time. In addition, we observe a persistent and particularly robust, durable cellular immune response, said Dr. Mathai Mammen, the global head of Janssen Research & Development at Johnson & Johnson, in a July 1 press release.
The data has sparked discussions about a possible booster for the one-shot vaccine.
Cnbc Health & Science
White House chief medical officer Dr. Anthony Fauci said fully vaccinated people might want to consider wearing masks indoors as a precaution against the rapidly spreading variant in the U.S.
Health experts are concerned about the fall season, when delta is expected to hit states with the lowest vaccination rates the hardest unless those states and businesses reintroduce mask rules, capacity limits and other public health measures that they’ve largely rolled back.
“That’s something we obviously don’t want to see,” Fauci said Wednesday, noting the so-called breakthrough infections. “This virus is clearly different than the viruses and the variants that we’ve had experience with before. It has an extraordinary capability of transmitting from person to person.”
Dr. Paul Offit, who advises the FDA on Covid vaccines, said while the vaccines still provide excellent protection against severe disease and death, they may not work as well against mild cases or spreading the disease to others.
He urged more Americans to get vaccinated, saying delta is a highly contagious virus and the shots will help people from getting seriously sick. Currently, less than half of the U.S. population is fully vaccinated, according to data compiled by the CDC.
In a statement to CNBC, Pfizer said it remains confident its two-dose regimen is protective against the coronavirus and its variants.
Can I Get Covid
There is no way you can get COVID-19 from the vaccine. The novel coronavirus vaccine includes a small fragment of messanger RNA that encodes for a small portion of the protein. The mRNA cant replicate, and it’s very unstable so it doesn’t last long. It can’t cause COVID-19. None of the COVID-19 vaccines currently in development in the U.S. use the live virus that causes COVID-19.
Will The Covid Vaccine Prevent Me From Infecting Others
Increasing evidence suggests that a person who has been vaccinated is less likely to infect others.
Two studies released in February pointed in this direction. The first study looked at viral load the amount of SARS-CoV-2 virus in a person’s nose and throat, which can be spread to others. The study found that the higher a person’s viral load, the more likely they were to spread the infection; the lower a person’s viral load, the less likely they were to spread the infection. Results from the second study suggested that people who became infected with SARS-CoV-2 after getting a COVID vaccine had a lower viral load than people who were infected but had not had a COVID vaccine. Taken together, the studies suggest that the COVID vaccine protects against both infection and transmission.
A study published in March 2021 showed that people who received an mRNA vaccine had significantly less risk of asymptomatic infection than people who were unvaccinated. This is important because people who are infected but never go on to develop symptoms are responsible for an estimated 24% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.