What Did The Researchers Do
Publishing in a pre-print that has not yet been peer-reviewed, researchers led by Tal Patalon and Sivan Gazit at Maccabi Healthcare Services in Tel Aviv analysed a healthcare database containing information about 2.5 million Israelis. They examined new SARS-CoV-2 infections in people who had never been infected but had been vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, those who were not yet vaccinated but had recovered from COVID-19, and in people who had received one dose of Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine and had also previously had COVID-19.
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Is The Vaccine Safe
COVID-19 vaccines needed to be rolled out quickly, but that does not mean safety was compromised. The Pfizer vaccine we are using in New Zealand is held to the same high safety standards as any other medicine.
COVID-19 vaccines are the most well-studied vaccines ever made. More than 50% of the world’s population have had a COVID-19 vaccine, and more than 3 million people in Aotearoa have had their second Pfizer vaccine. This means we have lots of data to show the Pfizer vaccine has been thoroughly assessed for safety.
- Dr Ashley Bloomfield on safety and development of the Pfizer vaccine
- Vaccinologist Helen Petousis-Harris on the safety of the vaccine
- How the vaccine was made, and its safety
- Sarah’s story: Deciding to get the COVID-19 vaccine while pregnant
- Dr Nikki Turner on the safety of vaccines during pregnancy
How Can I Get My Covid
Is it your first dose? Everyone ages 5+ can now get the COVID-19 vaccine. The Pfizer vaccine is approved for emergency use by the FDA and CDC for those ages 5 to 15. It’s fully approved for those ages 16 and older. The Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are authorized for those 18 and older.
Do you need a booster? Studies show that the protection COVID-19 vaccines offer against the disease and new variants may decrease over time. The FDA and CDC recommend booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine based on your age and which vaccine you initially received:
- A booster dose of the Pfizer vaccine may be given to those ages 12+ at least five months after their second dose.
- A booster dose of the Moderna vaccine may be given to those 18+ at least six months after their second dose.
- A booster of the one-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine may be given at least two months after the initial dose.
We’re working to expand our booster dose appointment availability at our vaccine sites for children ages 12 to 15 in the coming weeks. However, they may be able to receive a booster dose immediately at their regularly scheduled primary care appointment.
The FDA and CDC have also authorized receiving a booster dose of a different vaccine brand than your initial vaccine brand. For example, if you received an initial dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, you can receive a Pfizer or Moderna booster dose.
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How Do Vaccines Work
Vaccines stimulate the human bodyâs own protective immune responses so that, if a person is infected with a pathogen, the immune system can quickly prevent the infection from spreading within the body and causing disease. In this way, vaccines mimic natural infection but without actually causing the person to become sick.
For SARS-CoV-2, antibodies that bind to and block the spike protein on the virusâs surface are thought to be most important for protection from disease because the spike protein is what attaches to human cells, allowing the virus to enter our cells. Blocking this entrance prevents infection.
Not all people who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop disease . These people have asymptomatic infection but can still transmit the virus to others.
Johnson & Johnson Says Covid Booster Shot Produces Strong Immune Response
In a study posted to the preprint server BioRxiv, researchers at Rockefeller University in New York City looked at how different types of immunity would protect against potential variants. To do so, they designed a modified version of the coronavirus spike protein with 20 naturally occurring mutations to test how antibodies would work against it.
These modified spike proteins were tested in lab dishes against antibodies from people who had recovered from Covid-19, from those who had been vaccinated and from those who had hybrid immunity. The spike proteins were able to evade the antibodies from the first two groups, but not antibodies from people with hybrid immunity.
Another study, from researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, found among those who had been previously infected, vaccination reduced the risk of reinfection by more than twofold, compared to natural infection alone.
NBC News app for full coverage of the Covid-19 pandemic
The immunological advantage from hybrid immunity, according to Crotty, stems in part from what are called memory B cells: immune cells that churn out the antibodies that fight off the virus.
Memory B cells are basically antibody factories with the lights turned off, Crotty said. If the virus gets past your first line of defense, which is the circulating antibodies, the memory B cells can turn on and make more antibodies.
Memory B cells are basically antibody factories with the lights turned off.
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The Impact Of The Study
Researchers said their study revealed that in Kentucky residents who had COVID-19 in late 2020, those who remained unvaccinated were 2.34 times more likely to contract the virus again than those who were fully vaccinated.
While the report supports the notion that an infection offers some immunological boost for about 90 days, it points to a higher symptomatic disease rate among the unvaccinated.
In addition, said Miller, those initial cases came before the Delta variant had officially come on the scene in the United States.
This is really critical , said Alyson Cavanaugh , DPT, MPH, PhD, an author of the study who serves as a CDC epidemic intelligence service officer.
Physicians and all healthcare providers are asked about this all the time, Cavanaugh told Healthline. They want and now have the science behind it.
Experts hope the findings persuade those whove had the disease to get vaccinated.
That this was done pre-Delta makes this even more compelling, Miller noted. If you had COVID-19 , chances are you had the Wuhan or the Alpha. With Delta out there a stronger virus we all need to pay attention to this information. I do think this will help .
Joan Parker of Tennessee had COVID-19 last fall.
Nevertheless, the findings from the CDC report arent changing her plans to get vaccinated.
Ive decided until my job requires it or it directly impacts travel , Im not getting the vaccine yet, Parker told Healthline. Never saying never. Just not right now.
Why You Still Need Vaccinations
Being infected with COVID-19 does not provide the same level of protection as vaccination.
Although your antibodies will be high after an infection its unknown how long this natural immunity will keep you protected from another COVID-19 infection.
Getting your COVID-19 vaccinations is your best defence against COVID-19 and can help protect you against future variants of COVID-19.
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When Can Children Get The Vaccine
While children are less likely to develop severe disease and die from Covid-19, there are several reasons for ensuring that eventually there is a vaccine that is safe and effective for children. Although rare, some children may develop severe disease or die from Covid-19. Children have also developed a severe inflammatory syndrome, called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Children may be important transmitters of SARS-CoV-2 and vaccinating them with a vaccine that reduces transmission could be important in controlling the pandemic. Finally, having a safe vaccine for children will build confidence towards opening up schools and learning centers for in-person educational processes.
Both the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are being studied in children as young as 12 years of age. These studies typically involve several thousand children, and not the tens of thousands studied in phase 3 trials in adults. Assuming the vaccines are safe and effective, the vaccines will be studied in younger and younger children. Studies of the Moderna vaccine in children 1 to 11 years of age may start soon.
Latest Coronavirus News As Of Midday 25 April
Only 29 per cent of people who were hospitalised with covid-19 in the UK feel fully recovered one year later
Rachael Evans at the University of Leicester, UK, and her colleagues looked at 2320 people in the UK who were discharged from hospital, after being admitted with covid-19, between March 2020 and April 2021. All the participants were assessed five months later, while a third were also assessed one year post-discharge.
Symptoms most commonly fatigue, muscle pain, poor sleep and breathlessness persisted in 74 per cent of the participants five months later, decreasing slightly to 71 per cent at one year.
The limited recovery from five months to one year after hospitalisation in our study across symptoms, mental health, exercise capacity, organ impairment, and quality-of-life is striking, Evans said in a statement.
While severe covid-19 is more common among males, the female participants were 32 per cent less likely to feel fully recovered one year on. Obesity and having had mechanical ventilation were linked to the participants being 50 and 58 per cent less likely to feel fully recovered, respectively.
Given that more than 750,000 people have been hospitalised in the UK with covid-19 over the past two years, it is clear from our research that the legacy of this disease is going to be huge, said Evans.
Other coronavirus news
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How Did The Process For Approving Covid
Traditionally, it has taken many years to develop a vaccine, confirm its safety and efficacy, and manufacture the vaccine in sufficient quantities for public use. This timeline has been substantially shortened for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. There are several ways this has been made possible. First, some clinical trials have combined phases 1 and 2 to assess safety and immune responses. Second, because of the high number of new cases of Covid-19 in many places, differences in disease risk between those who received the viral vaccine and those who received the placebo or comparison vaccine can be measured more quickly than in the absence of a pandemic. Third, the United States government and others heavily invested in building the manufacturing capacity to produce large numbers of vaccine doses before the findings of the phase 3 trials were available. Typically, vaccine manufacturers wait until the phase 3 trial is completed and shows safety and efficacy before making such a large investment in manufacturing capacity. None of these factors that contribute to the accelerated development of a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 imply that safety, scientific or ethical integrity are compromised, or that short-cuts were made.
Johns Hopkins experts in global public health, infectious disease, and emergency preparedness have been at the forefront of the international response to COVID-19.
Stick To The Facts Not Myths
Despite what you may have seen from unreliable sources:
- The COVID-19 vaccine cannot make you sick with COVID-19
- Natural immunity created by contracting COVID-19 may not last very long, so even if you have had the virus, you should still get a vaccine and
- All vaccines currently available in the United States for adults do not change or interact with your DNA in any way.
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Can I Receive Different Vaccine Types
Again, the scientific data from the large phase 3 trials of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Covid-19 vaccines demonstrated high protective efficacy when the second dose was the same vaccine as the first dose. These vaccines are not interchangeable and the safety and efficacy of combinations of vaccines have not been evaluated. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently stated that, in exceptional situations in which the first-dose vaccine product cannot be determined or is no longer available, any available mRNA Covid-19 vaccine may be administered to complete the mRNA Covid-19 vaccination series.
Should You Get The Covid
As COVID-19 cases continue to soar, millions of Americans are anxiously awaiting a COVID-19 vaccine that will allow us to return to some level of normalcy. With one vaccine receiving FDA approval for emergency use and others on the horizon, you likely have some questions including whether or not you should get the vaccine if you’ve already had COVID-19.
According to the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention, people who have recovered from the virus may have developed some form of immunity, but the duration and extent of that immunity are unknown. There have already been cases of people getting COVID-19 twice, indicating that contracting the virus doesn’t automatically mean that you’ll be spared from it long-term. So, when the vaccine becomes available to you, should you get it?
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Do People Who Have Had Covid
People who have had COVID-19 and recovered should still be vaccinated.
The protection someone gains from having COVID-19 varies from person to person.
Because this virus is new, experts dont yet know how long any natural immunity might last.
This is why vaccination is so important to protect people from severe disease.
Even if you have already had COVID-19, you should still get the COVID-19 vaccine when you can.
Read more about vaccination after testing positive to COVID-19.
You should discuss any treatments you had with your doctor before you get vaccinated.
With new COVID-19 vaccine developments every day, its normal to have questions or concerns, and possibly feel hesitant about getting a vaccine. That’s why we’re providing accurate, evidence-based answers to questions about COVID-19 vaccines.
Who Should Not Receive Covid
- Current vaccines are not authorized for children younger than 5 years of age
- Individuals who have had severe allergic reactions to other vaccines or injectable therapies should not get vaccinated against COVID-19. Those with other allergies may be vaccinated but should remain at the vaccination site for 15-30 minutes for observation, following vaccination.
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Children Cannot Get Vaccinated
Those 16 and under cannot get a vaccine at this time. “I don’t think we’re going to see it in the first half of this coming year,” Dr. Jose Romero, the chair of the CDC’s Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices, said during an interview on MSNBC. “We need to see how the studies progress. We need to see that data in order to make sure that it is safe and effective in children.” So get vaccinated when it becomes available to youand to ensure your health and the health of others, don’t miss these Signs Your Illness is Actually Coronavirus in Disguise.
Eat This, Not That!
Is There A Specific Vaccine That’s Best For People Who Have Had Covid
Based on what is known at this time, there isn’t a specific vaccine that’s best for this group. “Right now we have good data on three vaccines,” Dr. Fichtenbaum said. “Each of them appears to stimulate good immune responses. We don’t have any information to say that one vaccine might be better than another. Time will tell.”
As always, consult with your physician if you have any questions or concerns about getting the vaccine if you’ve already had COVID. They will have the most up-to-date information when the vaccine becomes available.
POPSUGAR aims to give you the most accurate and up-to-date information about the coronavirus, but details and recommendations about this pandemic may have changed since publication. For the latest information on COVID-19, please check out resources from the WHO, CDC, and local public health departments.
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Will People Who Have Already Had Covid
Yes. Once they have completed their isolation period, people previously infected with COVID-19 should receive the vaccine. According to the CDC, people appear to become susceptible to reinfection after more than 90 days from the time they were initially infected. Reinfection appears to be rare during the first 90 days after someone was infected with COVID-19. It is currently unknown how long immunity from natural infection lasts, and being vaccinated can help prevent re-infection, serious illness, hospitalization and death.
What Is An Emergency Use Authorization
The FDA can issue an Emergency Use Authorization to allow the use of unapproved medical products in an emergency to diagnose, treat, or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions when specific criteria have been met, including that there are no adequate, approved, and available alternatives.
Manufactures submit a request for an EUA to the FDA which is reviewed, and a determination is made by the FDA about authorizing the EUA.
On Aug. 23, 2021, the FDA issued full approval of the Pfizer vaccine for those 16 and older. This full approval further indicates how safe and effective the vaccines are.
Under 18 years
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The Cdc’s Official Recommendations
The CDC currently recommends that people get vaccinated against COVID-19, even if theyve had the virus. There are some caveats, though. The CDC recommends waiting 90 days before getting a COVID-19 vaccine if you received a monoclonal antibody or convalescent plasma treatment when you had the virus. If you have a history of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults or children , the CDC also recommends delaying the vaccine until youve recovered and its been 90 days since you were diagnosed.
First People Whove Had Covid Should Definitely Still Get Vaccinated And Get Boosted If Theyre Eligible
From the get-go, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been pretty clear: You should get vaccinated even if youve already had COVID-19. You should also still get vaccinated if you happen to get COVID in between your two doses of the mRNA vaccines, though you should wait until you no longer have symptoms and you meet the CDCs criteria for ending quarantine.
Thats because natural immunity simply doesnt last all that long. We know that antibody levels in people infected start to drop off fairly rapidly, they drop off within a month to two, said Inessa Gendlina, director of infectious diseases at Montefiore Health System.
She added that antibody levels dont tell the full picture: T-cells are also activated when building immunity to a disease and those are much more difficult to measure. This is why its recommended that you still get vaccinated if youve had COVID and recovered.
Beyond that, you should still get a booster like everyone else. Meaning, if youre in one of the eligible groups and it has been six months or more since you received one of the mRNA vaccines or two months since you got Johnson & Johnson, you should get another shot, or at least talk to your doctor about whether its a good time for you to do so.
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