China Cdc / Tongji University / Stermirna Therapeutics Co
Status: The project for the development of an mRNA vaccine targeting the novel coronavirus has been urgently approved, said Shanghai East Hospital of Tongji University. The vaccine will be co-developed by the hospital and Stermirna Therapeutics Co., Ltd. Li Hangwen, CEO of Stermirna Therapeutics, said no more than 40 days will be needed to manufacture the vaccine samples based on the new generation of mRNA technology and some preliminary procedures. The production cycle of traditional vaccines can be as long as five to six months, whereas the mRNA vaccine has the advantage of a shorter development and production cycle.
About: The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention is an independent agency of the National Health Commission based in Beijing, China.
About: Tongji University is a comprehensive university located in Shanghai. Established in 1907 by the German government together with German physicians in Shanghai, Tongji is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in China. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University.
About: Arcturus Therapeutics is an RNA medicines company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of therapeutics for rare diseases.
Are They Suitable For People Who Are Immunocompromised
Although vaccines are usually safe for people who are immunocompromised, people who are severely so are sometimes advised to avoid live vaccines, because even the weakened virus can make them very sick. Encouragingly, early studies suggest that all four of the vaccine technologies currently being used are suitable for people who are immunocompromised, and as none of these technologies use ‘live’ virus, they should not pose a problem in this respect.
Bottom Line Get The Vaccine
I really believe that people should not get caught up in one type of vaccine versus the other, says Dr. Varga. No matter which one you get, you should get the protection youre looking for against this ugly virus.
To put it into perspective, the flu vaccine varies from 40-60% effective each year. What we have here is three extremely effective vaccines that together, will help us ultimately defeat COVID-19. I encourage everyone to get vaccinated once youre eligible.
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How The Three Vaccines Compare
The three vaccines that have received EUA in the United States were developed by Pfizer-BioNtech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson.
Heres how the three vaccines compare:
- All three vaccines are extremely effective against COVID-19
- The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines require two doses, while the Johnson & Johnson vaccine requires one dose
- The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are mRNA vaccines, while the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is a viral vector vaccine
- mRNA: mRNA stands for messenger ribonucleic acid and can generally be described as instructions for your body on how to make a protein or even just a piece of a protein. mRNA is not able to alter or modify a persons genetic makeup, or DNA. The mRNA from a COVID-19 vaccine never enter the nucleus of the cell, which is where our DNA are kept. Instead, COVID-19 vaccines that use mRNA work with the bodys natural defenses to safely develop protection to the disease
- viral vector: A gene code unique to SARS-CoV-2 helps produce a spike protein and display it on the cells surface. Once on the surface of the cell, it causes the immune system to begin producing antibodies and activating T-cells to fight off what it thinks is an infection
- Side effects are fairly similar, with the most common being pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache and muscle aches
- Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are available for people ages 18 years and older, while the Pfizer vaccine includes those 16 and older
Two Of The Vaccine Candidates Use Something Called An Adenovirus What Is That And Why Is It Used
Adenoviruses are viruses that can cause the common cold. We as humans have them, monkeys have them, as do other animals. For years, people have been using these viruses to deliver DNA, which are instructions for proteins. For the COVID-19 vaccine, researchers swap in a gene from SARS-CoV-2. When the vaccine is given to someone, the modified cold virus makes the SARS-CoV2 protein, which stimulates the immune response.
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A Simple Breakdown Of The Ingredients In The Covid Vaccines
Three COVID-19 vaccines have been granted Emergency Use Authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration since mid-December 2020. Prior to authorization by the FDA, these vaccines underwent the same rigorous safety and effectiveness standards as all other vaccines. Quickly, vaccine distribution began, starting with health care professionals on the frontlines of patient care.
Once available to the broader public, its critical that a high percentage of the population receive the vaccine in order to achieve herd immunity against COVID-19. Herd immunity occurs when most of a population is immune to an infectious disease and provides indirect protection to those who are not immune to the disease.
There have been many rumors flying around on the internet about whats in the vaccine. Some rumors even suggested that the vaccines contain gluten, wheat, eggs and even bee venom! All of that is simply, untrue.
If youre among the many wondering whats actually in it? and, is it safe to receive the injection?, keep reading.
Coronavirus Vaccine And Covid Variant Updates For 12
This is Vaccine 411, the latest coronavirus vaccine information for December 21st, 2021.
Moderna said a booster of its vaccine looks like it protects against Omicron in lab testing and this current version of the shot can still be a “first line of defense against Omicron.” With Omicron spreading as fast as it is, the company didnt see where there would be time to develop an Omicron-specific vaccine.
A win for Novavax. The EU gave the go ahead to its vaccine for use in the 27-nation bloc, making it the fifth approved COVID vaccine. Its two-doses and right now its only for people 18 and older. If you dont like new things, this is a protein vaccine that uses older technology thats been around for years. Novavax is currently testing how its vaccine holds up against Omicron.
Few are denying Omicron is a rapid spreader, highly contagious. In very short order, its become the dominant version of the coronavirus in the U.S., accounting for 73% of new infections last week. Thats almost a six-fold increase in Omicron’s share. Consider that you only started hearing about it as recently as November 26.
In the United States cases were up 21%, deaths are up 9%, and hospitalizations are up 16% over 14 days. The 7-day average of new cases has been trending up since December 14.
The five states that had the most daily deaths per 100,000 are Michigan, Arizona, Alaska, Pennsylvania, and Ohio.
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Chinese Academy Of Medical Sciences
ZyCoV-D, is a DNA plasmid based COVID-19 vaccine developed by the Indian-based pharmaceutical company Cadila Healthcare with support from the Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council.
Next Steps & Resources:
- Meet our clinical contributor: Juan Ravell, M.D., division chief of allergy and immunology at Hackensack University Medical Center
- Hackensack Meridian Health has appointments available for Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines. to get your appointment within 24 hours. To make an appointment with a doctor near you, call or visit our website.
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How Will We Know If The Vaccines Work
With most vaccines, people talk about correlates of protection what you observe and the immune response are correlates or predict whether you will be immune or not. With most vaccines in the past, such as the vaccines for measles, hepatitis B and seasonal flu, a good antibody response is correlated with being protected. Specifically, something called a neutralizing antibody response prevents the virus from infecting the cell.
One Of The Vaccine Candidates Uses Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus What Is That
Vesicular stomatitis virus is a virus that primarily infects livestock . Here, it is being used as a vector delivery system, much like the human or chimpanzee adenoviruses. The modified vesicular stomatitis virus delivers the instructions for the SARS-CoV-2 protein into cells. This recombinant candidate works really well against Ebola and has been proven in the field people developed immunity to Ebola pretty quickly after getting vaccine.
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Determining Whats Right For You
According to Dr. Varga, you should be open to receiving any vaccine thats available to you. All three of the vaccines that received EUA are extremely effective against COVID-19, he says. They each provide protection against severe COVID-19 illness and death. Thats the most important thing.
Some people are concerned that the efficacy of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is slightly lower than Pfizer and Moderna, but experts advise the public not to worry. Dr. Anthony Fauci, the White House Chief Medical Advisor, shared with NBC, If you go to a place and you have J& J, and thats the one thats available now, I would take it, Fauci said. I personally would do the same thing. I think people need to get vaccinated as quickly and as expeditiously as possible.
Some Johnson & Johnson Benefits include:
- It provides excellent protection against COVID-19 related hospitalizations and deaths
- You dont have to worry about getting a second shot
- It doesnt require special storage, like the Pfizer vaccine that needs to be stored in ultra-cold freezers
Having the Johnson & Johnson vaccine available opens up so many doors and will get us closer to herd immunity, faster, says Dr. Varga. Between the one-dose option and the standard storage requirements, theres increased opportunity to get the shot into the arms of more people across the globe.
Why Are There So Many Vaccines In Development
Typically, many vaccine candidates will be evaluated before any are found to be both safe and effective. For example, of all the vaccines that are studied in the lab and laboratory animals, roughly 7 out of every 100 will be considered good enough to move into clinical trials in humans. Of the vaccines that do make it to clinical trials, just one in five is successful. Having lots of different vaccines in development increases the chances that there will be one or more successful vaccines that will be shown to be safe and efficacious for the intended prioritized populations.
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The Four Types Of Covid
Over the past month, a number of COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for general or emergency use in the Middle East and North Africa . Understandably, there remains confusion over which one to choose for example, should it be based on technology? On which one has the most advantages? Or simply on the one a countrys government chooses?
Were not here to tell you which type of vaccine to choose – that is, and should be, your own choice. However, what we can agree on is that all vaccines work by exposing the human body to particles or molecules that trigger an immune response, thus protecting the subject from future infection. The key difference between the four main types of vaccines is the method of exposure used.
Here are the key differences.
1) WHOLE VIRUS VACCINE
Vaccines include: Sinopharm, Sinovac
Number of doses required: 2 doses, intramuscular
Other licensed vaccines that use this type of technology: Hepatitis A, polio, rabies
What to know: The whole virus vaccine uses a weakened or deactivated form of the pathogen that causes COVID-19 to trigger protective immunity to it.
The two vaccines mentioned above Sinopharm and Sinovac both use inactivated pathogens, therefore they cannot infect cells and replicate, but can trigger an immune response.
Challenges: Booster shots may be required.
2) RNA or mRNA VACCINE
Vaccines include: Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna
Number of doses required: 2 doses, intramuscular
Vaccines include: Oxford-AstraZeneca, Sputnik V
How To Get Your Covid
If you’re aged 16 or over you can:
- find a walk-in COVID-19 vaccination site to get vaccinated without needing an appointment
- wait to be contacted by your GP surgery and book your appointments with them
If you cannot book appointments online, you can call 119 free of charge. You can speak to a translator if you need to.
If you have difficulties communicating or hearing, or are a British Sign Language user, you can use textphone 18001 119 or the NHS 119 BSL interpreter service.
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Which Vaccine Will I Get
You cannot usually choose which vaccine you have. When you book, you’ll only be offered appointments for vaccines that are suitable for you.
Most people can have any of the COVID-19 vaccines, but some people are only offered certain vaccines.
- if you’re pregnant or under 40 you’ll usually be offered appointments for the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna vaccines
- if you’re under 18, you’ll only be offered the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine
You should have the same vaccine for both doses, unless you had serious side effects after your 1st dose.
A Quick Breakdown Of The 3 Different Covid Vaccines
As of February 27, there are now three COVID-19 vaccines that have received emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. Each vaccine is a little different, but they all have the same goal of protecting you from COVID-19.
Daniel Varga, M.D., chief physician executive at Hackensack Meridian Health shares some key differences and what you should consider when getting the COVID vaccine.
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The Coronavirus Pandemic: Key Things To Know
Around the world.In Europe, the Netherlands, Britain and Denmark adopted tough restrictions, while France, Spain and Italy are betting on a more measured approach. New Zealand pushed back a phased opening of its borders, and Thailand said it was pausing a quarantine-free travel program.
Much of Latin America has relied on the Chinese and Russian vaccines, and on AstraZeneca. Mario Rosemblatt, a professor of immunology at the University of Chile, said that more than 90 percent of Chileans had had two doses of one vaccine, but the great majority of these were Coronavac, the Sinovac shot. High vaccination coverage combined with early reports that Omicron does not cause serious illness is leading to a false sense of security in the country, he said.
We have to get people to understand that it doesnt work like that: If you get high transmissibility youre going to have the health system saturated because the number of people getting ill will be higher, he said.
Brazil has recommended that all vaccinated people get a third dose, and it started using Pfizers vaccine for all boosters, but only 40 percent of the vaccinated have turned up to get the extra shot. Dr. Amilcar Tanuri, a virologist at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, said with cautious optimism that the high levels of previous Covid exposure might blunt Omicrons impact but noted that the most vulnerable Brazilians, vaccinated first, got Coronavac, and tens of millions more were given AstraZeneca.
Fudan University / Shanghai Jiaotong University/ Rnacure Biopharma
Type: LNPencapsulated mRNA cocktail encoding VLP
Status: The scientists are employing two strategies to develop mRNA vaccines against COVID-19. One is to use mRNA to express the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of COVID-19 to induce neutralizing-antibodies in human body. The other, which the research team has been placing the most emphasis on, is to formulate mRNAs that can instruct the host to produce virus-like particles , with morphological and structural features similar to those of native COVID-19 viruses and activate immune responses. After extensive optimization, the research team formulated an mRNA cocktail containing three genes of COVID-19, which produce VLPs when used to co-transfect human cells. This is the first time the world has witnessed modified mRNAs that can synthesize VLPs. Observation under an electron microscope reveals the VLPs close resemblance to the COVID-19 virus, suggesting it might be a good choice for the vaccine.
About: Fudan University is a major public research university in Shanghai, China. It is widely considered as one of the most prestigious and selective universities in China.
About: Shanghai Jiao Tong University is a major research university in Shanghai. Established on April 8, 1896 as Nanyang Public School by an imperial edict issued by the Guangxu Emperor, it has been referred to as The MIT of the East since the 1930s.
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When Will The Coronavirus Vaccines Be Rolled Out
Many of the approved coronavirus vaccines are currently being administered across the UK.
The Pfizer vaccine has been approved for use in the UK. On 2 December, the government announced: The vaccine will be made available across the UK from next week. The first person to receive the coronavirus vaccine was 90-year-old Margaret Keenan, on 8 December.
Almost a month after the rollout of the vaccine developed by Pfizer, the jab from the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca was approved and in January 2021 began being administered in hospitals and GPs across England.
After being approved on 7 January, the first doses of the Moderna vaccine were given in early April.
The Janssen vaccine was approved at the end of May with the first doses expected towards the end of the summer.
There Are Four Types Of Covid
The fight against COVID-19 has seen vaccine development move at record speed, with more than 170 different vaccines in trials. But how are they different from each other and how will they protect us against the disease?
There are more vaccine candidates simultaneously in the pipeline for COVID-19 than ever before for an infectious disease. All of them are trying to achieve the same thing immunity to the virus, and some might also be able to stop transmission. They do so by stimulating an immune response to an antigen, a molecule found on the virus. In the case of COVID-19, the antigen is typically the characteristic spike protein found on the surface of the virus, which it normally uses to help it invade human cells.
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