Do People With An Underlying Health Condition Need A Third Dose And A Booster
The Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation has recommended a third dose of a COVID-19 vaccine as part of the primary vaccination course in people who are severely immunocompromised.
This recommendation applies to all individuals aged 5 years and over with certain conditions or on therapies leading to severe immunocompromise. This is to address the risk of suboptimal or non-response to the standard 2-dose schedule.
The third dose is intended to maximise the level of immune response to as close as possible to the general population. Third doses are NOT the same as booster shots.
ATAGI recommends that people aged 16 or older with severe immunocompromise receive a booster dose if 3 months has passed since they completed their 3-dose primary course.
Adults With Underlying Health Conditions
First Dose Appointments
If you have not not received your invitation for COVID-19 vaccination you can .
Second Dose Appointments
If you have not not received your invitation for second dose COVID-19 vaccination ten weeks after your first dose you can .
First Booster Programme
Our booster programme is under way. Please check our page for further information.
if it is more than three months since your second dose and you have not received your invitation.
Spring Booster Programme
People under 75 are not eligible for a spring booster unless they have severe immunosuppression or are a resident of a care home for older adults. .
More information about COVID-19 vaccination in Powys is available from our COVID-19 vaccination page.
Please note that national factors such as vaccine approval & availability, and changes to national policy & guidance, will impact on the delivery of our COVID-19 vaccination programme in Powys. This does mean that the information on this page is subject to change. Please keep checking back for the latest information.
About the Adults with Underlying Health Conditions Priority Group
Adults age 16 to 64 with specific underlying health conditions are priority group 6 in the national priority groups for COVID-19 vaccination from the UK’s independent .
National guidance from the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation also recommend that should also be offered vaccination alongside these groups.
Diabetes As A Risk Factor For Covid
People who have diabetes are at increased risk of getting very sick from the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes both cause an increase in blood sugar. Poorly controlled blood sugar can make viral diseases, including COVID-19, more dangerous, possibly because higher blood sugar can create an environment where viruses are likely to thrive.
Also, diabetes increases inflammation and weakens the immune system, making it harder for people with the condition to fight off disease in general.
People with diabetes should adhere to their medication regimens and do everything possible to keep their blood sugar under control. Having an adequate supply of medications and staying in close touch with your doctor can add to your peace of mind. Also, get vaccinated for COVID-19 and take measures to protect yourself from infection.
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Summary Of Conditions With Evidence
Mortality Rate Based On Sex Age And Underlying Health Conditions
Figure 1 shows the mortality rate based on sex and the presence or absence of underlying health conditions. The proportion of COVID-19 patients without underlying health conditions was higher than that of patients with underlying health conditions however, the mortality rate was higher in COVID-19 patients with underlying health conditions. In other words, the probability of death for patients with underlying health conditions, P, was 0.12, which was 4 times higher than that of patients with no underlying health conditions, P = 0.03. Specifically, the proportion of COVID-19 patients with and without underlying health conditions was 37.6% and 62.4%, respectively however, 70.4% of the total number of deaths occurred in patients with underlying health conditions, and only 29.6% of deaths occurred in patients without an underlying disease . The mortality rate was 1.8 times as high in men than in women . The proportions of men and women among the study participants were similar however, 64.9% and 35.1% of deaths occurred in men and women, respectively .
The average ages of discharged and deceased patients with COVID-19 were 41.4 y and 60.8 y, respectively. Expressly, patients with COVID-19 who died were approximately 20 y older than those who survived. Therefore, age was an important determining factor of the mortality rate. Hence, we evaluated the mortality rates of the following age groups: 0-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, 81+ y.
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People At Higher Risk
People over 65 are at the highest risk of serious illness from COVID-19 if they have not been vaccinated.
Serious illness means that you may need to go to hospital, an intensive care unit , or be put on a ventilator to help you breathe. There is also a risk of death.
Having a weak immune system puts you at higher risk. If you have a weak immune system, you should have had your first round of vaccination, an additional dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and a booster dose.
You are also at higher risk from COVID-19 if you have certain medical conditions.
There are 2 levels of higher risk:
The list of people in very high risk groups include people who:
The list of people in high risk groups includes people who:
This Means The Risk For Healthy Young People Is Very Low But Not Zero
It is clear that certain common underlying conditions pose a significant risk for death from COVID-19 for young people. However, the risk of death for healthy children is not zero. As millions of children have contracted COVID-19, rare risks have added up. According to the CDCs COVID data tracker, 805 children younger than 18 years have died of COVID-19 thus far. If 20% of decedents were healthy, this means that around 161 healthy children have died of COVID-19 in the USA. 161 dead children isnt nothing at least I feel that way. Its less than the number of children who drown per year, but its more than the number of children who die from school shootings or bike accidents each year, as well as from other multiple other vaccine-preventable diseases before vaccines were available.
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People Who Are Pregnant
Evidence shows that pregnant people may be at greater risk of poor outcomes if infected with COVID-19. It is recommended that all pregnant and recently pregnant people are up-to-date with their COVID-19 vaccinations. Vaccinated mothers pass immunity to their unborn children.
Talk to your midwife, GP or nurse practitioner around your risk of getting COVID-19, given your home and work environment. You may need to take extra precautions to keep yourself safe.
Children at higher risk of severe disease from COVID-19 include:
- infants under the age of 1 month
- children under the age of 2 who was born premature
- children with multiple chronic conditions.
Are There Degrees Of Risk
The government has recommended that 1.5 million people in the UK at highest risk of complications from coronavirus should stay at home and not go out under any circumstances. They should also be avoiding any contact within their home unless it’s essential or unless the person they live with is doing the same. This is called ‘shielding‘.
These are people whose immune system is most compromised – either because of illness such as sickle cell disease or cystic fibrosis, or because of treatment such as cancer therapies or organ transplant rejection medication.
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Additional Advice And Services For People At High Risk
If you, your child or someone you live with continues to be at high risk of getting seriously ill from COVID-19, you may be eligible for:
There is also extra advice on keeping yourself safe if you’re at high risk from COVID-19.
The NHS will usually contact you to let you know you are eligible for treatments or additional COVID-19 vaccinations.
If you think you’re eligible for an additional primary dose of the COVID-19 vaccine or a spring booster but have not been contacted, you can book a COVID-19 vaccination online or find a walk-in COVID-19 vaccination site.
Can I Get The Vaccine If I Have An Autoimmune Disease
Experts believe that people with autoimmune conditions may get a COVID-19 vaccine. The COVID-19 vaccines authorized for use in the U.S. do not use live viruses and may be safely given to immunocompromised people.
However, no data are currently available on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines for people with autoimmune conditions.
Talk to your doctor or clinic about your health and the latest information on the COVID-19 vaccine.
Information about vaccine safety and development, boosters, and where to get a vaccine.
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How Senegal Prepared For Covid
Dakar As the second wave of COVID-19 infections surged in early 2021, Senegal stepped up measures to cope with the anticipated rise in the number of patients needing critical care. Professor Daye Ka, Infectious and Tropical Disease Expert and member of Senegals COVID-19 task force, explains the steps taken to avert hospitals being overrun by a drastic rise in critically ill patients.
What measures were in place to better handle a rise in COVID-19 infections?
The whole country was affected during the second wave of COVID-19 in February when around 300 cases were being reported daily. We were faced with a shortage of beds, especially resuscitation beds. We had 311 beds that had oxygen supply and an occupancy rate of 73%, with only 76 resuscitation beds that had 56% occupancy rate. So we added around 20 beds in Dakar and in the regions. Medical oxygen supply in terms of quality and quantity was also overstretched. We set up additional temporary sites in some COVID-19 treatment centres in Dakar and in the regions as well as increased oxygen supply to avert shortages.
We also developed a treatment protocol to determine which patients were to be hospitalized and which were to be cared for at home, the type of treatment depending on disease severity raging from mild to moderate, severe to critical, as we as depending on comorbidities. By closely monitoring the treatment centres we were able to determine weaknesses and areas to reinforce with equipment, supplies and personnel.
Why Risk Factors Matter
People with risk factors may be more likely to need hospitalization or intensive care if they have COVID-19, or they may be more likely to die of the infection.
It is important to learn about risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness because it can help you:
- Take precautions as you go about your daily life and attend events.
- Better understand how a medical condition could affect your own health if you get sick with COVID-19.
- Anticipate medical treatment that you might need if you get sick.
- Reduce your risk for severe COVID-19 illness by managing any conditions you have that are risk factors.
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This Means All Children Matter And Should Be Vaccinated Against Covid
Happily, the vaccine can protect adolescents from these grave outcomes. A recent CDC report found that among 179 hospitalized COVID-19 patients ages 12-18 years, 173 were unvaccinated. It further found that All 77 case-patients admitted to the intensive care unit, all 29 critically ill case-patients, and both deaths occurred among unvaccinated case-patients. As the vaccine is 90% effective against symptomatic COVID-19 in children ages 5-11 years, I fully expect similar data will soon emerge for this age group, along with news reports of regretful parents who falsely believed the virus posed zero risk to their children. The safety of the vaccine, especially myocarditis, will also have to be tracked over time as the vaccine is rolled out to younger children. However, as myocarditis is generally less common in young children compared to teenagers, vaccine experts are cautiously optimistic it will be less of an issue for them.
That we can identify children who have a higher risk for severe outcomes shouldnt be used to minimize the virus and argue against vaccination in healthy children. Rather, we should recognize there are populations of vulnerable children that need extra protection, and the best way to do this is through vaccinating ourselves and all eligible children.
Its astonishing and depressing that this is controversial.
People Living With Mental Health Conditions And Addictions
People with mental health conditions and addictions are more at risk of severe illness from COVID-19.
Tngata whai ora are also more likely to have underlying medical conditions but COVID-19 risk for people with mental health conditions is independent of these conditions.
Those at particular risk include:
- people with mental health and addiction conditions in residential care settings
- people currently in contact with secondary and tertiary mental health and addiction services
- people who have a diagnosis of psychosis, bi-polar disorder, depression or substance use disorders
- people with mental health conditions and addictions who are currently homeless or without permanent housing
- Mori and Pasifika with mental health conditions or addictions
- people with mental health conditions and addictions who have not had COVID-19 vaccinations, or are not up-to-date with their COVID-19 vaccinations.
Information and tools available to support your own and others mental wellbeing and where to get help if you need it: COVID-19: Mental health and wellbeing resources.
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What Is An Underlying Health Condition
An underlying health condition is a chronic or long-term illness, which in turn weakens the immune system.
“This refers to a medical problem that is usually chronic or significant, and which usually requires long-term treatment,” Dr Henderson says.
As it weakens the immune system, it puts people at greater risk of serious complicatons of infectious illness – and with coronavirus spreading, those with underlying health conditions are at greater risk.
“Underlying chronic health conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and lung disease can affect the immune system. This reduces the body’s ability to fight off infection or illness, so the symptoms and impact from infection can be worse,” Dr Henderson says.
Dr Gall adds: “With the immune system already tackling another long-term illness this affects your body’s ability to respond as quickly to exterior factors, which puts these individuals at a greater risk of contracting further illnesses if exposed.”
Children Aged 5 To 15 With Underlying Health Conditions
The JCVI has recommended children and young people aged 5 to 15 years old with specific underlying health conditions that put them at higher risk of serious coronavirus, are offered 2 doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine.
Children and young people at higher risk from coronavirus, who have recently tested positive for coronavirus, should ideally wait 4 weeks after the date they tested positive to get the vaccine .
Health conditions that put young people aged 5 to 15 years old at higher risk include:
Including those with poorly controlled asthma that requires continuous or repeated use of systemic steroids or with previous exacerbations requiring hospital admission, cystic fibrosis, ciliary dyskinesias and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Poorly controlled asthma is defined as any of the following:
- 2 or more courses of oral corticosteroids in the last 24 months
- on maintenance oral corticosteroids
- 1 or more hospital admission for asthma in the last 24 months
Haemodynamically significant congenital and acquired heart disease, or less severe heart disease with other co-morbidity. This includes:
- single ventricle patients or those palliated with a Fontan circulation
- those with chronic cyanosis
- patients with cardiomyopathy requiring medication
- patients with congenital heart disease on medication to improve heart function
- patients with pulmonary hypertension requiring medication
This includes those with:
Including diabetes mellitus, Addisons and hypopituitary syndrome.
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What The People You Live With Should Do
It is usually not practical for people living together to avoid contact with each other at home.
Other people you live with can protect you by:
- getting vaccinated and getting their booster dose when it’s due
- washing their hands properly when they come into the house
- opening windows to let fresh air into shared spaces
- cleaning objects and surfaces they often touch such as door handles, kettles and phones
If anyone you live with has symptoms of COVID-19, they should self-isolate and avoid contact with you completely.
Supporting People At High Risk
If people test positive with COVID-19 there are several ways that they can be identified as more vulnerable. They may already be well known to their healthcare provider as being at higher risk, Care community hubs and primary care prioritise vulnerable people for initial assessment and any subsequent follow-ups.
Its important the health questions in the self-assessment form people get when they get COVID-19 are filled out. If people can’t use the online form or would prefer not to, they can call 800 555 278 for assistance to complete the form.
Information and tools available for people who test positive for COVID-19:
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People At Higher Risk For Severe Illness
Anyone can get sick with COVID-19. Some people are at higher risk of getting very sick. Getting very sick means that a person might need hospitalization, intensive care, or a ventilator to help them breathe. They might even die.
People can be at high risk for different reasons. Some people have multiple reasons why they are at risk. The more overlapping risk factors you have, the more likely it is that you might get very sick. People with overlapping risk factors may need to take more precautions to stay healthy.
You can also take preventive actions to protect yourself. These include wearing a mask, keeping six feet of distance from people who dont live with you, avoiding crowds, and washing your hands frequently.
If you test positive for COVID-19, you may be able to get treatment to help you get better. Its important that people seek treatment within a few days of testing positive. Some people can also take preventive medicine to keep from getting sick. Learn more about treatment and prevention.
The following groups of people may be at higher risk for severe COVID-19. Talking with a health care provider can help you learn more about your specific risk factors and what you can do to protect yourself.