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Updated on August 7, 2022 7:30 pm
All countries
Updated on August 7, 2022 7:30 pm
All countries
Updated on August 7, 2022 7:30 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 7, 2022 7:30 pm
All countries
Updated on August 7, 2022 7:30 pm
All countries
Updated on August 7, 2022 7:30 pm
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What Blood Type Is Least Likely To Get Covid

How Genes Could Make A Difference With The Coronavirus

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Dr. Franke hopes to build on the findings about type A blood with more targeted research, he says, especially because there are 36 known human blood groups. In addition to the four main types A, B, AB, and O there is also a deeper classification system that includes different combinations of antigens and other substances.

There are other types of diseases where blood types and blood groups affect a persons susceptibility. For example, people who lack a specific type of antigen, called a Duffy antigen, have a higher resistance to malaria.

In terms of why a variant like the gene related to blood type would have significance for COVID-19, Franke says there are three possible hypotheses.

One is that the genetic variant itself contributes to the so-called cytokine storm, in which a persons immune system goes into overdrive in response to the novel coronavirus threat, releasing large amounts of pro-inflammatory substances called cytokines. An excess of cytokines can damage healthy tissues.

The second hypothesis is that the genetic variant causes more coagulation in response to the coronavirus an already observed result of disease progression.

The third theory is that both of these reactions are occurring simultaneously.

There may be other issues at play here, but given the way we know COVID-19 works, these seem the most likely reasons, Franke says. Next steps are to dig deeper into the blood groups system and see if we can pinpoint actual disease causes.

Type O Blood The Most Common In The Us Provides Some Protection Against Covid

The researchers at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto, Canada, examined the test results of 225,556 Canadians who had been tested for COVID-19 between Jan. 15 and Jun. 30. They looked at both how likely a patient was to contract COVID-19, and how likely they were to become seriously ill from it if they did. The results were notable: Adjusting for demographics and co-morbidities, the risk for a COVID-19 diagnosis was 12 percent lower for people with type O blood and the risk for severe COVID-19 or death was 13 percent lower, compared to those with A, AB, or B blood types.

O is the most common blood type in the U.S.: 37 percent of white Americans fall into this category, according to the American Red Cross, with the numbers rising to 47 percent among African-Americans, 53 percent among Latinx-Americans, and 39 percent of Asian-Americans. And for more signs you could’ve contracted the virus, check out If You Have This Symptom, There’s an 80 Percent Chance You Have COVID.

Healthhow Blood Type May Affect Your Coronavirus Risk

“A higher proportion of Covid-19 patients with blood group A or AB required mechanical ventilation and had a longer ICU stay compared with patients with blood group O or B,” the study authors wrote.

Types A and AB were also more likely to need a type of dialysis that helps the kidneys filter blood without too much pressure on the heart.

There are important caveats to consider from the new research. There is zero indication that any blood type is either totally protective or dooms a patient to severe outcomes of Covid-19.

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Public health officials say that people with any blood type need to take the same mitigation precautions, such as wearing a mask and maintaining physical distancing and effective hand-washing. These studies only suggest an association between blood types and Covid-19 outcome, not cause and effect.

Still, a link between blood type and severity of diseases is not unheard of. People with blood type O, for example, tend to become sicker from cholera than people with other blood types. Cholera is a bacterial infection that affects the small intestine.

Silverstein called the new research “interesting cocktail party conversation.”

Maybe with further study, he said, “it could lead to new approaches for prevention or therapy.”

“But at the present time, there is no reason to think that if you have type O blood, you’re protected from Covid-19.”

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Data Against Blood Type Correlation With Severity Of Illness

Five studies found that ABO blood type was not associated with severity of illness or mortality after infection. Barnkob et al published the largest study to date overall, including a total of 841,327 subjects from Denmark. Among tested subjects, 473,654 had ABO blood type data available and 7,422 were positive for COVID-19. In this cohort, the majority of COVID-19positive subjects had mild disease and did not require inpatient hospitalization. Data from tested subjects were compared with 2,204,742 nontested individuals, which accounted for nearly 40% of the total Danish population. The authors found that individuals with type O blood were relatively protected from viral infection =0.87 95% CI, 0.820.91). Unlike previous studies, however, there was no difference between ABO blood type and progression of illness to hospitalization or mortality . Rh typing was not collected in this analysis.

In a confirmatory analysis, Dzik et al analyzed ABO distribution among patients in both Wuhan and Boston. Using Wuhan data already published by Zhao et al and Li et al , the authors did not find any associations between blood type and COVID-19related severity of illness. This reaffirms the conclusions made by the original authors. In terms of their Boston data, Dzik et al’s investigation is more comprehensively collected and analyzed in our study, as it uses the same database with fewer patients. Therefore, the study by Dzik et al did not weigh into our discussion or conclusions.

One Blood Type May Protect Against Covid Infection

Blood type

People with this blood type are less vulnerable to coronavirus infection.

Human ABO blood groups could possibly have some effect on susceptibility to COVID-19 and its severity.

Studies suggest that while people with blood types A and AB may be more likely to develop severe COVID, individuals with blood type O are less likely to contract an infection.

Those with blood type O appear to be less vulnerable to the virus and so they have the lowest risk of developing serious illness, followed by hospitalization and death.

While the coronavirus pandemic goes on, scientists are trying to determine the risk factors and find ways to minimize them.

Blood type appears to be a potential risk factor associated with COVID and the severity of the illness in infected patients.

A Danish study compared data from nearly half a million people tested for COVID with more than two million non-tested individuals .

The research team found that more people with A, AB, and B blood types tested positive for coronavirus but fewer people with blood type O tested positive.

The scientific evidence suggests that blood type O has the ability to protect its owner from coronavirus infection.

Blood group O has no antigens but contains anti-A and anti-B antibodies that are able to neutralize the virus when entering human cells.

Dr Torben Barington, the studys senior author, said:

Another study collected data on 95 severely ill patients hospitalized with COVID.

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How Do You Find Out Your Blood Type

GPs do not routinely do tests for people’s blood groups.

Sometimes a healthcare professional will check your blood type for medical reasons or if you need a blood transfusion.

You can find out your blood group if donate blood, which only one in 25 people do, according to the NHS.

Your blood group will be checked if you give blood through NHS Blood and Transplant, and it will be recorded on your official donor card.

This is so your blood can be matched to someone with the same blood should they need it.

Blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in a liquid called plasma.

Your blood group is identified by antibodies and antigens in the blood.

To work out your blood group, your red cells are mixed with different antibody solutions.

If, for example, the solution contains anti-B antibodies and you have B antigens on your cells , it will clump together.

If the blood does not react to any of the anti-A or anti-B antibodies, it’s blood group O.

A series of tests with different types of antibody can be used to identify your blood group.

If you have a blood transfusion – where blood is taken from one person and given to another your blood will be tested against a sample of donor cells that contain ABO and RhD antigens.

If there’s no reaction, donor blood with the same ABO and RhD type can be used.

How common is each blood type?

Data from NHS Blood and Transplant, accurate at December 2018.

But the study didnt give a breakdown for the other groups.

Should You Worry If Youre Type A Or Relax If Youre Type O

What should you do in response to these studies, considering you can’t change your blood type? Nothing yet. Theres no need to get to a doctor if youre type A, and on the flip side, theres no reason to relax your precautions against coronavirus transmission like social distancing and hand-washing if youre type O.

Keep in mind these are preliminary results and more research needs to be done to understand how genetic variations truly affect COVID-19.

More than anything, its a nod toward how much we have left to learn about the way this virus operates, and how genetic variants may affect why some people end up in the ICU and others have milder symptoms or even none at all, says Priya Duggal, PhD, director of the genetic epidemiology program at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore.

If we can find genes that may explain some of the risk or protection from this infection, it will give us insight into the mechanism of disease, she says.

If genetics studies help us better understand how COVID-19 affects the body, they may eventually help lead to treatments.

This genetic study is hopefully the first of many that will help us to elucidate disease mechanism, susceptibility to infection, and maybe even antibody response, says Dr. Duggal. That could provide potential targets for therapeutics. We have a lot to learn from this point, but were gaining more insight with every study.

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Study Design Variables And Oversight

A retrospective cohort analysis of all individuals with registered ABO and RhD blood groups in Denmark was performed. Data were extracted from electronic health records capturing all Danish patients, the Danish Microbiology Database, the Danish Civil Registration System, Danish Authorizations Register for health care workers, the Danish Patient Safety Authorization Register, and the Danish National Patient Register in a pseudo-anonymized form. Information concerning ABO and RhD blood groups, SARS-CoV-2 test results, and hospitalization and/or death from COVID-19 was collected, as well as demographic information and cardiovascular comorbidities. Death from COVID-19 was defined as death within 60 days following diagnosis. Cardiovascular comorbidities were defined by the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes for acute myocardial infarction , heart failure , and cerebral hemorrhage or infarction . Cases 60 years of age or older were grouped as older.

According to Danish law, studies based entirely on registry data do not require approval from an ethics review board. The study was registered at the University of Southern Denmarks data inventory .

The Study Provides Further Evidence That People With Blood Type A Are More Likely To Get Infected With Covid

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IMAGE: / Unsplash

Honing in on the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, the part that attaches itself to the host cell , scientists looked closely at how the virus interacted with respiratory and red blood cells in blood types A, B, and O.

After careful observation, it was pretty clear that COVID-19 had a particular liking to blood group A in respiratory cells. Interestingly, it showed no preference towards red blood cells in the same group, or other respiratory and red blood cells in type B and O blood.

“It is interesting that the viral RBD only really prefers the type of blood group A antigens that are on respiratory cells, which are presumably how the virus is entering most patients and infecting them,” said study co-author Sean Stowell.

IMAGE: John Alvin Merin / Unsplash

Though the findings are eye-opening, Stowell warns this isn’t a surefire way to predict the kind of impact COVID-19 has on people of various blood types. After all, it’s not like people with blood types B and O are immune to the virus.

The study simply suggests that people with blood type A are more ‘enticing’ for the SARS-CoV-2 RBD to bind itself to. In the event that people in a certain population or community have only type B or type O blood, infection would still be a concern.

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Summary Of Key Findings And Limitations

Eight of 9 studies demonstrated an association between blood type and susceptibility to infection with SARS-CoV-2. Four of these 9 studies also revealed an association with severity of illness. Ray et al found that subjects with type O and Rh-negative blood were protected from viral infection, severe illness, and mortality. Although the data are convincing, this study was limited by the inability to test critically ill patients who died quickly after hospital admission. Zietz et al also found that ABO and Rh types were associated with infection, mechanical ventilation, and death. This study was significantly limited by the circumstances of limited testing capability, however, with the majority of subjects being tested in an inpatient setting due to illness. Hoiland et al focused primarily on critically ill subjects, reporting an association with blood types A and AB with risk of intubation, chronic renal replacement therapy, and prolonged ICU stay. This study was limited by a very small sample size, with missing blood group data in 25% of subjects.

Other Research Exploring Blood Type And Covid

23andMe researchers are not the only ones exploring the relationship between blood type and COVID-19. A study of 2,173 patients with COVID-19 in Chinapublished ahead of print on March 27found both a higher risk of COVID-19 in people with type A blood and a lower risk in people with type O blood.

Another pre-print study of 1,980 COVID-19 patients in Spain and Italy, published on June 2, found a protective effect of type O blood against respiratory failure related to COVID-19.

Shortly after 23andMe released their initial findings highlighting the protective effect of type O blood on June 8, a group of Harvard Medical School Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital corroborated that people with type O were less likely to test positive for COVID-19.

The Harvard researchers tracked 1,289 patients who tested positive for COVID-19 from March 6 through April 16. Their results, published on June 12 in the Annals of Hematology, include another important finding: Blood type does not appear to be associated with risk of disease progression to severe cases of COVID-19.

23andMe is still in the process of exploring the relationship between blood type and COVID-19 severity. Most of their survey respondents who reported testing positive for COVID-19 experienced only mild or moderate symptoms. For phase 2 of their work, the company is now recruiting 10,000 people who are not 23andMe customers who have both tested positive for COVID-19 and been hospitalized.

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How Data Is Collected Without A Blood Sample

If youve ever taken a 23andMe test, you know it relies on a saliva sample. And nowhere in your results does it mention blood type. So how did researchers draw their conclusions? Shashtri says they came up with their own sort of dual authentication process.

Basically, we did two analyses, she says. One was looking at self reports. That relied on individuals telling us what their blood type was. We correlated that with the test positives and severity.

The second analysis relied on data that 23andMe is able to collect from saliva samples but doesnt currently include in any consumer-facing reports. This analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism determined whether an individual had type O blood.

Shashtri says her team was able to compare this SNP data to user-reported information about blood type to help corroborate genetic information.

While asking for self-reported data from so many participants can have drawbacks like recall biaserrors in accuracy based on incomplete or inaccurate recollectionShashtri says her team feels their data is accurate so far.

All of our findings are based on self-reported phenotypes . But whats really encouraging is we are coming up with the same findings as researchers based on clinics, Shashtri says. The study that first reported the O blood type finding was looking at hospitalized patients in Italy and Spain. The fact that were finding the same results makes us pretty confident.

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This Blood Group Is Least Likely To Get Affected By COVID

It suggests these two blood groups have an increased risk of organ dysfunction or failure due to Covid-19.

Another study of Italian and Spanish people found the risk of needing ventilation for Covid-19 was 35 per cent lower in people with O blood compared to other groups.

Similarly an Iranian hospital found O blood had a 32 per cent lower risk of being hospitalised with Covid-19.

But not all the studies done so far have taken variables such as pre-existing illnesses into account, which may skew the results. And some have not been peer-reviewed by other scientists to check for mistakes.

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Covid Transmission Influenced By Blood Transmission Rules

by Sam Wood, University of Kent

Accumulated evidence worldwide shows that blood type affects the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with blood Type O being less susceptible and non-O blood types more susceptible. The results of a new data model by Dr. Peter Ellis, Senior Lecturer in Molecular Genetics and Reproduction at the University of Kent’s School of Biosciences reveals the most likely explanation is that SARS-CoV-2 infection behaves similarly to a blood transfusion. He said:

“Evidence globally suggests that blood Type O individuals are less likely to contract COVID than those with non-O blood types, however the magnitude of this difference varies substantially between regions. Using information from around the world, our latest data model indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection behaves similarly to a blood transfusion, and that infected patients are 23 times more likely to pass the virus on to someone for whom they are a compatible blood donor.

“This explains why Type O people have a lower risk of infection. Just as they reject blood transfusions from non-O types, they may reject virus particles from a patient with non-O blood, thus escaping infection.

“However, individuals with Type O blood are universal donors that can give blood to anyone. Similarly once infected they are also able to infect others of anyblood type. Conversely, those with Type A blood are more likely to catch the virus and less likely to pass it on.

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