Technological Platforms: The Bright Side Of Human Creativity
As of December 2020, just eleven months after the definition of the SARS-CoV-2 genome, there are over 150 official vaccine projects . About fifty of them have already reached human experimentation and a few of these are currently administered to some sectors of the general population. By exploiting different technologies, these anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidate vaccines are targeting the whole SARS-CoV-2, molecules or fragments of molecules expressed on this virus surface. These different candidate vaccines can be grouped based on the technological platform exploited to elicit a protective immune response. However, almost every vaccine project has its peculiarities that make it unique and which could have significant consequences regarding the efficacy or duration of the induced protection or the safety of the vaccine. In Figs. , , and details of selected vaccine projects that are currently in Phase III trial are shown.
Fig. 1: Twelve candidate vaccines currently in Phase III trial.
COVID-19 vaccines based on the whole inactivated SARS-CoV-2.
Indoor Ventilation And Avoiding Crowded Indoor Spaces
The CDC recommends that crowded indoor spaces should be avoided. When indoors, increasing the rate of air change, decreasing recirculation of air and increasing the use of outdoor air can reduce transmission. The WHO recommends ventilation and air filtration in public spaces to help clear out infectious aerosols.
Exhaled respiratory particles can build-up within enclosed spaces with inadequate ventilation. The risk of COVID-19 infection increases especially in spaces where people engage in physical exertion or raise their voice as this increases exhalation of respiratory droplets. Prolonged exposure to these conditions, typically more than 15 minutes, leads to higher risk of infection.
Displacement ventilation with large natural inlets can move stale air directly to the exhaust in laminar flow while significantly reducing the concentration of droplets and particles. Passive ventilation reduces energy consumption and maintenance costs but may lack controllability and heat recovery. Displacement ventilation can also be achieved mechanically with higher energy and maintenance costs. The use of large ducts and openings helps to prevent mixing in closed environments. Recirculation and mixing should be avoided because recirculation prevents dilution of harmful particles and redistributes possibly contaminated air, and mixing increases the concentration and range of infectious particles and keeps larger particles in the air.
Providing Easy Access To Booster Shots For All Eligible Americans
The Administration is preparing for boosters to start as early as the week of September 20th, subject to authorization or approval by the FDA and a recommendation from ACIP. Getting a booster will be easy. Booster shots will be free, and widely available across 80,000 locations from pharmacies to doctors offices to health centers.
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Requiring Employers To Provide Paid Time Off To Get Vaccinated
To continue efforts to ensure that no worker loses a dollar of pay because they get vaccinated, OSHA is developing a rule that will require employers with more than 100 employees to provide paid time off for the time it takes for workers to get vaccinated or to recover if they are under the weather post-vaccination. This requirement will be implemented through the ETS.
Symptoms & Emergency Warning Signs
People with COVID-19 have reported a wide range of symptoms from mild symptoms to severe illness. Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. If you have fever, cough, or other symptoms, you might have COVID-19.
Look for emergency warning signs* for COVID-19. If someone is showing any of these signs, seek emergency medical care immediately
- Trouble breathing
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How Did The Coronavirus Start
The first case of COVID-19 was reported Dec. 1, 2019, and the cause was a then-new coronavirus later named SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 may have originated in an animal and changed so it could cause illness in humans. In the past, several infectious disease outbreaks have been traced to viruses originating in birds, pigs, bats and other animals that mutated to become dangerous to humans. Research continues, and more study may reveal how and why the coronavirus evolved to cause pandemic disease.
How Effective Are Vaccines History Of Immunization
Dr. Kate OBrien, Immunization Director at the World Health Organization, takes us on a historical tour from the development of the first modern vaccine in the late 18th Century, to the new vaccines that are combatting todays COVID pandemic. The United Nations, and its partners in the COVAX facility, are ensuring that vaccines reach every low-income country in the world.
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How Does The World Health Organization Choose The Name For A New Disease
There is surprisingly a lot that goes into naming an infectious disease.
The aim is to minimize any unnecessary negative impact a disease name may have on trade, travel, tourism or animal welfare, and avoid causing offence to any cultural, social, national, regional, professional or ethnic group.
If an inappropriate name does get released or if a disease remains unnamed, WHO may issue a temporary name for the disease and recommend its use, so that inappropriate names don’t become established.
But, at the end of the day, the International Classification of Diseases, which is managed by WHO, is the group that has the final say in what name is given for each human disease.
‘why Is It Called Covid
When this coronavirus first starting circulating, most people called it just that: the coronavirus. But as the situation got more serious , we started hearing experts calling it the novel coronavirus, and then COVID-19. Why did the name seem to change?
Well, its because COVID-19 and coronavirus are actually two different things. One is the name of the disease, and the other is the name of the virus.
To be specific, COVID-19 is the name of the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. When you read reports in the media or hear officials discussing COVID-19, theyre referring to the illnesses, not the virus.
The virus itself is named SARS-CoV-2. Each part of the name is an abbreviation:
- SARS stands for severe acute respiratory syndrome
- CoV stands for coronavirus
- 2 represents the second strain of this type of coronavirus to show up
Using this type of naming structure gives scientists the ability to group viruses into families that have similar characteristics. For instance, all coronaviruses display a distinctive crown-like appearance under the microscope. Grouping viruses into families allows researchers to quickly compare new viruses to existing ones in the same family. This comparison may give researchers knowledge that helps them more quickly develop effective new treatments or vaccines.
But back to the name COVID-19.
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Why Was The Coronavirus Renamed To Covid
The WHO press release of February 11 explained why a new name was needed for this disease: to enable discussion on disease prevention, spread, transmissibility, severity, and treatment.
Diseases are officially named by WHO in the International Classification of Diseases . For COVID-19, the name was decided based on agreed guidelines between the WHO, the World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The name, and its abbreviation, was chosen because it didnt refer to a specific geographic location, a specific animal, or a specific group of people. It also had to be easy to pronounce and related to the disease.
Continue To Require Masking On Federal Property
President Bidens Executive Order, Protecting the Federal Workforce and Requiring Mask-Wearing, requires masks and specific physical distancing requirements in federal buildings, on federal lands, on military bases, and other overseas locations, consistent with CDC guidance. President Bidens plan will ensure that these requirements remain in place as we continue to battle COVID-19.
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Is This Virus Comparable With Sars Or With The Seasonal Flu
The novel coronavirus detected in China in 2019, SARS-CoV-2, is closely related to the original SARS-CoV. Both viruses cause respiratory illnesses known as COVID-19 and SARS, respectively. Influenza, also known as the flu, is a respiratory illness with similar symptoms but caused by a different group of viruses, the influenza viruses.
SARS, the respiratory illness caused by the original SARS-CoV, emerged in late 2002 in China and caused more than 8 000 cases in 33 countries over the course of eight months. Around one in 10 people who developed SARS died.
COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, emerged in late 2019 and spread very quickly across the globe. As SARS-CoV-2 is a new virus, most people did not have immunity for it, so the entire human population was potentially susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection at the start of the pandemic.
Within the first 20 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, 208 million cases were reported worldwide, 36 million alone in the EU/EEA. Due to the nature of the disease, where some infected individuals may not have symptoms and even those who do may not all be tested, it is assumed that there are many undiagnosed cases. The likelihood of death depends on age and is highest among older people.
Vaccines against COVID-19 have only recently become available while influenza vaccines were developed as early as the 1930s. No vaccine is available for SARS.
See the situation updates for the latest available information:
Why Do The Virus And The Disease Have Different Names
Viruses, and the diseases they cause, often have different names. For example, HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. People often know the name of a disease, but not the name of the virus that causes it.
There are different processes, and purposes, for naming viruses and diseases.
Viruses are named based on their genetic structure to facilitate the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines and medicines. Virologists and the wider scientific community do this work, so viruses are named by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses .
Diseases are named to enable discussion on disease prevention, spread, transmissibility, severity and treatment. Human disease preparedness and response is WHOs role, so diseases are officially named by WHO in the International Classification of Diseases .
ICTV announced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as the name of the new virus on 11 February 2020. This name was chosen because the virus is genetically related to the coronavirus responsible for the SARS outbreak of 2003. While related, the two viruses are different.
WHO announced COVID-19 as the name of this new disease on 11 February 2020, following guidelines previously developed with the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations .
WHO and ICTV were in communication about the naming of both the virus and the disease.
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Protecting Our Economic Recovery
President Bidens economic plan is working. Since Day One in office, the President has focused on jumpstarting the economy and rebuilding it from the bottom up and the middle out. America is getting back to work, and workers and small businesses are seeing the results. Since President Biden took office, there has been historic job growthmore than 4 million jobs created the most in any Presidents first six months, with 750,000 jobs created on average per month over the last three months. Despite the challenges posed by the Delta variant, the economy created 235,000 jobs last month, and the unemployment rate fell to its lowest level since before the pandemic. The average number of new unemployment insurance claims has been cut by more than half since President Biden took office, and more than 70 percent of Americans say that now is a good time to find a quality job, up from less than 30 percent this time last year. The U.S. is the only major economy that has now exceeded its pre-pandemic growth projections, and independent forecasters believe America will this year reach the highest levels of growth in decades.
Who Gave The Virus A Nickname So It’s Easier To Say
WHO gave the virus its COVID-19 nickname to make it easier for the general public and media to speak about the virus. Now that we’ve gotten familiar with the virus over these past seven months, we’ll hear it referred to as COVID-19 or simply as “coronavirus.”
However, simply referring to it as “coronavirus” isn’t necessarily accurate since there are several types of coronaviruses, including SARS. But don’t let that stop you. Since COVID-19 is the only coronavirus that’s stopped the entire world in its tracks, it’s safe to say anyone will know which virus you’re talking about if you use the term “coronavirus.”
But where did this term come from? “Coronaviruses are named after the Latin word corona, meaning “crown” or “halo,” because they have “crown-like spikes on their surface,” according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
Whether you call it the coronavirus, COVID-19, or refer to it by its scientific name, SARS-CoV-2, it doesn’t seem to be going anywhere. To keep yourself and your loved ones safe from this virus, follow all federal and local health guidelines, wash your hands frequently, and continue social distancing. So make sure you use precautions, and also don’t visit any of these 35 Places You’re Most Likely to Catch COVID.
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When Is A Person Infectious
SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in people one to three days before their symptoms start. However, detection of the virus does not necessarily mean that a person is infectious and able to transmit the virus to another person.
Evidence indicates that people become infectious around 48 hours before symptoms start, but are most infectious when having symptoms, even if symptoms are mild and non-specific. It appears that someone infected with the Delta variant may infect others earlier, within one two days of being exposed.
Available data indicate that adults with mild to moderate COVID-19 remain infectious no longer than 10 days after symptoms begin and this has not changed with the new variants of concern. Most adults with severe to critical illness or severe immune suppression likely remain infectious for up to 20 days after symptom onset.
For fully vaccinated individuals who become sick with COVID-19 , evidence shows that they can have comparable amounts of virus to non-vaccinated persons. However, they were less infectious overall as their ability to culture live virus was significantly less compared with non-vaccinated individuals.
There Are Many Types Of Human Coronaviruses But Covid
The problem with only calling the virus coronavirus is that there are many coronaviruses. There are many types of human coronaviruses including some that commonly cause mild upper-respiratory tract illnesses. COVID-19 is a new disease, caused be a novel coronavirus that has not previously been seen in humans. The name of this disease was selected following the World Health Organization best practiceexternal icon for naming of new human infectious diseases, CDC explains.
According to CDC, This virus was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The first infections were linked to a live animal market, but the virus is now spreading from person-to-person. Its important to note that person-to-person spread can happen on a continuum. Some viruses are highly contagious , while other viruses are less so.
CDC adds: The virus that causes COVID-19 seems to be spreading easily and sustainably in the community in some affected geographic areas. Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in an area, including some who are not sure how or where they became infected.
The New York Times has published a pretty extraordinary visual presentation of how COVID-19 spread throughout the world. You can see that here.
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What Is The Origin Of The Covid
On December 31, 2019, a strange new pneumonia of unknown cause was reported to the Chinese WHO Country Office. A cluster of these cases originally appeared in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei Province of China. These infections were found to be caused by a new coronavirus which was given the name 2019 novel coronavirus .
It was later renamed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses on February 11, 2020. It was named SARS-CoV2 because the virus is a genetic cousin of the coronavirus which caused the SARS outbreak in 2002 .
The unofficial name for the virus is the COVID-19 virus.
Summer Solstice: What Does It Mean What Is Its Significance
The summer solstice is the longest day of the year as the Earth receives daylight for the longest duration.
New Delhi: In the northern hemisphere, June 21 is the day of the summer solstice. On this day, the Earth is at its maximum tilt towards the Sun, hence it marks the beginning of the astronomical summer. The summer solstice is the longest day of the year as the Earth receives daylight for the longest duration.
The Earth orbits the Sun at a certain angle. Due to this, for half of the year, the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun and thus, it experiences summers and for the rest half, the Earth is titled toward the southern hemisphere, thus creating winters in the northern hemisphere. This is how seasons on Earth change.
Solstices occur twice a year, one in summers and one in winters and this is interchanged depending on the hemisphere you live in. The term solstice originated from the Latin word sol which means sun and sistere which means stationary or stand still.
Based on Earths current orbit, the summer solstice occurs between June 20, 21 and 22. It is not fixed as it depends on the physics of the solar system and not on the human calendar. There are several other names for the summer solstice. It is called Midsummer or First Day of Summer, while it is called Litha by Wiccans and other Neopagan groups. Some churches mark it as St Johns Day to commemorate the birth of John the Baptist.
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