Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 5:08 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 5:08 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 5:08 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 5:08 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 5:08 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 5:08 am
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What Does Covid Stand For

How Long Do You Test Positive After Having Had Covid

What does COVID-19 actually stand for?

Because the PCR test is so sensitive, it can detect very small amounts of virus material. This means that the test can continue to detect fragments of SARS-CoV-2 virus even after youve recovered from COVID-19 and are no longer contagious. So you may continue to test positive if you’ve had COVID-19 in the distant past, even though you cant spread the SARS-CoV-2 virus to others.

Prolonged infection in immunocompromised individuals can occur where they shed infectious virus for months. Also, healthy people can become reinfected. If you test positive for SARS-CoV-2 but you think you might have already recovered from COVID-19, please discuss with a healthcare provider.

What Does A Positive Lateral Flow Test Look Like

Lateral flow devices are small white rectangles made of plastic with a testing strip inside.

There is a small well at the bottom of the device with the letter S next to it. This is where you drop your sample.

Above this there is a window to the testing strip. Towards the top of the window is the letter C, and below it is the letter T.

The C stands for control and the T stands for test.

Once you have dropped your sample into the well, a red line should appear next to the C relatively quickly. This line should be present every time you do a lateral flow test.

If a red line appears next to the T that means you have tested positive. If there is no line, that means you have tested negative.

Effect On Other Diseases And The Pharmacy Trade

There was a report on 3 March 2021, that social distancing and common wearing of surgical masks and similar as a common precaution against COVID-19 caused a drop in the spread rate of the common cold and flu. So much so, that in Britain the sale of cough liquids and throat lozenges and from 30 November 2020 to 21 February 2021, was about a half of the sale a year earlier. Public Health England reported no cases of flu in the year 2021 to date, and that there was an 89% rise in sales of Vitamin D to try to boost immunity.

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Viral And Host Factors

Virus proteins

Multiple viral and host factors affect the pathogenesis of the virus. The S-protein, otherwise known as the spike protein, is the viral component that attaches to the host receptor via the ACE2 receptors. It includes two subunits: S1 and S2. S1 determines the virus-host range and cellular tropism via the receptor-binding domain. S2 mediates the membrane fusion of the virus to its potential cell host via the H1 and HR2, which are heptad repeat regions. Studies have shown that S1 domain induced IgG and IgA antibody levels at a much higher capacity. It is the focus spike proteins expression that are involved in many effective COVID-19 vaccines.

The M protein is the viral protein responsible for the transmembrane transport of nutrients. It is the cause of the bud release and the formation of the viral envelope. The N and E protein are accessory proteins that interfere with the host’s immune response.

Host factors

Human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 is the host factor that SARS-COV2 virus targets causing COVID-19. Theoretically, the usage of angiotensin receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors upregulating ACE2 expression might increase morbidity with COVID-19, though animal data suggest some potential protective effect of ARB however no clinical studies have proven susceptibility or outcomes. Until further data is available, guidelines and recommendations for hypertensive patients remain.

Covid Variants: What You Should Know

To prevent a second coronavirus wave, we need to look beyond the R ...

    In December 2020, news media reported a new variant of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, and since then, other variants have been identified and are under investigation. The new variants raise questions: Are people more at risk for getting sick? Will the COVID-19 vaccines still work? Are there new or different things you should do now to stay safe?

    Stuart Ray, M.D., vice chair of medicine for data integrity and analytics, and Robert Bollinger, M.D., M.P.H., Raj and Kamla Gupta professor of infectious diseases, are experts in SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. They talk about what is known about these new variants, and answer questions and concerns you may have.

    COVID Omicron Variant: What You Need to Know

    What is the omicron variant? Our experts share what we know about this new coronavirus variant.

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    How Can We End Covid The Un’s Global Vaccine Strategy

    With large sections of the population unvaccinated, new variants, like Omicron, are likely to keep emerging. These new variants spread like wildfire and put everyone at increased risk. To end this destructive cycle, the UN says we must vaccinate at least 70% of the population in every country. The UN’s vaccine strategy is to achieve this goal by mid-2022. This will require at least 11 billion vaccine doses but the task is doable.

    Can Patients Who Have Recovered From Covid

    Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 can continue to have detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in upper respiratory specimens for up to 3 months after illness onset in concentrations considerably lower than during illness however, replication-competent virus has not been reliably recovered and infectiousness is unlikely.

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    Production And Ethical Issues

    Once the new vaccine has been validated, subsequent problems will be related to its production and distribution. Technological, organizational, regulatory, and economic problems will have to be overcome. The industrial technology needed to scale up the production to a billion doses will depend on which kind of vaccine will work best. Initially, it might not be physically possible to make enough vaccines for the worlds population, although, various vaccines are already in production without being sure that they will be registered and distributed. Besides, political and economic constraints may limit vaccine access to the country that produces it or to the countries that can afford to pay for it. To make the new vaccines available to the global population will be challenging . The problem of a fair distribution of the vaccine in all the nations of the world is much discussed and various initiatives are about to be implemented by several nations and international organizations . To ensure equitable access to future COVID-19 vaccines the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations , The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization , and WHO have launched the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access Facility, a global risk-sharing mechanism for pooled procurement and equitable distribution of eventual COVID-19 vaccines .

    Coronavirus: Glossary Of Common Terms

    COVID-19 pandemic: Where does Florida stand?

    Use this glossary to get familiar with terms often used in coverage of the , which causes COVID-19.

    Aerosol: A tiny particle or droplet thats suspended in the air.

    Antibody: A protein your immune system makes in response to an infection. If you have antibodies for the coronavirus in your blood, it means you have been infected with this virus at some point .

    Antibody test: Also called a serology test, this checks to see if you have antibodies in your blood that show that you were previously infected with the virus.

    Antigen test: A type of diagnostic test that checks to see if you’re currently infected. The test looks for proteins in a sample taken from your nose or throat. Antigen tests are faster than PCR tests, but they are less accurate and have a higher risk of false positives and false negatives . This may also be called a rapid test or rapid diagnostic test.

    Asymptomatic: Lack of symptoms. It is possible to contract the coronavirus and make antibodies to it even if you stay asymptomatic. It is also possible to spread the virus to others if you’re carrying it but have no symptoms.

    Cluster: A grouping of disease cases in a geographic area during a set time period.


    COVID-19: Stands for coronavirus disease-19. COVID-19 is the name of the infection caused by the novel strain of highly contagious coronavirus that was first identified in late 2019.

    Endemic: The baseline or expected level of a disease in a given community.





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    What You Need To Know


    • COVID-19 is the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that emerged in December 2019.
    • COVID-19 can be severe, and has caused millions of deaths around the world as well as lasting health problems in some who have survived the illness.
    • The coronavirus can be spread from person to person. It is diagnosed with a laboratory test.
    • COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized for emergency use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and vaccination programs are in progress across the U.S. and in many parts of the world.
    • Prevention involves physical distancing, mask-wearing, hand hygiene and staying away from others if you feel sick.

    How does the coronavirus spread?

    As of now, researchers know that the coronavirus is spread through droplets and virus particles released into the air when an infected person breathes, talks, laughs, sings, coughs or sneezes. Larger droplets may fall to the ground in a few seconds, but tiny infectious particles can linger in the air and accumulate in indoor places, especially where many people are gathered and there is poor ventilation. This is why mask-wearing, hand hygiene and physical distancing are essential to preventing COVID-19.

    Top Things You Should Know About Variants

  • The Omicron variant has quickly become the dominant variant of concern in the United States. Omicron spreads more easily than the original SARS-CoV-2 virus and data suggest that the Omicron variant is up to three times more infectious than the Delta variant.
  • People who have previously had COVID-19 could become re-infected more easily with Omicron compared to other variants of concern. Staying up to date on vaccinations provides the best protection from Omicron.
  • Being up-to-date with COVID-19 vaccines provides the BEST protection against the illness that we currently have.
  • COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States are safe and effective at protecting people from severe illness, hospitalization and death from circulating variants of the COVID-19 virus. Boosters are now recommended to maintain a high level of protection.
  • The more the COVID-19 virus circulates, the greater the chances that new mutations or variants can develop. The best way to slow the emergence of new variants is to follow public health recommendations shown to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Keep yourself and others safer by:
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    Technological Platforms: The Bright Side Of Human Creativity

    As of December 2020, just eleven months after the definition of the SARS-CoV-2 genome, there are over 150 official vaccine projects . About fifty of them have already reached human experimentation and a few of these are currently administered to some sectors of the general population. By exploiting different technologies, these anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidate vaccines are targeting the whole SARS-CoV-2, molecules or fragments of molecules expressed on this virus surface. These different candidate vaccines can be grouped based on the technological platform exploited to elicit a protective immune response. However, almost every vaccine project has its peculiarities that make it unique and which could have significant consequences regarding the efficacy or duration of the induced protection or the safety of the vaccine. In Figs. , , and details of selected vaccine projects that are currently in Phase III trial are shown.

    Fig. 1: Twelve candidate vaccines currently in Phase III trial.

    COVID-19 vaccines based on the whole inactivated SARS-CoV-2.

    Why Are Some Variants Concerning

    Pelosi Rules Out Stand

    A variant of the virus that causes COVID-19 is considered to be concerning when it increases the risk to human health. The risk to human health could be increased because a variant is able to:

    • Spread more easily
    • Cause more severe illness
    • Escape the immune protection provided by available COVID-19 vaccines or by natural infection with the virus that causes COVID-19
    • Make viral tests less accurate
    • Make some treatments less effective

    Scientists in the U.S. have a system to categorize variants based on how concerning they are to the U.S. population. The World Health Organization may classify certain variants in different categories because of the impacts they are having in other countries. Because the importance of variants can differ by location, the U.S. classifications may differ from those of the WHO.

    The current classification system used in the U.S. is as follows:

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    What Is The Delta Variant

    Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that causes COVID-19 has mutated , resulting in different variants of the virus. One of these is called the delta variant . The delta coronavirus is considered a variant of concern by the WHO and CDC because it appears to be more easily transmitted from one person to another. As of September 2021, delta is regarded as the most contagious form of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus so far.

    Here is what you should know:

    The CDC recommends that everyone wait until they are fully vaccinated for COVID-19 before traveling internationally. Traveling internationally if you are not fully vaccinated for COVID-19 is not recommended, because it puts you at risk for coronavirus infection, including the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. This includes unvaccinated children.

  • Although vaccines afford very high protection, infection with the delta and other variants remain possible. Fortunately, vaccination, even among those who acquire infections, appears to prevent serious illness, hospitalization and death from COVID-19.
  • What Is The Incubation Period For Covid

    Symptoms show up in people within two to 14 days of exposure to the virus. A person infected with the coronavirus is contagious to others for up to two days before symptoms appear, and they remain contagious to others for 10 to 20 days, depending upon their immune system and the severity of their illness.

    What have you learned about coronavirus in the last six months?

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    A Few Other Technological Platforms

  • 1.

    Symvivo, Canada: A Phase I human trial is underway with orally administered Bifidobacterium probiotic, engineered to carry the DNA encoding the Spike protein.

  • 2.

    Immunomonitor, Canada: A Phase I/II human trial is underway with heat-inactivated plasma from donors with COVID-19.

  • 3.

    Aivita Biomedical, US: A Phase I/II human trial is underway with the patients dendritic cells modified to express SARS-CoV-2 antigens.

  • 4.

    Shenzhen Geno-Immune Medical, China: A Phase I human trial is underway with dendritic cells engineered to express SARS-CoV-2 proteins.

  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Trump asks what the ’19’ in COVID-19 stands for

    In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus . The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after. The WHO update on 28 September 2012 said the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person. However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission were reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears the virus had trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus. By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.

    After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human CoronavirusErasmus Medical Centre . The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus . The only U.S. cases were recorded in May 2014.

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    How Do Lateral Flow Tests Work

    To take an antigen test, you take a swab from inside your nostril, the back of your throat, or both, depending on the specific test you are using.

    You then mix that swab with solution and drip it onto a device which contains a test strip.

    The test strip has antibodies specific to the Covid-19 virus painted on it in a thin line.

    These antibodies will bind to any antigen in the sample. If the testing strip detects the virus, it will show up as a thin red line next to the T on the device.

    Does Ai Stand For Augmenting Inequality In The Era Of Covid

  • David Leslie, ethics theme lead and ethics fellow1,
  • Anjali Mazumder, AI and justice and human rights theme lead1,
  • Aidan Peppin, researcher of AI and society2,
  • Maria K Wolters, reader in design informatics3 ,
  • Alexa Hagerty, research associate4
  • 1Alan Turing Institute, London, UK
  • 2Ada Lovelace Institute, London, UK
  • 3School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, UK
  • 4Centre for the Study of Existential Risk and Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • Correspondence to: D Leslie
  • Artificial intelligence can help tackle the covid-19 pandemic, but bias and discrimination in its design and deployment risk exacerbating existing health inequity argue David Leslie andcolleagues

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    How Is Yale Medicine Prepared To Handle Patients With Covid

    Yale Medicine Infectious Diseases has an entire team with experience treating both existing and emerging diseases. This team is at the forefront of the latest testing, diagnostic, and treatment approaches.

    The Yale Medicine Winchester Center for Lung Diseases Post-COVID-19 Recovery Program offers pulmonary-focused, multidisciplinary evaluation and care for patients recovering from COVID-19. The program partners with teams taking care of patients in the hospital, as well as community providers to identify patients who have persistent symptoms or appear at risk of developing post-COVID-19 complications.

    Yale New Haven Health offers a call center for patients and people in the community who have questions about COVID-19 at 833-ASK-YNHH .

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