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Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 12:06 am
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What Does The Covid Vaccine Made Of

What Is The Difference Between The First And Second Dose Of The Covid

How was the COVID-19 vaccine made, and how do we know its safe? | NHS

In the United States, the ingredients in the vial for dose 1 and dose 2 of the same brand are exactly the same. When people talk about dose 1 doses and dose 2 doses, they are just talking about vaccine supply. If you arrive for dose 1 and the person behind you is getting dose 2, they can come out of the same vial.

One vaccine used in some other countries, Sputnik V, has different components in dose 1 and dose 2. Both are adenovirus vector vaccines, but dose 1 uses adenovirus 26 and dose 2 uses adenovirus 5 .

Should I Stop Taking My Daily Dose Of Aspirin Before Getting The Covid

If your daily dose of aspirin was prescribed by your physician following a stroke or heart attack, we recommend speaking to that doctor about whether to stop taking your medication for a day or two prior to vaccination. If, however, your daily dose of aspirin is because you have risk factors for a stroke or heart attack but have never had a stroke or heart attack, you should consider discontinuing the aspirin not only prior to your COVID-19 vaccine, but all together. The data show that while daily aspirin helps prevent second strokes or heart attacks, it does not help prevent first occurrences, even in people who are at increased risk. Our director, Dr. Paul Offit, carefully reviewed the data related to this topic for his book, Overkill: When Modern Medicine Goes Too Far.

Find out more in this Parents PACK article, “Medications and COVID-19 Vaccines: What You Should Know.”

Safety Monitoring After Vaccination

Even after emergency use authorization has been granted, Dr. Kenyon said that the scientists will continue to collect safety data, as they will follow the participants for up to 2 years. This adds another layer of reassurance as a person shifts from a trial to a real-life setting.

The trial is tens of thousands of participants, but for the vaccine program, you are getting into the millions. While unlikely, it may uncover any undetected toxicities that were not picked up by the trial.

The V-safe .

It is a smartphone-based system where you will be contacted actively by the CDC to see how you are doing after being vaccinated and , therefore, pick up any adverse events that were not picked up in the trials, Dr. Kenyon explained.

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What Does A Covid

When you come into contact with viruses or bacteria, your bodys immune system makes antibodies to fight them off.

A vaccine forces your immune system to make antibodies against a specific disease, usually with a dead or weakened form of the germs. Then, if you come into contact with them again, your immune system knows what to do. The vaccine gives you immunity, so you dont get sick or so your illness is much milder than it otherwise would have been.

The vaccine should slow the spread of COVID-19 around the world. Fewer people should get sick, and more lives can be saved.

How The Vaccines Work

Understanding mRNA COVID

These vaccines will protect you from getting severely ill or dying if you get COVID-19.

The vaccines train your immune system to recognise and clear out the virus, before it makes you seriously ill. Your body’s immune system builds this protection over time.

You are fully protected 7 to 14 days after your second dose.

The virus that causes COVID-19 has spikes of protein on each viral particle. These spike proteins allow the virus to attach to cells and cause disease.

The vaccines help the body to:

  • recognise these spike proteins as a threat
  • fight the coronavirus that has these proteins.

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What Are The Differences Between The Two

These two COVID-19 vaccines are very similar. The main differences come in to play in relation to transporting and handling the vaccines. The Pfizer vaccine must be stored at -94° Fahrenheit. The Moderna vaccine needs to be stored at -4° Fahrenheit.

Both teach your immune system to destroy the coronavirus. Both use messenger RNA to instruct your body to build the spike proteins that are on the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Then your immune system kills it and remembers the protein so your body is ready if you’re infected with COVID-19.

Both are very safe and very effective. The Pfizer vaccine is 95% effective against COVID-19, and Modernas vaccine is 94.1% effective. They have similar temporary side effects, and those reactions are stronger after the second shot for both.

There are two differences that impact the public:

  • Pfizers vaccine is authorized for people ages 12 and older. Modernas is authorized for people ages 18 and older.
  • The two Pfizer doses are given 21 days apart. The two Moderna doses are given 28 days apart.

Who Should Have The Vaccines

The aim of the COVID-19 vaccination programme is to protect those who are most at risk of becoming seriously ill with COVID-19. Changes to recommendations in the UK vaccination programme from from the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation include:


  • All adults in the UK are now eligible for first, second and booster doses. In England, Northern Ireland and Scotland, all adults over 18 can book their booster dose. In Wales, invitations to book booster doses will be sent out from the local health boards.
  • The gap between the second dose and booster dose has been reduced to a minimum of three months .


  • From 20th December 2021, all children aged 12-17 can book a second dose. Previously, two doses were only recommended for 16-17 year olds.

Severely Immunosuppressed Individuals:

  • Fourth doses as a booster have been recommended for severely immunosuppressed individuals, a minimum of three months after their third dose.


Pregnancy and breastfeeding

The JCVI recommended that women who are breastfeeding may be offered two doses of COVID-19 vaccines. There is no known risk associated with receiving non-live vaccines whilst breastfeeding.


Priority Groups

Following advice from the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation, the programme has vaccinated people in the order of highest risk of severe COVID-19 disease, due to occupation, age or other risk factors. The categories are outlined below:

Who cant have the vaccines?

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Rush To Fill The Vials

The flow of vials is narrowed to a single-file line. Machines inject 0.45 ml of a concentrated vaccine solution into each vial, enough for six doses after dilution. The vials are sealed with foil and capped with purple lids, at a pace of up to 575 vials per minute.



The vaccine is chilled but warms up quickly during the bottling process, and the mRNA will deteriorate if left unfrozen for too long. Kalamazoo has limited time, about 46 hours, to get the liquid vaccine into vials and then into deep freeze.


Should I Stop Using My Birth Control If I Got The J& j Vaccine

What Is An mRNA Coronavirus Vaccine?

It is not necessary to stop taking birth control pills. Individuals affected by thrombotic thrombocytopenic syndrome , which is an unusual combination of low platelet count and clotting did not share common medical histories, such as use of birth control pills therefore, stopping usage would not change your risk for TTS.

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How Pfizer Makes Its Covid

By Emma Cott, Elliot deBruyn and Jonathan CorumApril 28, 2021

  • 308

Inside this facility in Chesterfield, Missouri, trillions of bacteria are producing tiny loops of DNA containing coronavirus genes the raw material for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.

Its the start of a complex manufacturing and testing process that takes 60 days and involves Pfizer facilities in three states. The result will be millions of doses of the vaccine, frozen and ready to ship.


Who Should Not Get The Covid

Most people are able to get COVID-19 vaccine. But, a few groups of people either should not get the vaccine or should get a particular version. Likewise, some individuals should consult with their doctor or follow special procedures.

People who should NOT get any COVID-19 vaccine:

  • Those younger than 5 years of age
  • People currently isolating or experiencing symptoms of COVID-19 these people can get vaccinated once they are finished isolation and their primary symptoms have resolved.

People who cannot get the mRNA vaccine , but may be able to get the J& J/Janssen vaccine:

  • Anyone with a previous severe or immediate allergic reaction to a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine dose or an mRNA vaccine component.
  • Anyone with a known allergy to polyethylene glycol

People who cannot get the adenovirus vaccine , but may be able to get the mRNA vaccine :

  • Anyone with a previous severe or immediate allergic reaction to the COVID-19 adenovirus vaccine or one of its components
  • Anyone with a known polysorbate allergy
  • Those 5-18 years of age can get the Pfizer mRNA vaccine, but not other versions .

People who may get the vaccine after considering risks and benefits and/or consulting with their healthcare provider:

People who should follow special procedures

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What Happens In Your Body When You Get A Protein

  • when you receive the vaccine, your body comes into contact with the viral proteins
  • your immune system detects the foreign proteins and produces antibodies and immune cells to attack them
  • your body gets rid of the proteins
  • if you become infected with the coronavirus, your immune system will remember how to destroy the virus
  • you wont fall ill from COVID-19 or experience only mild symptoms

If I Have Already Had Covid

Where is the Oxford AstraZeneca Covid vaccine made?

Everyone should be offered the COVID-19 vaccine, regardless of whether they have already had the infection previously. However, those who are currently infected with COVID-19 should postpone vaccination until after their illness has run its course and after they have met their health authorities criteria to discontinue isolation.

Given that persons who have had COVID-19 develop immunity for at least a few months following illness, health authorities may decide to postpone their vaccination to use their current supply for those not yet affected by the disease and until more vaccines become available.

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Can I Still Get Vaccinated If I Have A Cold

People with mild cold-like symptoms are not prevented from getting the vaccine. However, if they are not feeling well, their symptoms just started, or their symptoms are getting worse, they may want to delay vaccination until they feel better otherwise, they might not be able to tell effects of illness from those of the vaccine. If they are uncertain, they should speak to their doctor, who has the benefit of their medical history and will be in the best position to help them weigh the potential pros and cons.

Reporting A Possible Serious Reaction

Contact your health care provider if you experience:

  • a side effect following vaccination with a COVID-19 vaccine
  • any persistent, new or worsening symptoms

Health care providers must report possible reactions following vaccination to their local public health authority. The public health authority then reports them to the Public Health Agency of Canada.

Reported allergic reactions and side effects to COVID-19 vaccines are published weekly in our Reported side effects following COVID-19 vaccination report.

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What Stops The Body From Continuing To Produce The Covid

Both vaccines result in production of spike protein that results from mRNA blueprints. Because our cells are continuously producing proteins, they need a way to ensure that too many proteins do not accumulate in the cell. So, generally speaking, mRNA is always broken down fairly quickly. Even if for some reason our cells did not breakdown the vaccine mRNA, the mRNA stops making the protein within about a week, regardless of the bodys immune response to the protein. Once the mRNA is broken down, the blueprint is gone, so the cell can no longer continue to make spike proteins.

Likewise, while the adenovirus-based vaccine delivers DNA and the DNA lasts longer than mRNA, studies have shown that adenovirus-based DNA does not last longer than a few weeks.

Can You Get The Flu Vaccine And The Covid

Inside the Lab That Invented the COVID-19 Vaccine

Yes. The CDC says you no longer have to wait 14 days between vaccinations. Experts say that after getting the COVID-19 vaccine, your immune response — the process in which your body builds antibodies to protect you against the virus — is basically the same whether you take it alone or with the flu vaccine. Flu season in the U.S. typically lasts from October to May.

Possible common side effects like pain, redness, and swelling may last a day or so at the injection site. These wont change much if you get the flu vaccine, too. Call 911 or head to the nearest hospital if you have a severe allergic reaction.

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How Well The Second Dose Works

In the early clinical trials, researchers studied how much of the mRNA to include in each dose of the Pfizer vaccine and how many doses people should have. They measured the level of antibodies in the blood that were produced after each dose and developed the two-dose primary schedule at least 3 weeks apart.

After the first dose

After the first dose, the antibody levels were much lower compared to those seen after natural infection with COVID-19.

After the second dose

After the second dose, the antibody levels were higher than those seen after the first dose, and higher than those seen after natural infection.

Is Mrna Technology Safe

Although this is the first time mRNA technology has successfully been used in a vaccine, it has been in development for over a decade, with many studies and trials taking place over the past few years.

MRNA vaccines present the body with a set of instructions to help it trigger creation of the antibodies to fight coronavirus. It cannot change the DNA of a human cell.

According to Jonas Nilsen, MD and co-founder of Practio “although this is the first time mRNA vaccines have been approved for use in the UK, mRNA technology has been studied and developed for decades. The development of an mRNA vaccine is a breakthrough that could result in vaccines being developed more quickly in the future.

Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines have been tested on tens of thousands of people, and have been proven to be both highly effective and safe.”

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Joe Rogan Has Addressed Accusations He Is Spreading Covid

Podcast host Joe Rogan has addressed accusations he is spreading Covid-19 misinformation, in a row that has led Neil Young and Joni Mitchell to pull their music from Spotify.

Rogan hosts The Joe Rogan Experience, the top podcast on Spotify. Spotify bought exclusive rights to the podcast in a deal believed to be worth $100million, and episodes regularly pull in over 10 million listeners.

The controversy has arisen out of interviews he did with doctors who shared false information about Covid-19 vaccines.

Young has called for such misinformation to be removed from Spotify, saying: Spotify has become the home of life-threatening Covid misinformation. Lies being sold for money. He has pulled his music from the site in protest.

Mitchell said, in a message shared on her website, that she is standing in solidarity with Young.

She added Spotify was allowing irresponsible people to spread lies that were costing people their lives.

Can Mrna Vaccines Change The Dna Of A Person


Since mRNA is active only in a cells cytoplasm and DNA is located in the nucleus, mRNA vaccines do not operate in the same cellular compartment that DNA is located.

Further, mRNA is quite unstable and remains in the cell cytoplasm for only a limited time mRNA never enters the nucleus where the DNA is located so it cant alter DNA.

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So How Do You Make These Vaccines

It depends on the platform. For viral-vectored vaccines, you take some of your harmless cold virus after you have added the spike protein DNA to it and grow it in a cell culture. Although the virus has been altered so it cant reproduce in the body, it can still replicate in the specially designed cells in this cell culture.

Youll then have this bulking up of the virus over the course of a few days, anywhere from four litres of cell culture up to maybe 20, 30 litres. Really high-scale production can be carried out in steel tanks the manufacturing environment can look a bit similar to a super-clean, sterile brewery. You have to make sure that your cells are in the best environment possible for them to live and to allow the virus to grow. This requires monitoring many environmental factors in and around the cell culture temperature, oxygen and CO levels, acidity and so on.

You end up with this liquid that is full of the virus that youre interested in. But its also full of materials that you dont want. So then you have what we call downstream processing, where youre purifying the virus vaccine away from all of the other components that youre not interested in.

That downstream process is very important and is highly controlled and evaluated. It involves a lot of filtration and chromatography. At the end you have to have a very safe sterile product that contains only what you want.

Questions And Answers About Covid

On this page, you will find answers to some of the most common questions people are asking about COVID-19 disease and vaccines. Just click on the question of interest and the answer will appear below it.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

You can also find information related to COVID-19 in these additional resources:

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