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Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am
All countries
Updated on August 12, 2022 1:06 am
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What Exactly Is In The Covid Vaccine

What Side Effects Will My Child Experience From The Covid

Whats in a Covid-19 vaccine?

Side effects in children 5 to 11 years of age were similar to what has been found in other age groups, including pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, fever, chills, muscle pain, or joint pain. However, side effects tended to be less frequent than in other age groups.

Because a small number of cases of myocarditis, or heart inflammation, have been identified in teens and young adults, particularly in the 4 days after receipt of the second dose of the vaccine, it will be important to monitor younger children for this potential side effect. Chest pain, shortness of breath, or related symptoms should be reported to a healthcare provider.

Other serious side effects have not been identified, nor have long-term effects. Find additional information:

What Exactly Is A Vaccine

A vaccine is something that helps a person build up immunity to an infectious disease. It works by intentionally introducing the body to an inactive form of a disease-causing germ, or something similar to it. This then stimulates the immune systems production of antibodies, the proteins that help to protect the person from a future infection.

Think of it like a workout for your immune system: Youre sending it to the gym and preparing it to be able to do something,” in case it meets up with the germ in the future, explains Tony Moody, associate professor of pediatrics and immunology at the Duke University School of Medicine and a principal investigator at the Duke Human Vaccine Institute. Essentially, what a vaccine is doing is teaching the immune system how to handle something before you actually encounter the real thing so that, hopefully, when you do encounter the real thing, youre able to deal with it quickly and get rid of it, he says.

In the case of the new coronavirus, a vaccine makes a person resistant to an infection from the virus and the illness it causes COVID-19 or, at least, enables a person who becomes infected to have a shorter course or not as many complications, Moody adds.

What’s In The Vaccine

Pfizer-BioNTech and Modernas COVID-19 vaccines are both mRNA vaccines, which use a copy of a natural chemical called mRNA to provoke the bodys immune response. When the immune response is activated, it protects the body from acquiring an infection.

The RNA is packaged in a similar manner in both vaccines, which requires the use of polyethylene glycol, the chemical suspected to induce allergic reactions in a few patients who had an allergic reaction to the Pfizer vaccine, Sanjeev Jain, MD, PhD, board-certified allergist and immunologist at Columbia Allergy based on the West Coast, tells Verywell.

While research determined polyethylene glycol a polymer or substance containing very large moleculesis safe for use, sensitivity is possible and can cause reactions.

People who are allergic to PEG or polysorbate should not get an mRNA vaccine, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

Pfizer-BioNTechs vaccine contains:

  • Sodium acetate
  • Sucrose

The vaccine primarily contains salts and stabilizers in the forms of sugars and lipids, which dont cause allergic reactions, Jain says.

Both vaccines are similar when it comes to ingredients. The primary difference between the two is that the packaging of the RNA in the Moderna vaccine allows for storage in a regular freezer, compared to ultra-cold freezers required for the storage of the Pfizer vaccine, Jain says.

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Why Are Booster Doses Being Recommended

The goal of vaccination is to prevent serious illness. This is achieved by generating immune memory cells, such as B cells and T cells. These cells are typically long-lived and reside in the bone marrow, bloodstream, and lymph glands to monitor for exposure to a pathogen. If the pathogen is detected, these memory cells quickly become activated and stimulate the immune response to efficiently fight the infection before the infection can get out of control and cause serious illness. In the case of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, studies demonstrated that high levels of memory cells are generated, and as the delta variant has emerged, we have seen that the levels of memory cells generated by both the mRNA and adenovirus-based vaccines have been sufficient to prevent serious illness in most cases. As such, these findings would not warrant a booster dose.

While prevention of any level of illness is a noble goal, historically, prevention of serious illness has been the goal of vaccination, particularly for respiratory infections, like COVID-19. These two goals have been at the heart of the scientific debate over the need for booster doses in recent weeks.

Can Pregnant Women Get The Covid

WHO lists Moderna Covid

Pregnant women were not included in the early COVID-19 vaccine studies, but some participants were either pregnant and did not know it or became pregnant during the course of the study. Likewise, tens of thousands of pregnant women have been immunized since the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines became available, and many of them are also being monitored through the CDCs V-safe program.

With data from thousands of these women now in hand, no concerns have been identified and the vaccine works. While pregnant women and their babies will continue to be monitored, the CDC recently changed its statement about COVID-19 vaccines for pregnant women to more clearly recommend these vaccines for pregnant women.

Two factors, in addition to the vaccine data, were important for informing vaccine recommendations for pregnant women:

  • First, some pregnant women are at high risk for COVID-19 because of their jobs, such as healthcare workers, or existing health conditions.
  • Second, pregnant women are more likely to be hospitalized and be admitted to the intensive care unit with COVID-19 than women of the same age who were infected but werent pregnant.

All pregnant women should keep these two important points in mind:

  • Pregnant women who get the COVID-19 vaccine should take acetaminophen if they develop a fever after vaccination, as fever during pregnancy can negatively affect a developing baby. Taking acetaminophen during pregnancy has been found to be safe.
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    How Many Vaccines Are Available In The United States

    The FDA has authorized three COVID-19 vaccines for emergency use.

    On Friday, December 11, the FDA approved the COVID-19 vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech. And exactly one week later, on December 18, the vaccine from Moderna/National Institutes of Health was given the official thumbs up. The breakthrough came after nearly a year of scientists racing to produce a safe and effective vaccine.

    The Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine requires two doses, three weeks apart, and is said to be 95 percent effective at preventing symptomatic COVID-19.

    The Moderna/National Institutes of Health vaccine also requires two doses, though they need to be given four weeks apart . Its said to have 94.1 percent efficacy.

    On February 27th, a third shot, from Johnson & Johnson, was also granted emergency use authorization by the FDA. Johnson & Johnson announced that its single-shot vaccine is 66 percent effective in preventing moderate to severe COVID-19, 85 percent effective at stopping severe cases, and 100 percent effective against hospitalizations and deaths. This vaccine is now available for use again in the U.S. after it was on pause due to concerns about rare blood clots.

    We have safety, we got the immune response we wantedit was actually better than what we saw in the 16- to 25-year-old populationand we had outright demonstration of efficacy, Dr. Bill Gruber, a pediatrician and SVP at Pfizer told the New York Times.

    What Are The Side Effects Associated With Covid

    More than 10 million people have gotten at least one dose of their coronavirus vaccine, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tracker. The vast majority who talked about their COVID-19 vaccine side effects or reactions described them as similar to a flu shot.

    The most common side effects are a sore arm and sometimes fever, chills, tiredness and headaches for a day or two, according to the CDC. As reported in both studies, the majority of reactions beyond a sore arm happen after the second dose. Those are all signs your body is building an immune response. Read more: COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial volunteers talk about living with the vaccine since August

    In a study released in January, the CDC said the risk of anaphylaxis a severe allergic reaction is extremely low. Based on data from people who have received the first of the two recommended doses, only about one in every 90,000 people will experience this adverse reaction. The people most at risk of an adverse reaction are those who have had severe allergic reactions to other medications or food. There have been no deaths. On the other hand, the COVID-19 pandemic has killed more than one out of every 1,000 Americans.

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    Phase Two And Three Clinical Trials Vaccine And Placebo

    The efficacy of the Pfizer vaccine was tested in about 44,000 participants aged 16 years and over where COVID-19 was already circulating in communities. About half of these participants were randomised to receive the vaccine and the other half received a saline placebo.

    The trial looked at how many people got COVID-19 symptoms after they were vaccinated compared to how many got COVID-19 after getting the placebo.

    Participants had two doses of the vaccine or placebo, getting their second dose within 19 to 42 days after their first dose. They were then closely monitored and evaluated for at least 2 months after their second dose.

    If A Person Has Allergic Reactions To A Food Or Medication Can They Get The Vaccine

    What we know about COVID-19 vaccines in pregnant people

    People with severe allergies to a COVID-19 vaccine ingredient or a previous dose of COVID-19 vaccine should not get that type of COVID-19 vaccine . They may be able to get the alternative type after consultation with an allergist or immunologist. Individuals with a known allergy to polysorbate should not get the COVID-19 vaccine made by Johnson & Johnson/Janssen.

    People with immediate allergic reactions to an injectable medication can most often get the COVID-19 vaccine however, they should remain at the site where they were vaccinated for 30 minutes of observation, instead of the 15 minutes that the general public is recommended to wait. Anyone with this type of allergy who has questions or concerns should discuss the situation with their healthcare provider to assess the potential risks and benefits of receiving the COVID-19 vaccine.

    People who have had an anaphylactic reaction to anything else are allowed to get the COVID-19 vaccine, but should remain at the site where the injection was given for 30 minutes, instead of the 15 minutes that the general population are recommended to wait.

    If a person with history of allergies continues to have concerns about whether or not it is safe to get the COVID-19 vaccine, they should contact their primary care provider or allergist, who has the benefit of their complete medical history and will, therefore, be in the best position to discuss any potential risks and benefits for that individual.

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    Do I Need The Vaccine If I Have Already Had Covid

    Even if you had COVID-19, the CDC still recommends getting vaccinated, since research has not yet shown how long protection from a previous coronavirus infection lasts. Plus, the vaccine may afford better protection against COVID-19 than a previous infection. Unvaccinated people who already had COVID-19 had greater odds of getting COVID-19 again, compared to fully vaccinated people, a CDC study found.

    Have questions? Talk to your doctor.

    How Well Does The Covid

    The clinical trial measured two things to evaluate how the vaccine worked:

  • Disease While 18 participants in the placebo group got COVID-19 at least seven days after having the second dose of the vaccine, none in the vaccinated group were infected. This represents 100% efficacy. In the 5- to 11-year-old group, three vaccinated children got COVID-19 compared with 16 children in the placebo group this represents a 90.7% efficacy.
  • Immune response Now that we know what antibody levels adults experience following vaccination, studies can compare the levels in other groups to see if the vaccine works as well. These are often referred to as non-inferiority studies, meaning the vaccine is being tested in the study group to make sure it works at least as it does in another group previously studied. In the Pfizer study, average neutralizing antibody responses were similar in 5- to 11-year-olds compared with older children and young adults even though the dose was lower. While we still do not know if a certain level of virus-neutralizing antibodies indicates that an individual is protected against infection, we can be confident that vaccinated children respond equally well compared with older children and young adults.
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    What Are The Differences Between The Two

    These two COVID-19 vaccines are very similar. The main differences come in to play in relation to transporting and handling the vaccines. The Pfizer vaccine must be stored at -94° Fahrenheit. The Moderna vaccine needs to be stored at -4° Fahrenheit.

    Both teach your immune system to destroy the coronavirus. Both use messenger RNA to instruct your body to build the spike proteins that are on the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Then your immune system kills it and remembers the protein so your body is ready if you’re infected with COVID-19.

    Both are very safe and very effective. The Pfizer vaccine is 95% effective against COVID-19, and Modernas vaccine is 94.1% effective. They have similar temporary side effects, and those reactions are stronger after the second shot for both.

    There are two differences that impact the public:

    • Pfizers vaccine is authorized for people ages 12 and older. Modernas is authorized for people ages 18 and older.
    • The two Pfizer doses are given 21 days apart. The two Moderna doses are given 28 days apart.

    Which Covid Vaccine Is Best

    Coronavirus vaccine: Who will get it first? CDC panel usually decides

    Experts agree – the best vaccine is the one thats offered to you first. All vaccines available in the UK are regularly monitored and have been thoroughly tested. Some people may be advised to have a specific vaccine due to age, medical conditions or allergies.

    The Moderna and AstraZeneca Covid vaccines have been approved by the MHRA for individuals 18 years of age and older, whereas the Pfizer Covid vaccine has been authorised for individuals 12 years of age and older.

    If you have questions about which vaccine to get, contact 119 or your GP, who can best advise.

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    If I Am Taking Anticoagulants Can I Get The Covid

    Patients on blood thinners can get the COVID-19 vaccine. However, because the vaccine is given intramuscularly, the risk for bleeding is slightly greater for these individuals. As such, they should tell the healthcare provider administering the vaccine about their use of an anticoagulant. The vaccine itself does not increase the risk for this group of patients.

    Find out more in this Parents PACK article, “Medications and COVID-19 Vaccines: What You Should Know.”

    Will I Need To Get A Booster Shot After Im Vaccinated

    Maybe, depending on how strong your immune system is. On Aug. 12, the US Food and Drug Administration authorized a third vaccine shot for “solid organ transplant recipients or those who are diagnosed with conditions that are considered to have an equivalent level of immunocompromise,” per CNN.

    “The country has entered yet another wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the FDA is especially cognizant that immunocompromised people are particularly at risk for severe disease,” said Dr. Janet Woodcock, the acting FDA commissioner, in a statement. “After a thorough review of the available data, the FDA determined that this small, vulnerable group may benefit from a third dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna Vaccines.”

    The CDC still needs to meet to determine if it will also approve third shots for immunocompromised people, per CNBC. While only 2.4% of Americans fall into this group, they represent around 44% of current hospitalized COVID-19 breakthrough cases, according to recent data from the CDC.

    “Immunocompromised individuals are vulnerable,” Dr. Fauci said on Aug. 12. It is extremely important for us to move to get those individuals their boosters, and we are now working on that, and we will make that be implemented as quickly as possible. . . . It is a very high priority.”

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    What’s In The Covid Vaccines

    Like all other vaccines approved by the FDA, COVID vaccines do not contain toxic or harmful ingredients. This is another common vaccine myth.

    One of the benefits of using the current COVID vaccines is that they avoid some of the issues some people may have with certain vaccines.

    The vaccines aren’t made using egg proteins, so unlike some forms of the flu vaccine, people who have an egg allergy can take the vaccine.

    Additionally, human fetal cells aren’t used during the vaccine development process. This makes the COVID vaccines a suitable option for individuals who object to this practice.

    Questions And Answers About Covid

    What qualifies for a COVID-19 vaccine exemption?

    On this page, you will find answers to some of the most common questions people are asking about COVID-19 disease and vaccines. Just click on the question of interest and the answer will appear below it.

    Can’t find what you’re looking for?

    You can also find information related to COVID-19 in these additional resources:

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