Is There A Vaccine For The Coronavirus Disease
Several COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized for emergency use among specific age groups by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration . Johns Hopkins Medicine views all authorized COVID-19 vaccines as highly effective at preventing serious disease, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19.
If I Have The Virus But Dont Know It Will The Vaccine Still Work
While theres not yet a lot of data about this scenario, vaccine researchers say theres no cause for additional worry if you find out you were infected at the time of vaccination. You wont feel very well, but thats due to the Covid, not the Covid vaccine, said Dr. Helen Talbot, a member of a panel advising the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and an infectious disease specialist at Vanderbilt University.
Its unlikely the first dose of vaccine has had enough time to help your body fight the infection, but the vaccine should still spur your body to produce a lasting immune response. Once youve recovered, you should plan to get your second dose as planned. If you unknowingly have the virus and are immunized, the vaccine will not prevent disease but will likely help in the overall development of immune response, said Dr. Talbot. You would then get your second immunization once fully recovered likely after the usual 21 or 28 days. No need to start the vaccine series over.”Dani Blum
If Ive Been Vaccinated Why Do I Still Need To Wear A Mask
While being fully vaccinated protects against serious illness and hospitalization from Covid-19, no vaccine offers 100 percent protection. As long as large numbers of people remain unvaccinated and continue to spread coronavirus, vaccinated people will be exposed to the Delta variant, and a small percentage of them will develop so-called breakthrough infections.
It’s a good idea to wear a mask when you don’t know the vaccination status of those around you, particularly when you’re in indoor public spaces. The risk is lower if you live in a community where vaccination rates are high and overall case rates are low and dropping. Most public health experts agree it’s safe for fully vaccinated people to spend time indoors and unmasked with vaccinated friends and family members. But vaccinated people who have been traveling or recently attended a large gathering may want to get tested or avoid spending time unmasked with others until they are sure they weren’t infected.Tara Parker-Pope
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Why Is The Second Shot Worse
As your immune system is mounting a response after your first dose, you might get a headache, feel tired, or even develop a low fever. This is typical its called reactogenicity, and it can be a sign that the vaccine is working. But if you feel fine after your dose, that doesnt mean that the vaccine isnt doing its job.
When you get your second shot, your body recognizes the spike protein from before and reacts quickly. Because of this, the side effects from the second shot can be stronger in some people.
If youve already had COVID-19, you might actually react more strongly to the first dose because your body has already seen the spike protein from your previous infection. In this case, your first dose is acting like your second dose. That said, its still recommended that you get the second shot.
So if youre concerned about side effects, keep in mind that they can be a sign that the vaccine is working and will typically resolve within a few days. And some people dont have any side effects at all.
If I Have Been Allergic To Other Vaccines Because Of Egg Allergens Or Preservatives Can I Take The New Covid Vaccines
The Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca vaccines dont contain egg or any preservatives found in common vaccines. The vial stoppers are not made with natural rubber latex, so the vaccines are safe for people with latex allergy, according to the Allergy & Asthma Network. If youve ever had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, check with your doctor, but in most cases, youll still be encouraged to get the vaccine. As new Covid-19 vaccines come on the market, you should double check ingredient lists if you have had allergic reactions in the past. The Allergy & Asthma Network has published a chart showing all the ingredients in the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines.
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Conditions That Increase Vaccine Risk
Professor Cunningham says there are two “completely different” ingredients in the vaccines available in Australia that can cause severe allergic reactions: PEG in the mRNA vaccines and polysorbate in AstraZeneca. These ingredients are relatively unique to COVID-19 vaccines, he says, meaning a reaction to a past vaccine is not reason in itself to avoid the jab.
“There’s not much overlap, I couldn’t find any, between PEG and polysorbate and other common vaccines,” he says.
People who have recently been diagnosed with other conditions, such as pericarditis and myocarditis, or COVID-19 should wait six months before their first dose, he adds.
Department of Health advice says people who have immunocompromise or are taking immune-weakening treatments should be vaccinated and people who are having chemotherapy or taking an immune-weakening treatment should discuss timing with their doctor.
There are also various rare blood clotting disorders, such as thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome, or TTS, which preclude people from having the AstraZeneca jab.
“It’s a pretty rare bunch of conditions you’re dealing with, and it’s tailored to each individual vaccine,” Professor Cunningham says. He adds that in the rare case someone has a severe adverse reaction to their first jab, getting a second shot may not be advisable but they could swap to another available vaccine.
How Cdc Monitors Breakthrough Infections
CDC has multiple surveillance systems and ongoing research studies to monitor the performance of vaccines in preventing infection, disease, hospitalization, and death. CDC also collects data on breakthrough infections through outbreak investigations. One important system that CDC uses to track breakthrough infections is COVID-NET . This system provides the most complete data on vaccine breakthroughs in the general population. COVID-NET is a population-based surveillance system that collects reports of lab-confirmed COVID-19-related hospitalizations in 99 counties in 14 states. COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population. One recent COVID-NET publication assessed the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing hospitalization among adults 65 years. More information on COVID-NET vaccine breakthrough data will be published as it becomes available.
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How Long After Receiving The Second Dose Are You Protected
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , youre considered to be fully vaccinated 2 weeks after your second dose.
Both Pfizer and Moderna are continuing to follow clinical trial participants to see how safe and effective the vaccines are long term. Even 6 months after getting fully vaccinated, people who received either vaccine still have strong levels of antibodies. Theyll continue to be tracked over time so that we have a better idea of how long immunity lasts.
Why Not Take My Chances With Covid
Covid-19 is by far the more dangerous option. Covid vaccines carry little known risk. But the perils of Covid-19 have been well documented. About 20 percent of people who come down with Covid-19 symptoms develop serious, potentially life-threatening illness. Although people who are older, obese or have other health problems are at highest risk for complications from Covid-19, younger people can become severely ill, too. In a study of more than 3,000 people ages 18 to 34 who were hospitalized for Covid, 20 percent required intensive care and 3 percent died.
The long-term health complications associated with Covid-19 are a serious concern. As many as one in three people who recover from Covid have chronic complaints for months afterward, including exhaustion, a racing heart, blood clots and loss of sense of smell or taste.Apoorva Mandavilli
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If I Have Allergies Should I Be Concerned About The Vaccine
While severe allergic reactions, called anaphylaxis, have occurred in the minutes following an injection with the new vaccines, its an extremely rare event. The rate of anaphylaxis has been 11.1 cases per million doses, as of December. By comparison, the rate of severe allergic reaction to the flu shot is about 1.35 cases per million doses. While those statistics may sound scary, severe allergic reactions are a risk with many drugs. Dr. Aaron Carroll, a professor of pediatrics at Indiana University School of Medicine, notes that the risk of anaphylaxis from penicillin drugs is even higher between one in 2,500 and one in 5,000 but that doesnt stop doctors from prescribing them. You can read more from Dr. Carroll about the risks of vaccines here.
All the patients who experienced severe reactions to the vaccines were treated and have recovered. Most of them had a history of anaphylaxis or allergies, but some patients had no known allergies. Every vaccination site is required to have epinephrine and other emergency supplies in case a patient has an allergic reaction. If you have a history of anaphylaxis, youll be monitored for 30 minutes after the shot, instead of the standard 15 minutes.
You May Already Have Been Vulnerable
Frederking knew that his COVID-19 vaccine might not give him full protection because he had been treated for cancer, which can weaken your immune system and make you more vulnerable to infections.
He was also on ongoing immunotherapy for cancer, and he did not have as strong of an immune response as others to the vaccine.
The severe breakthrough infections that we see tend to be in older people and those who are more vulnerable because of their immunocompetence, says Schaffner.
In one study in the journal Clinical Microbiology and Infection, virtually all patients who landed in the hospital with breakthrough infections had a preexisting condition like hypertension or diabetes.
In a CDC sample of breakthrough infections that were either fatal or involved hospitalization, 74 per cent were in people 65 or older.
These same people were already at a higher risk for complications from the virus.
As new coronavirus variants emerge, experts debate whether or not a COVID-19 vaccine booster shot is necessary.
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If You Have A Breakthrough Infection You Should Still Get A Booster
First, its important to know that there simply isnt much data on this particular question yet. For one, the CDC is only tracking breakthrough infections that end in hospitalization or death, which are extremely rare. So we dont even necessarily have a clear picture of mild breakthrough cases.
But the general consensus is that people who are fully vaccinated and have a breakthrough infection should still get boosted if theyre in an eligible category.
We know their initial immunity maybe didnt hold up, or didnt hold up as well, and we know there is a drop-off even after they get an infection, so we would still recommend a booster, Gendlina said.
The timing, however, is not clear-cut. Gendlina said people are probably protected for about 90 days after an infection, but theyre technically eligible before then. And she said it may be safest to just go ahead and get your booster dose as soon as your symptoms have cleared up and you meet the criteria for ending isolation.
But again, at this point, there is no data, added William Schaffner, an infectious disease specialist with Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
We cant tell you what the optimal or necessary time is, he added. If you ask me, just as a clinician, I would wait a couple of months.
Red Flag: It’s Illegal To Falsify Your Vaccine Card
It may seem tempting to buy a card and fill in the information yourself but the above options are better than breaking the law. First, fake vaccine cards can cost a lot of money. Most importantly, it’s illegal to purchase a fake vaccine card or fill in your own information. You should not use a government seal without permission. And buyers and sellers are both committing fraud. Even if you’ve had the vaccine, if you buy a fake card it’s still considered fraud and is punishable by fines and possibly jail.
The US Customs and Border Protection regularly reports seizing thousands of fake vaccine cards across the country. The crime is punishable by up to five years in jail or fines. So it’s a good reminder to do everything you can to retrieve your proof of vaccination the right way.
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So What’s In The Vaccine
Says the FDA: “The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine includes the following ingredients: mRNA, lipids azanediyl)bisbis, 2 -N,N-ditetradecylacetamide, 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine, and cholesterol), potassium chloride, monobasic potassium phosphate, sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, and sucrose.” Next see what you should tell your vaccine administrator before getting yours.
Those Who Got The Moderna Vaccine Experienced The Most Significant Changes In Heart Rates
While this vaccine response was reported in participants who received both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, the researchers found more significant heart rate changes in those who got Moderna after both doses. According to the study, Moderna participants experienced heart rate increases of more than 0.5 BPM after the first dose, while Pfizer recipients experienced increases of less than 0.5 BPM. For the second dose, both increases were higher, but Moderna participants experienced an average increase of more than 2 BPM while Pfizer participants saw an average increase of more than 1 BPM.
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What Is The Difference Between Emergency Use Authorization Vs Normal Approval Of A Vaccine
Of the three vaccines approved for use in the United States, only the Pfizer vaccine has received formal approval from the F.D.A. The other two vaccines — Moderna and Johnson & Johnson — have been authorized for emergency use. An emergency use authorization is surprisingly similar to a standard approval. It includes the same basic steps preclinical testing, Phase 1 safety trials, Phase 2 expanded trials and Phase 3 efficacy trials that would be required in the traditional approval process. The main difference is that, in an emergency, the F.D.A. gives the application priority and speeds up its own review of the research. One way to do that is to solve logistical concerns early, while waiting for clinical trials to finish. For instance, the F.D.A. worked with the vaccine companies to solve manufacturing and distribution issues before the firms had completed their clinical trials or submitted applications for emergency use. In an interview with Scientific American magazine, the former F.D.A. commissioner Dr. Stephen Hahn said that in an emergency, the agency can prioritize an application over other demands to reduce the four-to-six-month review process to just several weeks.
Resting Heart Rate Increases For Some People As A Reaction To The Covid Vaccine
Researchers from the Scripps Research Translational Institute in California reported on physiological responses to the COVID vaccines, publishing an early version of their study May 4 on medRxiv. The researchers collected data from more than 4,000 Americans using a smartphone-based app that reports on physiological activities from smartwatches, and found that some people experience increased heart rate as a reaction to the vaccine. According to the study, the researchers found that some people’s resting heart rate increased up to an additional 1.5 beats per minute after receiving a dose of either the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine.
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Do All Available Covid
The mRNA vaccines, Pfizer and Moderna, both require two doses for full protection. The main difference is timing youll wait 3 weeks before your second Pfizer dose and 4 weeks before your second Moderna dose.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine, on the other hand, only requires one shot. Although the company is also testing a two-dose regimen, the single-dose schedule is currently whats being used in the U.S.
Why Is My Arm Sore
As all of these important processes are happening inside your body, you might see some physical signs that theres a struggle going on underneath the skin. If your arm gets sore after you get the shot, its because immune cells like the dendritic cells, T-cells and B-cells are racing to the arm to inspect the threat.
You might also experience a fever or other signs of sickness. All of these mean that your body is doing exactly what its supposed to. This is a safe and natural process that happens when the body is learning how to fight the spike proteins. That way, if you do come into contact with the real coronavirus, your body has learned how to protect you from it.
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